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Safe Winter Driving 2004


Safe Winter Driving 2004 The leading cause of death during winter storms is transportation accidents. Preparing your vehicle for the winter season and knowing how to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Safe Winter Driving 2004

Safe Winter Driving 2004
  • The leading cause of death during winter storms
    is transportation accidents. Preparing your
    vehicle for the winter season and knowing how to
    react if stranded or lost on the road are the
    keys to safe winter driving.
  • Indiana State Police Road Weather Information
  • 800-552-8917 Lowell District
  • 800-421-4912 Toll Road District
  • 800-382-7537 Lafayette District
  • http//

Before a Storm
  • Have a mechanic check the following items on your
  • Battery
  • Antifreeze
  • Wipers and windshield washer fluid
  • Ignition system
  • Thermostat
  • Lights
  • Flashing hazard lights
  • Exhaust system
  • Heater
  • Brakes
  • Defroster
  • Oil level (if necessary, replace existing oil
    with a winter grade oil or the SAE5w/30 weight

Install good winter tires.
  • Make sure the tires have adequate tread.
    All-weather radials are usually adequate for most
    winter conditions. However, some jurisdictions
    require that to drive on their roads, vehicles
    must be equipped with chains or snow tires with

Other tips.
  • Keep a windshield scraper and small broom for
    handy ice and snow removal.
  • Keep at least a half tank of gas during the
    winter season.
  • Plan long trips carefully. Listen to the radio or
    call the state highway patrol for the latest road
    conditions. Always travel during daylight and, if
    possible, take at least one other person.
  • Use alternate transportation. If you must go out
    during a winter storm, use public transportation
    whenever possible.
  • Dress warmly. Wear layers of loose-fitting,
    layered, lightweight clothing.
  • Carry food and water. Store a supply of high
    energy "munchies" and several bottles of water.
    (Allow for expansion in container if water might
  • Contact your local emergency management office,
    American Automobile Association (AAA) or American
    Red Cross chapter for more information on winter

Winter Driving Techniques
  • Be aware that ramps, bridges and overpasses may
    occasionally freeze first.
  • Be aware of black ice (roads that look wet but
    are actually glazed with ice.)
  • Know how your anti-lock brakes work in slippery
  • Remember not to pump your brakes if they are
    anti-lock brakes.

  • Drive well below the posted speed limit and avoid
    the use of cruise control when snow, ice,
    freezing rain or sleet is on the pavement. The
    posted speed limits are intended for normal
    pavement conditions.
  • Dont drive through white out conditions.
  • Stay a safe distance behind other vehicles,
    especially snowplows.
  • Never try to pass a snow plow.
  • Turn on your lights to see and be seen. Brush
    the snow off your head lights and tail lights
  • Buckle up!

  • Rear-wheel skids
  • The most effective way to get your vehicle back
    under control during a skid is as follows
  • Take your foot off the brake or accelerator.
  • De-clutch on a car with a manual transmission, or
    shift to neutral on a car with automatic
  • Look and steer in the direction you want the
    front of the car to go.
  • As the rear wheels stop skidding to the right or
    left, counter-steer until you are going in the
    desired direction.
  • In a rear-wheel drive vehicle, if you
    over-correct the first skid (Step 4), be prepared
    for a rear-wheel skid in the opposite direction.
     Practice and the use of timely, gentle movement
    of the steering wheel are necessary to avoid this
    type of skid.
  • Once the vehicle is straight, release the clutch
    or shift to drive, apply gentle accelerator
    pressure so that the engine speed matches the
    road speed, and accelerate smoothly to a safe

  • Front-wheel skids
  • Front-wheel skids are caused by hard braking or
    acceleration if your vehicle has front-wheel
    drive. When the front wheels lose traction, you
    will not be able to steer the vehicle.
     Regardless of whether the vehicle has front-,
    rear- or four-wheel drive, the best way to regain
    control if the front wheels skid is
  • Take your foot off the brake or accelerator.
  • De-clutch on a car with manual transmission, or
    shift to neutral on a car with automatic
  • If the front wheels have been turned prior to the
    loss of traction, don't move the steering wheel.
     Since the wheels are skidding sideways, a
    certain amount of braking force will be exerted.
    (Unwinding the steering wheel will result in
    regaining steering sooner however, the vehicle
    will be travelling faster because there is little
    sideways braking force.  This technique should
    only be attempted in situations where limited
    space and sharp curves exist -- however, in this
    case do not reduce pressure on the brakes,
    because the vehicle will shoot off in the
    direction the wheels are facing.)
  • Wait for the front wheels to grip the road again.
     As soon as traction returns, the vehicle will
    start to steer again.
  • When the front wheels have regained their grip,
    steer the wheels gently in the desired direction
    of travel.
  • Release the clutch or shift to drive and apply
    gentle accelerator pressure so that the engine
    speed matches the road speed, and accelerate
    smoothly to a safe speed.
  • There is no risk at all of the car skidding in
    the opposite direction

  • Four-wheel skids
  • Sometimes all four wheels lose traction.  This
    generally occurs when the vehicle is driven at a
    speed too fast for conditions.  The most
    effective way to get your vehicle back under
    control when all four wheels skid is
  • Ease foot off the accelerator or take your foot
    off the brake.
  • De-clutch on a car with manual transmission or
    shift to neutral on a car with an automatic
    transmission, if you can do so quickly.
  • Look and steer in the direction you want the
    front of the car to go.
  • Wait for the wheels to grip the road again.  As
    soon as traction returns, the vehicle will travel
    in the desired direction.
  • Release the clutch or shift to drive and maintain
    a safe speed.
  • NOTE Avoid using overdrive on slippery surfaces.

  • Braking
  • To survive on the road in winter, proper braking
    is essential.
  • Stopping on slippery surfaces means motorists
    must increase sight lines, following and stopping
  • Beware of shaded spots, bridges, overpasses and
    intersections.  These are areas where ice is
    likely to form first or be the most slippery.
  • Braking if you don't have anti-lock brakes
  • If you don't have anti-lock brakes, the most
    efficient technique for braking under these
    conditions is to use threshold braking together
    with de-clutching (manual shift) or shifting to
    neutral (automatic transmission). The best way to
    threshold brake (to make a controlled stop) is
    the heel-and-toe method.  Keep the heel of your
    foot on the floor and use your toes to apply
    firm, steady pressure on the brake pedal just
    short of lockup to the point at which the wheels
    stop turning.
  • Under the stress of trying to stop quickly,
    drivers almost inevitably overreact and lock the
    wheels. If this happens, use toe-and-heel action
    to release brake pressure one or two degrees,
    then immediately reapply it with slightly less
  • Braking with anti-lock brakes
  • According to a survey conducted by the CAA/AAA
    Foundation for Traffic Safety, 50 of people are
    unaware of how anti-lock brakes and traditional
    brakes differ.  If you have an anti-lock brake
    system (ABS), use the heel-and-toe method, but do
    not remove your foot from the brake.  When you
    put on the brakes hard enough to make the wheels
    lock momentarily, you will typically feel the
    brake pedal pulse back against your foot. Don't
    let up!
  • (Novice ABS users can try hard braking in a
    vacant snow-covered parking lot.)
  • How ABS works
  • A sensor located at each wheel detects when the
    wheel stops turning and starts to skid. As soon
    as the skid is detected, the anti-lock system
    relieves the pressure just enough to allow the
    wheel to turn again.  This allows you to steer
    while you continue to bring the vehicle to a stop.

Jump starting
  • Position vehicles so that the batteries are
    close, but dont let the vehicles touch. Make
    sure both vehicles are turned off.
  • Connect one end of the RED jump lead to the
    positive terminal of the dead battery. Dont let
    the other end of the red lead touch any metal.
  • Connect the other end of the RED lead to the
    positive terminal of the boosting battery.
  • Connect one end of the Black jump lead to the
    negative terminal of the boosting battery.
  • Connect the other end of the Black lead to a bolt
    or metal bracket, well away from the battery on
    the engine block of the vehicle that is dead.
  • Ensure that the jump leads cant come into
    contact with any moving parts. Start the engine
    of the boosting vehicle and run it at a fast
    idle. Now Start the engine of the dead vehicle.
  • Stop the engine of the boosting vehicle ONLY, and
    then disconnect the jump leads in the reverse
    order of connection.

If You Are Trapped in Your Car During a Storm
  • Stay in the car. Do not leave the car to search
    for assistance unless help is visible within 100
    yards. You may become disoriented and lost in
    blowing and drifting snow.
  • Display a trouble sign. Hang a brightly colored
    cloth on the radio antenna and raise the hood if
    weather permits.
  • Occasionally run engine to keep warm. Turn on the
    car's engine for about 10 minutes each hour. Run
    the heater when the car is running. Also, turn on
    the car's dome light when the car is running.
  • Beware of carbon monoxide poisoning. Keep the
    exhaust pipe clear of snow, and open a downwind
    window slightly for ventilation.
  • Watch for signs of frostbite and hypothermia.
    Frostbite is a severe reaction to cold exposure
    that can permanently damage its victims. A loss
    of feeling and a white or pale appearance in
    fingers, toes, or nose and ear lobes are symptoms
    of frostbite.

  • Hypothermia is a condition brought on when the
    body temperature drops to less than 90 degrees
    Fahrenheit. Symptoms of hypothermia include
    uncontrollable shivering, slow speech, memory
    lapses, frequent stumbling, drowsiness, and
  • If you think someone has frostbite or
    hypothermia, begin warming the person slowly and
    seek medical help. Warm the person's trunk first.
    Use your own body heat to help. Arms and legs
    should be warmed last because stimulation of the
    limbs can drive cold blood toward the heart and
    lead to heart failure. Put person in dry clothing
    and wrap their entire body in a blanket.
  • Never give a frostbite or hypothermia victim
    something with caffeine in it (like coffee or
    tea) or alcohol. Caffeine, a stimulant, can cause
    the heart to beat faster and hasten the effects
    the cold has on the body. Alcohol, a depressant,
    can slow the heart and also hasten the ill
    effects of cold body temperatures.

  • Do minor exercises to keep up circulation. Clap
    hands and move arms and legs occasionally. Try
    not to stay in one position for too long. If more
    than one person is in the car, take turns
    sleeping and huddle together. Use newspapers,
    maps, and even the removable car mats for added
  • Avoid overexertion. Cold weather puts an added
    strain on the heart. Unaccustomed exercise such
    as shoveling snow or a car can bring on a heart
    attack or make other medical conditions worse. Be
    aware of symptoms of dehydration
  • Wind Chill is a calculation of how cold it
    feels outside when the effects of temperature and
    wind speed are combined. A strong wind combined
    with a temperature of just below freezing can
    have the same effect as a still air temperature
    about 35 degrees colder.

Winter Car Kit
  • Keep these items in your car
  • Flashlights with extra batteries
  • First aid kit with pocket knife
  • Necessary medications
  • Several blankets
  • Sleeping bags
  • Extra newspapers for insulation
  • Plastic bags (for sanitation)
  • Matches or lighter
  • Extra set of mittens, socks, and a wool cap
  • Cell phone

  • Rain gear and extra clothes
  • Small sack of sand for generating traction under
  • Small shovel
  • Small tools (pliers, wrench, screwdriver)
  • Booster cables
  • Set of tire chains or traction mats
  • Cards, games, and puzzles
  • Brightly colored cloth to use as a flag
  • Canned fruit and nuts (Allow for freezing)
  • Non-electric can opener
  • Bottled water (Allow for freezing)

Coffee can survival kit for winter driving
  • You easily can equip your vehicle with essential
    survival gear for winter. Here's what you'll
  • A 2 or 3 pound coffee can (punch 3 holes at the
    top of can, equal distance apart). You'll be
    storing the other items inside the can.
  • 60-inch length of twine or heavy string (cut into
    3 equal pieces - used to suspend can).
  • 3 large safety pins (tie string to safety pins
    and pin to car roof interior to suspend can over
  • 1 candle 2" diameter (place on lid under
    suspended can for melting snow).
  • 1 pocket knife, reasonably sharp (or substitute
    with scissors).
  • 3 pieces of bright cloth 2" wide x 36" long (tie
    to antenna or door handle).
  • Several packets of soup, hot chocolate, tea,
    bouillon cubes, etc. (mixed into melted snow to
    provide warmth and nutrition).
  • Plastic spoon.
  • 1 small package of peanuts (provides protein)
    fruit-flavored candy (orange slices, jelly beans,
    etc.-avoid chocolate).
  • 1 pair of athletic socks (cotton) and 1 pair of
    glove liners (cotton).
  • 2 packages of book matches.
  • 1 sun shield blanket or 2 large green or black
    plastic leaf bags (to reflect body heat).
  • 1 pen light and batteries (keep separate).
  • Two quarters and two dimes for telephone calls.

PNC Police Chief Bob Gaekle
  • Emergency Kits found in the University vehicles.