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Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes and Ecosystems

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Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes and Ecosystems 3.1 Community Ecology Communities All the interacting populations in an ecosystem A biological community is a group of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes and Ecosystems


1
Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes and Ecosystems
  • 3.1 Community Ecology

2
Communities
  • All the interacting populations in an ecosystem
  • A biological community is a group of interacting
    populations that occupy the same area at the same
    time.
  • Abiotic and biotic factors interact and result in
    condition that are suitable for life for some
    organisms and unsuitable for other organisms

3
Limiting Factors
  • Environmental factors (abiotic or biotic) that
    restricts existence, numbers, reproduction or
    distribution of organisms
  • Food, predators, temperature, light

4
Limiting Factors
  • Factors that limit one organism may indirectly
    limit others

What happens when the number of grasshoppers is
reduced?
5
Tolerance
  • Ability of an organism to withstand fluctuation
    in biotic and abiotic factors

6
Range of Tolerance
7
Ecological Succession
  • Orderly, natural changes and species replacement
    that take place in the communities of an ecosystem
  • Primary Succession
  • After volcano or avalanche
  • Start with rock (no soil)
  • Secondary Succession
  • After forest fire or abandoned farmland
  • Start with soil

8
Primary Succession
9
Primary Succession
  • Pioneer Species first species on bare land/rock
    is lichen or moss
  • Breakdown of rock and decay of moss will build up
    the soil so other plants can survive
  • Overtime additional habitats develop

10
Primary Succession
  • Producers are always present before consumer
  • Ends with climax community
  • Stable, mature community which undergoes little
    or no change in species
  • Can take hundreds of years to develop a climax
    community starting with rock

11
Secondary Succession
12
Secondary Succession
  • Sequence of community changes that take place
    after a community is disrupted by natural
    disasters or human actions
  • Occurs in places that previously contained life
  • On land that contains soil, so takes less time
    than primary succession to reach climax community

13
Primary or Secondary Succession?
14
Chapter 3 Communities, Biomes and Ecosystems
  • 3.2 Terrestrial Biomes

15
Effects of Latitude and Climate
  • Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a
    specific place and time.
  • One of the keys to understanding these
    communities is to be aware of latitude and
    climatic conditions.

16
Effects of Latitude and Climate
  • The distance of any point on the surface of Earth
    north or south from the equator is latitude.

17
Effects of Latitude and Climate
  • The average weather conditions in an area,
    including temperature and precipitation, describe
    the areas climate.
  • The graph shows how temperature and precipitation
    influence the communities.

18
Effects of Latitude and Climate
  • Biomes are classified by their plants,
    temperature, and precipitation.

19
Biomes
  • Large group of ecosystems that share the same
    type of climax community
  • Identified by climax community of plants rather
    than animals because plants dont migrate.
  • Plants are a better indicator of long term
    characteristics of a biome

20
Major Biomes of the World
21
Terrestrial Biomes
  • From the North Pole
  • Tundra
  • Taiga
  • Temperate Forest
  • Grassland
  • Desert
  • Tropical Rain Forest
  • Each have characteristic abiotic and biotic
    factors

22
Aquatic Ecosystems
  • Temperature and precipitation reflect its
    associated terrestrial biome
  • Freshwater biomes
  • Lakes, streams, rivers, ponds
  • Marine Biomes
  • Oceans and seas
  • Study by amount of sunlight
  • Specialty biomes estuary and intertidal zone

Intertidal zone
23
Freshwater Ecosystems
  • Only about 2.5 percent of the water on Earth is
    freshwater.

24
Freshwater Ecosystems
  • The characteristics of rivers and streams change
    during the journey from the source to the mouth.

25
Freshwater Ecosystems
  • Fast-moving rivers and streams prevent much
    accumulation of organic materials and sediment.
  • Usually, there are fewer species living in the
    rapid waters.
  • In slow-moving water, insect larvae are the
    primary food source for many fish, including
    American eel, brown bullhead catfish, and trout.

26
Freshwater Ecosystems
  • The temperature of lakes and ponds varies
    depending on the season.

27
Transitional Aquatic Ecosystems
  • Areas of land such as marshes, swamps, and bogs
    that are saturated with water and that support
    aquatic plants are called wetlands

28
Marine Ecosystems
  • The intertidal zone is a narrow band where the
    ocean meets land.
  • Communities are constantly changing in this
    environment as a result of disturbance.

29
Open Ocean Systems
  • The photic zone is shallow enough that sunlight
    is able to penetrate.
  • Below the photic zone lies the aphotic zonean
    area where sunlight is unable to penetrate.
  • The benthic zone is an area along the ocean floor
    that consists of sand, silt, and dead organisms.
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