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General Concepts and Definitions

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General Concepts and Definitions Leaders course Jamaica February 11, 2003 Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers ( Tennyson) General Concepts Disasters: low ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: General Concepts and Definitions


1
General Concepts and Definitions
  • Leaders course
  • Jamaica
  • February 11, 2003
  • Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers( Tennyson)

2
General Concepts
  • Disasters low probability-high impact events
  • Sudden ecological phenomenon of sufficient
    magnitude to require external assistance (WHO)
  • I know a disaster when I see one
  • Risk Management vs. Disaster Management
  • Attitude Change vs. Product Improvement

3
General Concepts
  • Risk Probability of harmful consequence or
    expected loss of lives/property resulting from
    interaction between natural or human induced
    hazards and vulnerable conditions.
  • Hazard Probability of occurence of a given
    threat
  • Vulnerability Degree of susceptibility of the
    element exposed.
  • Capacity Ability of people to cope with the
    situation.
  • Risk H x V/C

4
The Disaster Cycle
Prevention
Mitigation
Response
Rehabilitation
Preparedness
Reconstruction
AFTER
BEFORE
DURING
5
Definitions
  • Preparedness - Pre-disaster activities aimed at
    strengthening the capacity for rescue, relief,
    and rehabilitation.
  • Prevention - Measures designed to provide
    complete protection from natural disasters by
    controlling effects of natural phenomena.
  • Mitigation - Prevention in an imperfect
    world!Reduction of the impact! (Structural,
    non-structural and functional)

6
Disasters and Health Effects
  • World-wide 3.4 mil deaths due to natural
    disasters in 25 years
  • Japan 63 deaths/event
  • Peru 2,900 deaths/event
  • Population 6 bil increase 1.33 yearly
    increase (the poor outnumber the rich)
  • Trends
  • Increase in of hazards
  • Deaths toll per event reduced
  • Financial toll increased
  • What Matters More??

7
Global Trends
Climate change and variables El Niño
EXTREME EVENTS
  • Poverty
  • Ignorance
  • Environmental degradation
  • Urban growth
  • Increasing un-sustainability
  • Increasing obstacles to development
  • Increased value of constructed environment

VULNERABILITY
8
Current Trends
Source OFDA/CRED International Disaster
Database
9
Current Trends
Source OFDA/CRED International Disaster
Database
10
Disasters and Health Effects
  • General Effects on Health
  • Natural vs Technological
  • Potential Effects vs. Inevitable Threat (ex.
    BCR)
  • Sudden vs Creeping/Slow Development
  • Requirements for food, shelter and primary
    health care vary with type length of event.

11
Disasters and Health Effects
  • General Effects on Society
  • Deaths and Injuries
  • Damage to Health Infrastructure
  • Water Supply and Sanitation
  • Communicable Diseases (overcrowding, vectors,
    water supply, waste management, PH programs)
  • Social Burden (poverty, age and gender)
  • Food Shortage
  • Population Displacement
  • Mental Health Impact

12
Disasters and Health Effects
  • Floods
  • Most Frequent Natural Hazard
  • Most Deaths (flash floods) 146/year in USA
  • Drowning - 77
  • Cardiac arrest - 10
  • Trauma - 10
  • Hypotermia - 3
  • Public Health water quality, waste disposal,
    vectors, disease
  • Associated Hazards electrical, chemical

13
Disasters and Health Effects
  • Volcanic Eruption
  • Most Deadly
  • Pyroclastic flows - 70 from blast, heat or
    asphyxiation
  • Rock fall injuries, BURNS
  • Difficult Access for First Responders
  • Damage to Health Infrastructure
  • Water Contamination

14
Disasters and Health Effects
  • Tsunami
  • Water and Debris Damage to Structures
  • More deaths then injured (50-80)
  • Drowning -Vulnerable Groups
  • Trauma Injuries
  • Dehydration
  • Sunburn

15
Disasters and Health Effects
  • Hurricanes
  • Most Deadly
  • Hurricane Flora 1963 - Haiti Cuba ? 8,000
  • Hurricane Fifi 1974 -Honduras ? 10,000
  • Hurricane Mitch 1998 - Central America ? 11,000
  • Injuries
  • Lacerations - 80 (during the clean up phase)
  • Damage to Infrastructure and Public Health Systems

16
Disasters and Health Effects
  • Earthquakes
  • Most Costly - Life and Property
  • No Warning
  • Evacuation Not Possible
  • Initial Medical Response - Delayed
  • Health Infrastructure - Damaged
  • Most Deaths - Collapsed Buildings
  • 95 Survivers are Rescued in First 24 hours
  • Injuries - Simple fractures to crush injury

17
Disasters and Health Effects
  • Technological
  • Biological, Chemical, Radiological
  • Accidental or Intentional Release
  • Terrorist Threat
  • Possible? Plausible? Probable?
  • Effective Use of Resources
  • Personnel
  • Funding
  • Infrastructure

18
Disasters and Health Effects
  • Technological
  • Enhancing Capabilities
  • Training
  • Infrastructure
  • Shifting Priorities in Preparedness
  • Cost Effective
  • Social Consequences
  • Reality or Perception

19
Health SectorandDisaster Management
20
Recurring Issues
  • Success is Difficult to Quantify
  • Management of International Assistance
  • Information Management
  • More Actors on the Scene

21
Recurring Issues
  • Mass Casualty Management
  • Care for Victims
  • Dual Wave Phenomenon
  • Walking Patients - 30 min
  • Priority 1 Patients - 2 hours
  • Geographic Effect (closest facilities most
    impacted)
  • BABEL Effect (communication, people, or equipment
    problem??)

22
Recurring Issues
  • Laymen Enthusiasm
  • Disaster Supply Management
  • Local Sources
  • Donations
  • Tetanophobia
  • Fear of Epidemics
  • Management of Human and Animal Remains
  • Field Hospitals

23
Planning Assumptions
  • NO Best Option
  • Plans
  • Adapted to Disaster
  • Improvisation Can Be Costly
  • First Responders Are Not Always First
  • Infrastructure Capacity
  • Specialized Care May Be Needed

24
Planning Assumptions
  • Local Capacity Response Capability
  • Stockpile of Equipment Supplies
  • Shortage or Flood of Supplies and Staff
  • Decentralization of Authority
  • Private Business/Organization Support

25
Health Sector Actors
  • Government Sector Min of Health, Min of Foreign
    Affaires, Min of Finance, Min of Environment,
    Water Authorities, Fire Services, Police, Defense
    Force, Public Works, National Disaster Office,
    Airport Managers, MEDIA..
  • Private Sector Hospitals, Ambulances, Doctors,
    Manufacturers,..
  • Local Authorities Mayors, Community Groups.

26
Health Sector Task
  • Promotion of Disaster Reduction Activities
  • Include Risk Management Concept in Development
    Projects
  • Staff, Fund, and Prepare Response Resources
  • Care of Victims
  • Enviromental Needs (water, food, vector control)
  • Inform Public

27
Health Sector Task
  • Coordinate With All Sectors
  • Plan for Rehabilitation
  • Window of Opportunity for Reform

28
Ministry of Health Disaster Reduccion Program
  • Mandate
  • Promote, Coordinate, and Support Efforts of the
    Entire Health Sector to Reduce Impact of
    Disasters
  • Scope
  • Multi-Hazard and Inter-Disciplinary

29
Functional Areas of Responsibility
  • Promote Health Social Issues with Other Sectors
  • Include Reduction/Mitigation Measures into
    Development Activities
  • Equitable Access to Healthcare
  • Public Awareness

30
Normative Functions
  • Develop Construction Standards
  • Develop Contingency Planning, Response, and
    Simulation Standards/Guidelines
  • Develop Criteria for Disaster Preparedness and
    Safety Accreditation of Health Facilities
  • Develop Communications Protocol
  • Develop Standards/Guidelines for Registration of
    Humanitarian Assistance Organizations (NGOs,
    external military forces)

31
Educational Functions
  • In-Service Training of Health Staff
  • Include Disaster Management into Pre- and
    Post-Graduate Curriculum Medical School
  • Presentation of Health Related Topics in Training
    of Other Sectors

32
Coordination/Liaison
  • National Disaster Office (Civil Protection)
  • Disaster Focal Points of Other Agencies
  • Disaster Programs in Neighboring Countries
  • Humanitarian and Developmental Organizations
    (national, international)

33
Operational Functions
  • Mobilize and Coordinate Immediate Response
  • Coordinate Health Sector Assessment
  • Formulate Priorities and Assign Resources
  • Mobilize External Resources
  • Contribute to Formulation of Rehabilitation Plans
    (include mitigation)
  • Compile and Disseminate Lessons Learned

34
Reporting ChannelsStaff and Budget
  • Highest Decision-Mmaking Level in the MOH
  • Access to All Administrative Areas and Technical
    Departments in Health
  • Funds to be Assigned Specifically for Risk
    Reduction Program
  • Staff Trained, Qualified/Certified, and Full- Time

35
General Concepts and Definitions
  • Leaders course
  • Jamaica
  • February 11, 2003
  • Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers( Tennyson)
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