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Creating A Culturally Competent Organizational Culture:

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Title: Creating A Culturally Competent Organizational Culture:


1
Creating A Culturally Competent Organizational
Culture

Through Courageous Conversations
2
  • Today At-A-Glance
  • Introductions
  • Why We Cant Wait
  • Ordered Sharing
  • Understanding Culture Competence
  • Organizational Culture
  • Conceptualizing Cultural Competency
  • Cultural Competency The Individual
  • Cultural Competency The Organization
  • Things To Consider
  • Reflection
  • Moment of Clarity

3
Todays Outcomes
  • Move Beyond Diversity
  • Explore the meaning of the term, Cultural
    Competency.
  • Make the connection between cultural competency
    and organizational culture

4
Ordered Sharing Activity
  • Ordered sharing is based on your response to a
    quote
  • It requires deep listening.
  • Divide into groups.
  • Participants sit in a circle.
  • Present the quote (1 minute processing time)
  • Each person shares thoughts for about 20 seconds.
  • Select a timekeeper
  • Select a spokesperson to report out

5
Critical to truly seeing and understanding the
students and families we serve, is the courage to
reflect about ourselves. Facing our biases
openly, recognizing the limits imposed by our
embeddedness in our own culture and experience,
and accepting the influence of emotions on our
actions are extraordinary challenges.
Revised from Nancy Balaban (1995)
6
Rationale for Cultural Competency
Changing Demographics
Why We Cant Wait!
7
Demographic Shifts
  • The U.S. is projected to become increasingly more
    ethnically and racially diverse by 2020.
  • Looked at it from another perspective, by the
    year 2010 nearly one of every two children is
    estimated to belong to a racial or ethnic group.

8
The Children's Defense Fund predicted that
within the first decade following the year 2000,
there will be 5.5 million more Latino children,
2.6 million more African-American children, 1.5
million more children of other races and 6.2
million fewer white, non-Latino children in the
United States.
9
The Color-line Experiment
10
Dealing With Differences
11
Dealing With Diversity Can Be Tricky
12
Diversity Has Its Strengths
The Beaver Is Very Skilled At Its Craft. It
Knows Exactly What To Do To Fix A Dam. The Last
Thing It Needs Is Someone On The Bank Shouting
Out Dam Instructions. (IF YOU DONT THE FEED
TEACHERS, THEY WILL EAT THE STUDENTS, NEILA
CONNORS)
13
DEALING WITH DIVERSITY
THERE ARE NO
EASY BUTTONS
14
Understanding Culture
15
What is culture?
The total, generally organized way of life,
including values, norms, institutions, and
artifacts, that is passed on from generation to
generation. Dictionary of Modern Sociology
16
Understanding Culture
  • culture becomes our reality the map that guide
    us, the window through which we view the world.
    To attack someones culture is to attack that
    persons innermost self. We all have a culture.

17
How is culture like an iceberg?
food dress music visual art drama
crafts dance literature language
celebrations
notions of modesty
conception of beauty
ideals governing
child-raising definition of sin
cosmology relationships to animals tempo
of work patterns of superior / subordinate
relationships concepts of humor
attitudes toward elders friendship body
language eye contact behavior social
interaction conversational patterns in various
social contexts roles in relation to status by
age, sex, class, occupation, kinship, and so
forth.
18
Organizational Culture
Organizational culture is the specific collection
of values and norms that are shared by people and
groups in an organization and that control the
way they interact with each other and with
stakeholders outside the organization.
19
Organizational Culture
Organizational values are beliefs and ideas about
what kinds of goals members of an organization
should pursue and ideas about the appropriate
kinds or standards of behavior organizational
members should use to achieve these goals.
(Strategic Management, Charles W. L. Hill, Gareth
R. Jones, Fifth Edition, 2001 Houghton Mifflin,
MeansBusiness, Inc.)
20
Culture
History
Clan
VALUES ATTITUDES BELIEFS LANGUAGE COMMUNICATI
ON BEHAVIOR
Religion
Society
Ethnic Group
Geography
Politics
Government
Race
Economics
Gender
Region
Cultural Practices
Community
Neighborhood
Traditions
Customs
Social-Peer Groups
Events
Family
INDIVIDUAL
School Culture
or
Organizational Culture
21
Organizational Culture
Values-Attitudes-Beliefs
Mission-Vision-Goals
Histories Norms Traditions - Stories
Policies Habits Expectations Rituals -
Ceremonies
Decision-Making
Communication
Collegiality/ Professional Collaboration (Professi
onal Learning Community)
RELATIONSHIPS and INTERACTIONS (How people treat
each other, feel about each other and work
together...)
SCHOOL/UNIVERSITY CLIMATE
22
(No Transcript)
23
ACCIDENTAL vs INTENTIONAL
  • ACCIDENTAL ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  • Largely Based on assumptions
  • Often based on misinformation
  • Connections are random
  • Relationships mandated not valued

24
INTENTIONAL ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  • Driven by an understanding of its value
  • Celebrates differences
  • Connections constantly sought
  • Relationships valued
  • Often measured, constantly monitored

25
Cultural In-Congruence Or Cultural Mis-Match
Cultural Mismatch/ Cultural Discontinuity
cultural mismatch occurs when students cultural
values, beliefs, and behaviors are the exact
opposite of the dominant culture in their school.
In some cases, the students cultural values and
characteristics are ignored, dismissed or devalued
26
Implications For Schools
Cultural conflict can occur when children have
not had experiences that provide them with the
kind of information that is used and valued in
school. To reach all children, educators must
expand their repertoire of instructional
strategies to encompass the various approaches
children use to learn(Kuykendall, 1995).
27
Competence
Acquisition of knowledge, skills, and experience
necessary for the development and
implementation of services to different groups
served
28
CULTURAL COMPETENCE
29
The driving force behind cultural competency is
population-based service delivery i.e., knowing
and understanding the people that you serve. It
means appreciating the importance of culture,
while avoiding stereotypes. It means
understanding the socio-political influences
that helped to shape your consumers attitudes,
beliefs and values. It means that cultural
awareness efforts are a part of a system-wide
program within your organization. It is a
process that is continually evolving.
30
What Is Cultural Competence?
The integration and transformation of knowledge
about individuals and groups of people into
specific standards, policies, practices, and
attitudes used in appropriate cultural settings
to increase the quality of services, thereby
producing better outcomes
31
Cultural CompetencyEducational Definition
Cultural competency is the effective integration
of knowledge about students backgrounds into
instructional planning and strategies, resulting
in learning of curricular concepts at high
levels.
32
Why Is Cultural Competency Important?
Students from culturally and linguistically
diverse backgrounds often do not fare well in
public education and are plagued by problems such
as the achievement gap, overrepresentation in
special education, high suspension and expulsion
rates, and high drop-out rates. (Jencks
Phillips, 1988 Losen Orfield, 2002 Townsend,
2000)
33
Culturally competent educators and related
services personnel are aware and respectful of
the importance of the values, beliefs,
traditions, customs, and parenting styles of the
children and families they serve. They are also
aware of the impact of their own culture on their
interactions with others and take all of these
factors into account when planning and delivering
services to children and their families.
Towards a Culturally Competent System of Care,
authored by Terry L. Cross, Karl W. Dennis,
Mareasa R. Isaacs, and Barbara J. Bazron
34
Being culturally competent means having the
capacity to function effectively in another
cultural context.
35
A Culturally Competent Individual
36
  • The Cultural Competence Continuum
  • Where Am I Now?
  • Where Could I Be?

37
You Cant Teach What You Dont Know, AND You
Cant Lead Where You Wont Go.

38
Cultural Competency Continuum
Negative
Positive
Cross T., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., Isaacs M.
(1989). Towards a culturally competent system of
care, volume I. Georgetown University Child
Development Center, CASSP Technical Assistance
Center
39
Cultural Competence Continuum Cultural
Destructiveness forced assimilation,
subjugation, rights and privileges for dominant
groups only. Cultural Incapacity racism,
maintain stereotypes, unfair hiring practices
40
  • Cultural Blindness differences ignored, treat
    everyone the same, only meet needs of dominant
    groups
  • Cultural Pre-competence explore cultural issues,
    are committed, assess needs of organization and
    individuals

41
Cultural Competence recognize individual and
cultural differences, seek advice from diverse
groups, hire culturally unbiased staff. Cultural
proficiency implement changes to improve
services based upon cultural needs, do research
and teach.
42
Cultural Competence is a point on a continuum
that represents the POLICIES and PRACTICES of an
organization, or the VALUES and BEHAVIOR of an
individual which enable that organization or
person to interact effectively in a culturally
diverse environment.
43
As a culturally competent ______ I am
capable of interacting positively with people
who do NOT
look like,
talk like,
think like,
believe like,
act like,
live like...
ME!!!
44
Creating A Culturally Competent Organization
45
Achieving Cultural Competence
Schools or Universities
  • Value diversity
  • Conduct cultural self-assessment
  • Identify cross-cultural dynamics
  • Institutionalize cultural knowledge
  • Adapt service delivery to diversity within and
    between cultures

46
The Essential Elements of Cultural Competency
  • The Essential Elements of cultural competency
    provide the standards for individual behavior and
    organizational practices
  • Assessing Culture Naming the differences
  • Valuing Diversity Claiming the differences

47
The Essential Elements (cont.)
  • Managing the Dynamics of Difference Reframing
    the differences
  • Adapting to Diversity - Training about the
    differences
  • Institutionalizing Cultural Knowledge Changing
    for differences

48
Institutionalizing Cultural Competency
Table Talk
  • Making Room at the Table
  • Examine a few of the tables (committees,
    organizations, leadership teams, etc..) at which
    you sit.
  • How did you get there?
  • Do you have a voice?
  • How do you help or hinder others who want to sit
    at the table?

49
What makes a organization culturally competent,
is determined by how effectively the institutions
addresses the dynamics of cultural differences
through the five Ps
Perspectives Policies Programs Personnel Practices
50
The Five Ps come into play because of the rapid
changes taking place in our society, these
changes are forcing schools and districts to move
away from a lethargic business-as-usual,
re-active mindset, to a proactive one that
anticipates and implements change. This is where
the five Ps come into to play.
51
Perspectives refers to the vision. What is
vision? Vision is the bifocal ability to see what
lies ahead (farsightedness), as well as, the
various impediments in the present
(nearsightedness) ,and how to avoid them in order
to arrive to the future. A sense of vision and
mission, will lead to appropriate Policies, the
guarantees that make known the intents of the
organization.
52
Policies, give rise to Programs, that put in
action what education is all about. But effective
programs cannot be run without the right
Personnel, reflective of the diversity in the
organization. The last one is Practices, The
actual conduct of the organization, its staff and
administration.
53
Of these Five Ps, the most important one is,
Practices. A school or university may have the
best perspectives, policies, programs, and
personnel, but these are only cosmetic until
practiced.
54
And it only takes a small number of Personnel,
who in their Practice refuse to go along with
Program or fail to implement the Policy, for an
otherwise well designed plan to be
sabotaged. The Five Ps have to alter present
organization structures and cultures, especially
if these are exclusive and do not benefit
everyone in the organization.
55
Culturally Competent Assessment
How culturally competent is our University?
56
Stage 1 Unaware, Not Yet Competent
The organization or system is culturally blind
and is insensitive to cultural differences. It
is the least desired stage in that services
provided do not meet the needs of diverse
populations.
57
Stage 2 Aware, Not Yet Competent
The organization or system reacts to cultural
diversity and is confused about cultural
differences. At this stage, the organization or
system recognizes the need to address cultural
diversity issues, but generally does not know
what to do or how to do it. Services provided
minimally meet the needs of diverse populations.
58
Stage 3 Aware, Competent
The organization or system accepts cultural
diversity and tolerates cultural differences. At
this stage, the organization or system is aware
and has a prescribed and systematic plan to meet
the needs of diverse populations and improve over
time.
59
Stage 4 Intrinsically Aware, Competent
The organization or system values cultural
diversity and celebrates cultural differences.
At this stage, the organization or system
integrates cultural diversity into its shared
vision, mission, values, and beliefs. This
process occurs automatically and almost
intuitively. Services provided meet the needs of
diverse populations with little conscious effort.
(Stages of competence may vary across indicators.
For example, an organization or system may be at
Stage 2 with regard to vision/mission and Stage 1
with regard to communication.)
60
Barriers To Creating Culturally Competent
Organizational Culture

Identify potential organizational barriers Lack
of understanding Lack of resources Lack of
leadership commitment Lack of training
opportunities Staff resistance
61
Challenges To Cultural Competence
  • Ethnocentrism
  • Prejudice
  • Stereotypes
  • Racism
  • Discrimination

62
DO SOMETHING BRAVE DEAL WITH DIFFRENCES
63
Individual Reflections Group Discussion
  • What?
  • (What does this mean to you)?
  • So What?
  • (What implications does this have on your
    work)?
  • Now What?
  • (What are you going to do with this
    information)?

64
In Summary Cultural Competence Is About
  • Acknowledging culture as a predominant force in
    shaping people values, attitudes and behaviors.
  • Understanding how ones culture influence our
    responses to persons from different
    background/cultures.
  • Respecting the unique culturally defined needs of
    different populations/individuals.
  • Recognizing that although the values, beliefs and
    behaviors of people from other cultures may be
    different from ours, they are equally valid and
    influence how they view problems and solutions.

65
General Dos And Do Nots
  • Do
  • Recognize, respect, honor and celebrate
    differences
  • Develop a working knowledge of clients
    cultural/historical background
  • Try to assess informally level of acculturation
  • Use culturally and linguistic appropriate
    communication strategies
  • Promote inclusion at all levels
  • Do not
  • Use information that you may have about the
    cultural group to prejudge, stereotype,
    discriminate, etc.
  • Patronize but try to be empathetic
  • Criticize or blame the culture
  • Assume that your cultural practices/expressions
    are appropriate for everybody else

66
Immediate Strategies To Consider
  • Revisit your diversity plan to assess if your
    organization is addressing culturally
    competency.
  • Revised/modify policies that place certain
    groups at a disadvantage.
  • Assess your organizational culture (include a
    stakeholders analysis in the assessment).

67
Immediate Strategies To Consider
  • Conduct student and staff focus groups to
    get their cultural perspective about the
    organization.
  • Identify the potential experts in your
    organization to build capacity.

68
A MOMENT OF CLARITY
I learned that I realized that I was
pleased that I was not aware that
69
But Remain Optimistic
70
DREAMKEEPERS   DREAMKEEPERS ARE THE ADULTS IN
THE SCHOOL COMMUNITY THAT CONSISTENTLY ASSIST,
SUPPORT, ENCOURAGE, NURTURE, EDUCATE, MOTIVATE,
EMPOWER, AND CULTIVATE THE UNTAPPED POTENTIAL OF
ALL OUR CHILDREN, SO STUDENTS CAN LIVE THEIR
DREAMS AND ACHIEVE IN ALL THEIR
ENDEAVORS. DIFFERENCE DOES NOT DENOTE DEFICIT
71
Cultural Competence Resources
  • Burchum, J., Cultural Competence An
    Evolutionary Perspective Nursing Forum, Vol. 37,
    No. 4, 2002.
  • Caldwell, C., Jackson, J., Tucker B., Bowman,
    P. Culturally-Competent Research Methods in
    Advances in African American Psychology, 1999.
  • Castro, Felipe G., Working Models for Infusing
    Culture into Prevention Interventions and
    Clinical Treatments with Hispanics, Department of
    Psychology and Hispanic Research Center, Arizona
    State University, 1999.
  • Catalano R., Morrison D., Wells E., Gillmore M.,
    Iritani B., and Hawkins D., Ethnic Differences
    in Family Factors Related to Early Drug
    Initiation Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Vol.
    53, No. 3, 1992.
  • Cross T., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., Isaacs M.
    (1989). Towards a culturally competent system of
    care, volume I. Georgetown University Child
    Development Center, CASSP Technical Assistance
    Center

72
  • Cuéllar, I, Harris, L. C., and Jasso, R.
    Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans
    normal and clinical populations. Hispanic
    Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 1980.
  • Geron, S. Cultural Competency How is it
    Measured? Does it make a Difference?
    Generations, Fall 2002.
  • Luquis R., and Perez, M. Achieving Cultural
    Competence The Challenges for Health Educators
    American Journal of Health Education, May/June
    2003.
  • National Center for Cultural Competence,
    Georgetown University Center for Child and Human
    Development, University Center for Excellence in
    Developmental Disabilities, http//gucchd.georgeto
    wn.edu/nccc/
  • Resnicow, K., Soler, R., and Braithwaite R.
    Cultural Sensitivity in Substance Abuse
    Prevention Journal of Community Psychology,
    Vol. 28, No. 3, 2000.

73
  • Roosa, M., Dumka, L., Gonzalez, N., and Knight,
    G. Cultural/Ethnic Issues and the Prevention
    Scientist in the 21st Century APA, Prevention
    and Treatment, Vol. 5, Art 5, 2002.
  • Terrell, D. Ethnocultural Factors and Substance
    Abuse Toward Culturally Sensitive Treatment
    Models Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, Sept.
    1993, Vol. 7, No.
  • University of Kansas, Community Tool Box, Tools,
    Chap. 27. Cultural Competence in a Multicultural
    World. http//ctb/ku/edu/tools/en/chapter_1027.htm
  • Zickler, P.Ethnic Identification and Cultural
    Ties May Help Prevent Drug Use NIDA Notes,
    Research Findings, Vol 14, No. 3, Sept. 1999.

74
Dr. Roger Cleveland Morehead State
University College of Education Ginger Hall, 503
I 606-783-2168 e-mail r.cleveland_at_moreheadstate.e
du
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