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Learning Theories Social Cognitive Theory: Albert Bandura

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Learning Theories Social Cognitive Theory: Albert Bandura Observational learning or modeling: Learning results from seeing a model reinforced or punished for behavior. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Learning Theories Social Cognitive Theory: Albert Bandura


1
Chapter 2
  • Theories of Development


2
In this chapter
3
An Overview
  • Major families of theoretical perspectives
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Learning
  • Cognitive
  • Other theoretical trends
  • Biological
  • Ecological

4
Psychoanalytic Theories Sigmund Freud
  • Psychosexual theory Internal drives and emotions
    influence behavior.
  • Patient memories used as primary source material
  • Three personality types id, ego, superego
  • Sexual feelings are part of personality
    development.

5
Freuds Psychosexual Stages
6
Psychosocial TheoryErik Erikson (Neo-Freudian)
  • Psychosocial theory Development influenced by
    common cultural demands and internal drives
  • Each psychosocial stage requires solution of a
    crisis.
  • Healthy development requires a favorable ratio of
    positive to negative experiences.

7
Psychosocial TheoryErik Erikson (Neo-Freudian)
  • Stages
  • First four stages form adult personality
    foundation
  • Childhood-adulthood transition influential
  • Ages
  • Adult stages not strongly tied to age

8
Eriksons Psychosocial Theory
9
Learning TheoriesClassical Conditioning Ivan
Pavlov
  • Classical Conditioning Learning process that
    occurs through associations between environmental
    stimulus and naturally occurring stimulus
  • Reflex Stimulusresponse connection
  • Learned Conditioned stimulus elicits conditioned
    response.

10
Learning TheoriesOperant Conditioning B.F.
Skinner
  • Operant conditioning Deals with modification of
    voluntary behavior
  • Behaviors dependent on reinforcement
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Punishment
  • Extinction

11
Learning TheoriesHints for Parents and Caregivers
  • Positive and negative reinforcement interact in
    complex ways in real life.
  • The best chance for behavioral change exists when
    an appropriate consequence administered first
    after the behavior occurs.

12
Learning TheoriesSocial Cognitive Theory Albert
Bandura
  • Observational learning or modeling Learning
    results from seeing a model reinforced or
    punished for behavior.
  • Dependent on four factors
  • Attention
  • Memory
  • Physical capabilities
  • Motivation

13
Learning TheoriesSocial Cognitive Theory
Self-Efficacy
  • Perceived self-efficacy People's beliefs about
    their capabilities to produce effects
  • Learning
  • Influenced by perceived similarity to model
  • Not limited to overt behavior
  • Comes also from ideas, expectations, internal
    standards, and self-concepts

14
Cognitive TheoriesJean Piaget
  • Piagets cognitive theory Development involves
    processes based upon actions and later progresses
    into changes in mental operations.
  • Scheme
  • Assimilation
  • Accommodation
  • Equilibration

15
Cognitive TheoriesJean Piagets Cognitive
Developmental Stages
  • Evolution of Logical Thinking

The rate of development differs for individual
children.
16
Cognitive TheoriesVygotskys Socio-Cultural
Theory
  • Socio-cultural theory Complex forms of thinking
    have their origins in social interactions, not
    private explorations.
  • Children learn new cognitive skills guided by a
    more skilled partner.
  • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
  • Scaffolding

17
Cognitive TheoriesImportance of Assisted
Discovery
  • Assisted discovery Child integrates results of
    independent discoveries with new knowledge taught
    in systematic and structured way.
  • What are the educational applications of this
    kind of learning?

18
Cognitive TheoriesImportance of Assisted
Discovery
  • Educational Applications
  • Supports active exploration opportunities
  • Discovery of what knowledge, skills, and
    understandings have not yet surfaced for learner
    but are on edge of emergence

19
Cognitive TheoriesInformation-Processing Theory
  • Information-processing theory Computer used as
    model to explain how mind manages information
  • Three-stage theory of memory
  • Sensory memory
  • Short-term or working memory
  • Long-term memory

20
Figure 2.2 The Information-Processing System
21
Cognitive TheoriesNeo-Piagetian Theories
  • Piagetian information-processing hybrid
  • Uses IP to explain Piagets stages
  • Expands (not contradicts) Piagets theory
  • Agrees that children's thinking reflects
    developing internal mental structures
  • Draws on linguistic theories about content domain
    specificity of cognition

22
?
?
Questions To Ponder
  • Give an example each of a positive reinforcement
    and a punishment in your work or academic life.
  • Looking at ecological systems theory, describe
    your personal exosystem, macrosystem, and
    microsystem influences.

23
Biological TheoriesBehavioral Genetics
  • Behavioral genetics Examines genetic
    underpinnings of behavioral phenotypes
  • Can you think of questions that might be
    addressed using this theoretical perspective?

24
Did you list twin studies in your response?
Figure 2.3 IQs of Fraternal and Identical Twins
  • Look at these findings from several studies of
    Dutch twins. What does this tell you about the
    influence of heredity and age?

25
Other Biological TheoriesEthology and
Sociobiology
  • Ethology Examines genetically determined
    mechanisms that promote survival through natural
    selection
  • Imprinting
  • Sociobiology Application of evolutionary theory
    to social behavior
  • Genetic selfishness

26
Bioecological TheoryUrie Bronfenbrenner
  • Bioecological theory Explains development in
    terms of relationships between people and their
    environments
  • Contexts
  • Macrosystem
  • Exosystem
  • Microsystem
  • Mesosystem
  • Biological context

27
Place yourself in the center of the model.

Who or what would you place in each ring?
What prompted your choices?
Figure 2.4 Bronfenbrenners Contexts of
Development
28
Why asking which theory is RIGHT may be wrong!
  • Instead of right/wrong, try useful/not useful.
  • Evaluation of usefulness of each theory
  • Generate predictions that can be tested.
  • Heuristic value
  • Practical value
  • Explanation of basic developmental facts

29
Multiple Theoretical Approaches Eclecticism
  • Interdisciplinary builds on ideas from multiple
    sources
  • Avoids rigid adherence to single theory
  • Contributes to development of more comprehensive
    theories
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