PRESENTED BY:- HASAN IJTABA KHAN MAFTUN 09-PE-12 FAISAL NADEEM 09-PE-07 KHAWAJA OWAIS KAMAL 09-PE-14 SYED HASSAN SAEED 09-PE-34 AHMED IMRAN QUREISHI 09-PE-03 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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PRESENTED BY:- HASAN IJTABA KHAN MAFTUN 09-PE-12 FAISAL NADEEM 09-PE-07 KHAWAJA OWAIS KAMAL 09-PE-14 SYED HASSAN SAEED 09-PE-34 AHMED IMRAN QUREISHI 09-PE-03

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Title: PRESENTED BY:- HASAN IJTABA KHAN MAFTUN 09-PE-12 FAISAL NADEEM 09-PE-07 KHAWAJA OWAIS KAMAL 09-PE-14 SYED HASSAN SAEED 09-PE-34 AHMED IMRAN QUREISHI 09-PE-03


1
MANUFACTURING OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYETHYLENE
PRESENTED BY- HASAN IJTABA KHAN
MAFTUN 09-PE-12
FAISAL NADEEM 09-PE-07 KHAWAJA OWAIS
KAMAL 09-PE-14 SYED HASSAN SAEED 09-PE-34 AHM
ED IMRAN QUREISHI 09-PE-03
2
BIODEGRADATION
  • Process by which organic substances are broken
    down by the environmental effects and by the
    living organisms.
  • Organic material can be degraded aerobically
  • or anaerobically .
  • Biodegradable matter is generally organic
    material such as plant and animal matter and
    other substances originating from living
    organisms, or artificial materials that are
    similar enough to plant and animal matter to be
    put to use by microorganisms.
  • Biodegradable polymers are a kind of materials
    which degrades biologically.
  • The biodegradability of plastics is dependent on
    the chemical structure of the material and on the
    constituent of the final product, not just on the
    basic materials used in the production.

3
THE RANGE OF BIODEGRADABLE PLASTIC
  • Starch based products including thermoplastic
    starch, starch and synthetic aliphatic polyester
    blend, and starch and PVOH (polyvinyl alcohol)
    blends.
  • Naturally produced polyester including PVB
    (polyvinyl butadiene).
  • Renewable resource polyesters such as PLA (poly
    lactic acid).
  • Synthetic aliphatic polyesters including PCL
    (poly caprolactone).
  • Aliphatic-aromatic (AAC) co polyester.
  • Hydro-biodegradable polyester such as modified
    PET.
  • Water-soluble polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol
    and ethylene vinyl alcohol.
  • Photo-biodegradable plastics.
  • Controlled degradation additive master batches.

4
CLASSES OF BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS
  • Compostable
  • Hydro-biodegradable
  • Photo-biodegradable
  • Bioerodable
  • Biodegradable

5
BACKGROUND OF STARCH-BASED POLYMERS
  • Our work relates to a biodegradable film prepared
    by chemical bonding of starch and polyethylene.
  • Polyethylene is polyolefin having the most widest
    general application, coupling agent such as
    maleic anhydride, methacrylic anhydride or
    maleimide which bonds with starch and
    polyethylene, and Lewis acid catalyst and to a
    process for preparing thereof.

6
BACKGROUND OF STARCH-BASED POLYMERS
  • Starch
  • Chemical formula of starch ? (C6H10O5)n
  • Starch is a linear polymer (polysaccaride) made
    up of repeating glucose groups linked by
    glucosidic linkage in the 1-4 carbon position.
  • The length of the starch chain will vary with
    plant sources but in general the average length
    is between 500-20,000 glucose units.
  • There are actually two types of starch molecules
  • Amylose
  • Amylopectin.
  • The only difference between the two is the
    arrangement of the molecules.
  • Amylose is essentially linear while amylopectin
    has many branches like a tree.

7
CHEMISTRY OF STARCH
  • Amylose
  • Amylose molecules consist of single
    mostly-unbranched chains with 500-20,000
    a-(14)-D-glucose units dependent on source.
  • Hydrogen bonding between aligned chains causes
    retro gradation and releases some of the bound
    water.

8
CHEMISTRY OF STARCH
  • Amylopectin
  • Amylopectin is formed by non-random a-16
    branching of the amylose-type a-(14)-D-glucose
    structure.
  • Each amylopectin molecule contains a million or
    so residues.
  • Each amylopectin molecule contains up to two
    million glucose residues in a compact structure
    with hydrodynamic radius 21-75 nm.

9
VARIETIES OF STARCH
10
VARIETIES OF STARCH
  • Corn Starch
  • Common cornstarch has 25 amylose. The two
    remaining
  • cornstarches are high-amylose cornstarches
  • one has 50 to 55 amylose, while the second
  • has 70 to 75. Their size ranges between 5
    microns and 20 microns
  • Maize Starch
  • Maize starch has irregularly shaped granules.
  • High-amylose starches also have an irregular
    shape, but tend to be smooth. Some of these are
    even rod-shaped. High-amylose starches have a
    narrower size range 5 to 15 microns, or even 10
    to 15 microns, depending on the variety.

11
VARIETIES OF STARCH
  • Potato Starch
  • Potato starch has about 20 amylose. Potato
    starch granules are large with a smooth round
    oval shape. Of the starches commonly used for
    food, potato starch is the largest its granules
    range in size from 15 to 75 microns.
  • Rice Starch
  • Common rice starch has an amylose amylopectin
    ratio of about 2080, while waxy rice starch has
    only about 2 amylose. Both varieties have small
    granule sizes ranging from 3 to 8 microns.

12
VARIETIES OF STARCH
  • Tapioca Starch
  • Tapioca starch has 15 to 18 amylose. Tapioca
    granules are smooth, irregular spheres with sizes
    ranging from 5 to 25 microns.
  • Wheat Starch
  • Wheat starch has an amylose content of around
    25. Its granules are relatively thick at 5 to 15
    microns with a smooth, round shape ranging from
    22 to 36 microns in diameter.
  • Soya bean Starch
  • Soya bean starch has irregular shaped granules.
    Common Soya bean starch has 7 amylose. Its
    granules range in size from 10 to 90 microns.

13
VARIETIES OF STARCH
14
CATEGORIES OF STARCH BASED POLYMERS
  • Thermoplastic starch products.
  • Starch synthetic aliphatic polyester blend
  • Starch PBS/PBSA polyester blends
  • Starch PVOH blends.

15
CATEGORIES OF STARCH BASED POLYMERS
  • Thermoplastic Starch Products
  • Thermoplastic starch biodegradable plastics (TPS)
    have a starch (amylose) content greater than 70.
  • It is based on vegetable starch, and with the use
    of specific plasticizing solvents, can produce
    thermoplastic materials with good performance
    properties and inherent biodegradability.
  • This can be overcome through blending, as the
    starch has free hydroxyl groups, which readily
    undergo a number of reactions such as
    acetylation, esterification and etherification.

16
CATEGORIES OF STARCH BASED POLYMERS
  • Starch Synthetic Aliphatic Polyester Blends
  • Blends of biodegradable synthetic aliphatic
    polyesters and starch are often used to produce
    high quality sheets and films for packaging by
    flat-film extrusion using chill-roll casting or
    by blown film methods
  • Approximately 50 of the synthetic polyester (at
    approximately 4.00/kg) can be replaced with
    natural polymers such as starch (at approximately
    1.50/kg), leading to a significant reduction in
    cost.
  • Furthermore, the polyesters can be modified by
    incorporating a functional group capable of
    reacting with natural starch polymers.

17
CATEGORIES OF STARCH BASED POLYMERS
  • Starch and PBS/PBSA Polyester Blends
  • Polyesters that are blended with starch to
    improve material mechanical properties are
    Polybutylene succinate (PBS) or polybutylene
    succinate adipate (PBSA).
  • At higher starch content (gt60), such sheets can
    become brittle.
  • Plasticizers are often added to reduce the
    brittleness and improve flexibility.
  • Starch and PBS or PBSA blends are used to produce
    biodegradable plastic sheet, which can be
    thermoformed into products such as biscuit trays
    or film products.

18
CATEGORIES OF STARCH BASED POLYMERS
  • Starch-PVOH Blends
  • Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) is blended with starch
    to produce readily biodegradable plastics.

19
MARKET SURVEY REPORT
20
MARKET ANALYSIS OF BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL
  • The technology surrounding biopolymers and
    biodegradable packaging has been in the
    development stage for the last 15-20 years.
  • In the last five years have markets developed and
    much commercial growth been seen.
  • Only few companies are currently producing
    biodegradable packaging materials on a large
    enough scale to be commercially successful.

21
NUMBER OF COMPANIES WITH BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS
  • Figure illustrates the trend, showing that the
    number of companies applying for patents
    increased through the 1990s and appears to have
    peaked in 2005.

22
BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS MARKET OVERVIEW
  • Figure Identifying the top 30 companies listed as
    first assignee indicates which companies are most
    active in patenting new technologies and
    processes.
  • According to the Rapra report, 30 suppliers are
    currently active in the global biopolymer market,
    with BASF, DuPont and Mitsubishi Gas Chemicals
    dominating.
  • Novamont and Mitsubishi are also found among the
    patent leaders, suggesting that competition could
    heat up over the next few years.

23
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PATENT ACTIVITY FOR
USE OF BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS
  • Following figure shows that nearly half of the
    filings examined were published in the United
    States (USPTO).
  • The other half is divided among World patents
    (WIPO), European patents, Japanese and British
    patents.

24
ACTIVE SUPPLIERS OF BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL
  • Proctor and Gamble Limited.
  • BASF Germany.
  • DuPont.
  • Mitsubishi Gas Chemicals.
  • Nova Mont.
  • Nature Works.
  • Rodenburg Biopolymers.
  • Biotech.
  • Mitsubishi.
  • Merck Chemicals.

25
LOCAL MARKET SURVEY
  • We have conducted local market survey and have
    reached to the conclusion that the biodegradable
    material is not available in the market.
  • We also have contacted the following companies
    and the results are the same as mentioned above.
  • Bin Rasheed
  • Umair Petrochemicals
  • MERCK Chemicals
  • P G Pakistan
  • BASF Pak Ltd.

26
LOCAL MARKET SURVEY
  • DENSO HALL SADDAR KARACHI
  • LIAQUATABAD KARACHI

27
DISPOSAL ENVIRONMENTS
28
MAJOR DISPOSAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR BIODEGRADABLE
PLASTICS
  • Composting facilities or soil burial
  • Anaerobic digestion
  • Wastewater treatment facilities
  • Plastics reprocessing facilities
  • Landfill
  • Marine and freshwater environments
  • General open environment as litter.

29
MAJOR DISPOSAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR BIODEGRADABLE
PLASTICS
  • COMPOSTING FACILITIES AND SOIL BURIAL
  • Composting and soil burial is the preferred
    disposal environment for most biodegradable
    plastics.
  • The degradation mechanism of biodegradable
    plastics in a composting environment is primarily
    hydrolysis combined with aerobic and anaerobic
    microbial activity.
  • Typically for full degradation, composting occurs
    over a 10 to 12 week period.
  • The degradation products of aerobic composting
    are compost and CO2.

30
MAJOR DISPOSAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR BIODEGRADABLE
PLASTICS
  • ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
  • Anaerobic digestion is also gaining support as an
    alternative to landfills.
  • Methane production may be faster, more efficient
    and more predictable in this system and a useful
    end-product, compost, is also produced.

31
MAJOR DISPOSAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR BIODEGRADABLE
PLASTICS
  • WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
  • Activated sewage sludge will convert
    approximately 60 of a biodegradable polymer to
    carbon dioxide.
  • The remaining 40 will enter the sludge stream
    where, under anaerobic digestion, it will be
    converted to methane.
  • Any biodegradable polymer that meets the
    compostability criteria will degrade even faster
    in a sewage environment.

32
MAJOR DISPOSAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR BIODEGRADABLE
PLASTICS
  • REPROCESSING FACILITIES
  • It is to be expected that if biodegradable
    plastics began to occupy a significant market
    share of the plastics market in the world that
    some material would end up in plastics
    reprocessing facilities. This could have
    significant effects on the sorting procedures
    required and the quality of recycled end
    products.

33
MAJOR DISPOSAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR BIODEGRADABLE
PLASTICS
  • LANDFILLS
  • When conventional low-
  • density polyethylene film
  • was under bioactive soil
  • for almost 40 years, the
  • surface of the film shows
  • signs of biodegradation
  • with the molecular weight dropping
  • by half the original.
  • The inner part of the sample was almost unchanged
    with the molecular weight being retained.

34
MAJOR DISPOSAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR BIODEGRADABLE
PLASTICS
  • LANDFILLS
  • Environmentally degradable polymers could
    increase the capacity of landfill sites by
    breaking down in a relatively short time and
    freeing other materials for degradation, such as
    food scraps in plastic bags.
  • Typical landfill gas contains 50 methane and 45
    CO2, with the balance composed of water and trace
    compounds.

35
MAJOR DISPOSAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR BIODEGRADABLE
PLASTICS
  • MARINE AND FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENTS
  • The rate of biodegradation in marine
    environments is affected by the water
    temperature.
  • In cold waters, the plastic material may still be
    in a form that could endanger marine life for an
    extended period of time. It is found that plastic
    is fully degraded in 20-30 days in a compost
    environment .
  • Thus seasonal and climatic effects on
    biodegradation rates need to be considered in
    relevant applications.

36
MAJOR DISPOSAL ENVIRONMENTS FOR BIODEGRADABLE
PLASTICS
  • LITTER
  • Plastic litter causes aesthetic problems as well
    as danger to wildlife resulting from entanglement
    and ingestion of plastic packaging materials and
    lightweight bags. Wildlife losses are an issue
    for the conservation of biodiversity, and losses
    due to litter have caused public concern.

37
PROCEDURE OF MANUFACTURING STARCH BASED
POLYETHYLENE
38
BIODEGRADABLE POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITION CHEMICALLY
BONDED WITH STARCH

39
BIODEGRADABLE POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITION CHEMICALLY
BONDED WITH STARCH
  • In this composition the polyethylene is selected
    from the group consisting of low density
    polyethylene LDPE. The LDPE which we have
    selected for our biodegradable starch based film
    is PETLIN-MALAYSIA of extrusion grade.
  • The radical initiator may be di-cumyl peroxide.
  • The Autoxidizing agent is one or more selected
    from the group consisting of manganese oleate,
    manganese stearate, ferrous oleate (II). Since we
    were unable to find autoxidizing agent due to its
    unavailability in the market, so as per our
    advisor recommendation we have not used
    autoxidizing agent in our formulation.
  • The Lewis acid catalyst is one from the group
    consisting of stearic acid and acetic acid . We
    have used stearic acid as a catalyst in our
    formulation.
  • The plasticizer is one selected from group
    consisting of oleamide, Viton poly
    (hexaflouropropylene)-copoly (vinylidene
    fluoride) or Erucamide Cis-13-1-docosenoamide. In
    our formulation we have not used plasticizer due
    to its unavailability in the local market.

40
PROPOSED RATIO OF POLYETHYLENE AND STARCH
41
COMPATIBILTY OF LDPE WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF
STARCHES
42
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
  • Initially we have been suggested to make a starch
    based biodegradable polyethylene blown film
    through single screw extruder.
  • Afterwards the management of PLASTICS TECHNOLOGY
    CENTRE proposed us to manufacture a strip of
    starch based biodegradable polyethylene by using
    a profile die on BRABENDER PLASTICORDER.

43
FORMULATION FOR BRABENDER
44
MIXING
  • Mixing of the above two proposed formulation is
    carried out in a HANSCHEL MIXER for about 15
    minutes.
  • Before putting the material in the mixer for
    mixing, the mixer should completely and
    thoroughly be cleaned with a clean cloth so as to
    avoid contamination of the two proposed batches.

45
PROCESSING AT BRABENDER
  • After mixing, the compound has been taken
  • to the BRABENDER PLASTICORDER.
  • Profile die is used and the extrudate is
  • manually cut with the help of a cutter to
  • have it in a shape of a strip.
  • Initially the BRABENDER is operated to
  • remove the last traces of the material left in
    the
  • barrel in the last processing operation.
  • Once all the old materials been removed, virgin
    LDPE has been added through the hopper to achieve
    the required temperature.
  • Since we were processing starch with LDPE for the
    first time in our carrier, we were stock feeding
    the machine so that the material should not block
    the nozzle of the machine.
  • Fans in the processing hall were kept closed to
    achieve the desired temperatures on the machine.

46
PROCESSING AT BRABENDER
  • Firstly we processed 80/20 ratio formulation so
    as to check the behavior of the machine with the
    starch incorporated batch.
  • After the production of 80/20 ratio batch, we
    processed pure LDPE so as to clean the barrel of
    the extruder for next formulation.
  • For 60/40 ratio formulation, the temperatures
  • at the machine are slightly increased as the
  • content of starch is greater as compared with
  • the previous composition. Once the desired
  • temperature range has been achieved,
  • the strips of the proposed formulation have
  • been produced.
  • Water bath has been used immediately after the
    die so as to cool the formed product.

47
PROCESSING PARAMETERS AT BRABENDER
48
TESTING
49
INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS FOR STANDARDS AND
TEST METHODS
  • American Society For Testing And Materials (ASTM)
  • European Standardization Committee (CEN)
  • International Standards Organisation (ISO)
  • Institute for Standards Research (ISR)
  • German Institute for Standardization (DIN)
  • Organic Reclamation and Composting Association
    (ORCA) (Belgium)

50
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STANDARDS FOR BIODEGRADATION
51
TENSILE STRENGTH
  • Machine Instron-4302 Universal Testing
    Machine UTM
  • Load 01 KN
  • Sample Clamping Pneumatic
  • Testing Length (GL) 25 mm
  • Speed 50 mm / min

52
80/20 FORMULATION
53
60/40 FORMULATION
54
DENSITY TEST
Machine Electronic
Densimeter SD-120L Units grams / cubic
centimeter
  • The density of 80 / 20 ratio cannot be found as
    the material was unable to flow through the die
    of melt flow index (MFI).

55
MELT FLOW INDEX
  • Machine Melt Flow Index (MFI) Davenport
  • Load 2.16 Kg
  • Cut of Time 3 minutes
  • Units grams / 10 minutes
  • Feed in 3 5 grams
  • Factor 3.33

56
PURE LDPE MFI
MFI Mean Value x Factor MFI 0.8544
x 3.33 MFI 2.5623 grams /
10 minutes
57
80 / 20 RATIO MFI
  • The MFI of 80 / 20 ratio batch cannot be done as
    the material was not flowing through the die of
    MFI.
  • Flakes of 80 / 20 ratio for MFI
  • Extrudate of 80 / 20 formulation

58
60 / 40 RATIO MFI
MFI Mean Value x Factor MFI 0.485 x
3.33 MFI 1.61505
grams / 10 minutes
59
BURY TEST
  • The strips of both the batches of starch based
    biodegradable polyethylene are buried in soil
    with the cow dung. The ratio of the soil and the
    cow dung is 50 50. Cow dung is used to make the
    production of the microorganisms faster. It will
    fasten the biodegradation process. 15 cm sample
    of both the formulation are buried in the mixture
    of soil and the cow dung. The mixture is placed
    in the open sun for next three months.
  • The strip of biodegradable composition will be
    obtained after three months and will be taken
    into observation for the mechanical tests.

60
MELTING POINT
Machine Hot Stage Microscope
61
PROS AND CONS OF STARCH BASED BIODEGRADABLE
POLYETHYLENE
  • PROS
  • Biodegradable means that, under certain
    conditions, the material will be degraded into
    small pieces that can be absorbed by
    microorganisms and transformed into CO2, H2O,
    energy and neutral residue.
  • Reduced fossil fuel content (depending on loading
    of filler)
  • Faster degradation of litter
  • No net increase of carbon dioxide in global
    ecosystem.

62
PROS AND CONS OF STARCH BASED BIODEGRADABLE
POLYETHYLENE
  • CONS
  • Degradation in a sealed landfill takes at least 6
    months.
  • Limited Shelf life.
  • Poorer mechanical strength than additive based
    example filling a starch bag with wet leaves
    and placing it curbside can result in the bottom
    falling out when a hauler picks it up. However,
    some biodegradable and compostable films are now
    very close to polyethylene or polypropylene,
    depending on the starch used.
  • Some need to be composted in industrial
    facilities because the temperature of the compost
    needs to be at 58C. Others ( OK-compost) are
    home composting (temperature 20C).

63
EMERGING APPLICATION AREAS
Adapted from Watson 1992
64
EMERGING APPLICATION AREAS
  • COATED PAPER
  • AGRICULTURE MULCH FILM
  • SHOPPING BAGS
  • FOOD WASTE FILMS AND BAGS
  • CONSUMER PACKAGING MATERIALS
  • LANDFILL COVER FILMS
  • OTHER APPLICATIONS

65
FUTURE OUTLOOK FOR BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS
  • It is estimated that plastic waste generation
    will grow by 15 per year for the next decade.
  • There is room for growth and expansion in many
    areas of the biodegradable plastic industry.
  • Researchers worldwide are interested in the area
    of biopolymer development.
  • Organic recovery (composting spent materials) is
    the most commonly applied waste reduction method.

66
FUTURE OUTLOOK FOR BIODEGRADABLE PLASTICS
  • The nature of natural materials requires
    different considerations than those for synthetic
    materials.
  • The biopolymer industry has a positive future,
    driven mainly by the environmental benefits of
    using renewable resource feedstock sources.
  • The ultimate goal for those working in
    development is to find a material with optimum
    technical performance, and full biodegradability.

67
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