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Cocoa Butter

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Tempering is a time-temperature process ensure the formation of chocolate in the right crystal habit In practice this means we want 1-2% solids at ~32oC which will ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cocoa Butter


1
Cocoa Butter
  • crystallization, tempering, bloom

2
Plan
  • Lipid structure, crystallization polymorphism
  • Tempering theory practice
  • Bloom

3
Fatty Acids
Stearic acid 18 carbon carboxylic acid linear
molecule
Oleic Acid 16 carbon carboxylic acid single
double bond puts a kink
O
C
HO
4
Fatty Acids in Cocoa Butter
plus about 5 others
5
Triglycerides take on a tuning fork configuration
6
Homogeneous Nucleation
TgtTmelt
TTmelt
TltltTmelt
supercooling
Crystal lattice
True melt
Crystal embryos
7
Heterogeneous Nucleation
TgtTmelt
TTmelt
TltTmelt
less supercooling
Crystal lattice
True melt
Nucleation
8
  • SFC is a function of temperature
  • SFC is a function of temperature history
  • SFC is a function of time
  • SFC is a function of composition

100 solid
Solid Fat Content
100 liquid
hot
cold
Temperature
9
Polymorphism
Molecular packing can vary by angle of tilt...
10
and by chain packing
11
Consequently there are several types of
triglyceride crystal
Higher MP
More dense
More desirable
12
Key Facts
  • Desirable forms have a high melting point
  • The higher melting point, the more stable
  • More stable fats are more dense
  • More stable forms are slow to form
  • Like crystals will grow from like
  • Cocoa butter can convert from a less to more
    stable form

13
  • As the oil cools the fat molecules slow down
  • Eventually try to stop in contact with another
    molecule (crystal lattice)
  • It takes time to get into optimal position (most
    dense)
  • Pre-existing nuclei can help form a template

14
Rapid cooling leads to a less well ordered
structure!
15
Cocoa butter
  • Cocoa butter is largely triglycerides
  • There has several stable crystal polymorphs
  • Good chocolate can only be made from the stable
    crystals

16
Tempering
Tempering is a time-temperature process ensure
the formation of chocolate in the right crystal
habit
In practice this means we want 1-2 solids at
32oC which will act as seeds when the melt is
cooled
17
Why 32oC?
18
Tempering
  • Why temper?
  • Demolding
  • Snap
  • Gloss
  • Resistance to bloom
  • Temperature and time control

19
Tempering Sequence
50oC
Melt Cool - no crystallization Form mix of
crystals Melt out unstable polymorphs
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4

temperature
32oC
30-32oC
  • 1

27oC
  • 2
  • 4
  • 3

time
20
Tempering Practice
  • Hand tempering
  • Batch tempering
  • Continuous tempering
  • Temper meters

21
Hand Tempering
  • Melt fat
  • Pour melt onto slab and work with spatulas
  • Return semicrystalline batch back to warm melt
  • Mold chocolate

22
Kettle Tempering
23
3-stage Tempering Machine
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3

24
Tempering
  • Tempering is a process to ensure the formation of
    stable crystals
  • Tempering is a time-temperature process
  • Tempering can be done as a batch or continuous
    process
  • Degree of temper can be measured from a cooling
    curve

25
What is bloom?
  • White moldy appearance at the surface
  • Major reason for product failure
  • NOT a health hazard
  • Often caused by large fat crystals growing from
    the surface and scattering light

26
(No Transcript)
27
Types of Bloom
  • High temperature bloom
  • Low temperature bloom
  • Fat migration bloom

28
High Temperature Bloom
  • Fat is stored hot enough to melt (35oC)
  • Fat resolidifies and is no longer tempered
  • Untempered chocolate rapidly grows bloom
  • U se a high melting fat if you cant be certain
    of distribution temperature

29
Low Temperature Bloom
  • In well tempered chocolate stored below its
    melting point
  • Associated with V to VI transition
  • Occurs faster at high temperatures (esp. if temp.
    cycles)
  • Reduce storage temperature

30
Migration Bloom
  • The movement of fat from an enrobed center to the
    surface
  • Dissolves some cocoa butter and carries it to the
    surface
  • Cocoa butter recrystalizes at the surface

31
How to avoid bloom
  • Temper the chocolate properly
  • Store cool
  • Add butter-fat
  • Add emulsifier (e.g. sorbitan monostearate)

32
Bloom
  • A moldy white deposit on the surface
  • Large fat crystals formed by migration and
    recrystallization
  • Not a health hazard but it is a cause for product
    rejection
  • Avoid by good tempering and controlled storage
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