APPLYING A SOIL QUALITY INDEX TO CONVENTIONAL, INTEGRATED & ORGANIC APPLE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – APPLYING A SOIL QUALITY INDEX TO CONVENTIONAL, INTEGRATED & ORGANIC APPLE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3d36ff-ZDE3Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

APPLYING A SOIL QUALITY INDEX TO CONVENTIONAL, INTEGRATED & ORGANIC APPLE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

Description:

APPLYING A SOIL QUALITY INDEX TO CONVENTIONAL, INTEGRATED & ORGANIC APPLE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS JD Glover, PK Andrews & JP Reganold Washington State University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:163
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 23
Provided by: classesHo
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: APPLYING A SOIL QUALITY INDEX TO CONVENTIONAL, INTEGRATED & ORGANIC APPLE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS


1
APPLYING A SOIL QUALITY INDEX TO CONVENTIONAL,
INTEGRATED ORGANIC APPLE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
  • JD Glover, PK Andrews
  • JP Reganold
  • Washington State University
  • Pullman, USA

2
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • Funding supported by
  • USDA National Research Initiative Competitive
    Grants Program
  • Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission
  • Organic Farming Research Foundation
  • Cooperating growers
  • Andy Eric Dolph

3
JUSTIFICATION
  • Groundwater contamination
  • Food quality safety
  • Agricultural chemical use
  • International competition

4
OBJECTIVES
  • 1. Develop soil quality methodology appropriate
    for fruit orchards
  • 2. Evaluate effects of management practices on
    soil quality

5
SOIL QUALITY
  • The capacity of the soil to function within
    ecosystem boundaries to
  • 1) sustain biological productivity,
  • 2) maintain environmental quality, and
  • 3) promote plant and animal health

Doran Parkin. 1994.
6
SOIL QUALITY INDICATORS
  • Encompass ecosystem processes
  • Integrate soil physical, chemical biological
    properties processes
  • Sensitive to variations in climate management
  • Applicable to field conditions
  • Accessible to users
  • Components of existing databases

7
SITE DESCRIPTION
  • Columbia River Basin, N. America
  • Commercial orchard planted 1994
  • Golden Delicious/M.9
  • 2430 trees/ha
  • Conventional, integrated organic
  • Four, 0.14 ha plots in RCB
  • Fine sandy loam soil
  • Previously managed grass pasture

8
SOIL MANAGEMENT
9
SOIL PARAMETERS
  • Physical
  • Bulk density, infiltration, aggregate stability,
    water-filled pore space
  • Chemical
  • Total N, NO3-N, P, CEC, pH, soluble salts
  • Biological
  • Microbial biomass C N, organic C, earthworms

10
METHODOLOGY
  • Numerically-weighted values (0-1)
  • Soil functions
  • 1. Accommodate water entry (0.2)
  • 2. Accommodate water transfer/absorption (0.2)
  • 3. Resist surface structure degradation (0.2)
  • 4. Support fruit quality productivity (0.4)
  • Multi-level soil-function indicators
  • Normalized scoring curves (0-1)

11
MULTI-LEVEL INDICATORS
  • Soil function
  • Resist degradation (0.2)
  • Soil-function indicators
  • Aggregate stability (0.6)
  • Microbial processes, upper 7.5 cm (0.4)
  • Organic carbon (0.4)
  • Microbial biomass N total N (0.3)
  • Microbial biomass C organic carbon (0.3)

12
SCORING CURVES
Scoring value
B baseline value where normalized value 0.5 L
lower threshold X value of measured
parameter S tangential slope at XB
Wymore. 1993. Model-based systems engineering.
CRC Press
13
SCORING CURVE TYPES
  • More is better - positive slopes
  • Less is better - negative slopes
  • Optimum - positive curve reflected at upper
    threshold

14
(No Transcript)
15
(No Transcript)
16
INDEX CALCULATION
  • 1. Multiply soil-function indicator scoring value
    by its numerical weight (0-1)
  • 2. Sum products of indicators at each level for
    each soil function (0-1)
  • 3. Sum soil function scores ? soil quality index
    (0-1)

17
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Z 0-15 cm soil depth y Mean separation by LSD0.05
18
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Z 0-15 cm soil depth y Mean separation by LSD0.05
19
BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
Z 7.5-15 cm soil depth y 0-7.5 cm soil depth x
Mean separation by LSD 0.05
20
SOIL QUALITY INDEX
Z Mean separation by LSD 0.05
21
RESULTS
  • Integrated organic systems had improved soil
    physical properties
  • Integrated system had higher chemical nutrient
    levels
  • Integrated system had improved biological
    properties
  • Integrated organic systems had higher soil
    quality index
  • Facilitate water transfer absorption
  • Resist soil degradation
  • Sustain fruit quality productivity

22
CONCLUSIONS
  • Advantages
  • Flexible
  • Crop systems
  • Regions
  • Assessment objectives
  • Comparative
  • Iterative
  • Focus research
  • Replant syndrome
  • Nitrate leaching
  • Limitations
  • Subjective methodology
  • Limited data sets
  • Soil functions only
About PowerShow.com