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PARAPHRASING

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PARAPHRASING BORROWING LANGUAGE AND IDEAS WHAT IS A PARAPHRASE? DEFINITION: Paraphrasing is when we borrow ideas, language, or phrases from another person s text ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PARAPHRASING


1
  • PARAPHRASING
  • BORROWING LANGUAGE AND IDEAS

2
WHAT IS A PARAPHRASE?
  • DEFINITION
  • Paraphrasing is when we borrow ideas, language,
    or phrases from another persons text we write
    these using our own language and sentence
    patterns.

3
WHAT IS A PARAPHRASE?continued
  • Paraphrasing a text (such as a movie, an article,
    a book chapter, or a song) helps the reader grasp
    the important parts without having to read the
    source.
  • The writer is an expert in the content of that
    one source, and she talks the research to her
    reader.

4
ACTIVITY ONE
  • Answer the following questions on a sheet of
    paper.
  • Do not answer with I dont know instead, talk
    about what you think a writer does. Its good to
    start with what we already know or assume
  • When do we paraphrase?
  • How do we paraphrase?
  • Can we switch words around?
  • How do we cite our paraphrases?
  • How is paraphrase different than quote?
  • Note Please do not look anything up with this
    part. You are thinking about what you already
    know or have heard about integrating sources into
    your texts.

5
HERE ARE SOME INCORRECT ASSUMPTIONS STUDENT
WRITERS HAVE HAD ABOUT PARAPHRASING. COMPARE
YOUR ANSWERS FROM ACTIVITY ONE WITH THOSE BELOW.
  • --If we switch words around we are O.K.. NO
  • --If somebody did not say it, then they are my
    words. NO
  • --I have learned about the topic somewhere else
    I dont need to cite it.
  • NO
  • --This comes from my own expertise. NO
  • --I dont know what the article is about, but I
    switched the words around in this one part they
    are my words. NO
  • --I dont think we have to cite a paraphrase. We
    only cite quotes. NO

6
WHY DO WE PARAPHRASE?
  • Paraphrasing allows the reader to trust the
    writer. We walk away from our reading informed,
    and we have confidence in the researcher because
    she knows her source materials.
  • MOST
  • OF YOUR RESEARCH WRITING
  • WILL INCLUDE
    PARAPHRASING.

7
WHY DO WE PARAPHRASE?
  • PARAPHRASE IS USED MORE THAN SUMMARY AND QUOTES
  • BECAUSE
  • PARAPHRASE GIVES MORE DETAIL THAN SUMMARY AND
    ALLOWS MORE INSIGHT.
  • PARAPHRSE PREVENTS OVERRELIANCE ON QUOTING AND
    SHOWS AN AUTHORS CAREFUL CONSIDERATION OF THE
    PARTICULAR SOURCE.
  • WE SHOULD ONLY QUOTE IN SPECIFIC INSTANCES

8
REVIEWING WHEN TO QUOTE
  • As a review, writers use quotes sparingly and
    only with the following rules
  • Quoting an authority (who is absolutely necessary
    to include in the paper).
  • Using necessary dialogue.
  • Highlighting necessary bias or opposite opinions.
  • Analyzing unusual language.
  • Ask your instructor for any other times to quote.

9
ACTIVITY 2
  • LOOK AT THE PAPER YOU ARE WORKING ON.
  • HIGHLIGHT EVERY PLACE YOU QUOTE.
  • WRITE YES NEXT TO QUOTES THAT FOLLOW ONE OF THE
    RULES, AND WRITE NO NEXT TO THOSE THAT DONT.
  • FOR THOSE THAT DONT FOLLOW ONE OF THE RULES
    (AND THERE PROBABLY ARE SEVERAL YOU SHOULD
    REVISE), THEN CONSIDER PARAPHRASING IN PLACE OF
    THE QUOTE.
  • STAPLE THE DRAFT IN WHICH YOU HIGHLIGHTED ALL
    QUOTES AND ON WHICH YOU WROTE YES OR NO TO THE
    COMPLETED GPAW FOR YOUR INSTRUCTOR TO REVIEW.

10
IMPORTANT THING TO REMEMBER ABOUT PARAPHRASING
  • 1. Use only important information.
  • 2. Paraphrasing is better than quoting too much.
  • 3. We must use our own voice and words.

11
Three paraphrasing rules
  • 1. We are allowed to use common terms, such as
    the authors name or topic. No quotation marks
    are necessary when we use these.
  • 2. If we borrow any key words, we must put them
    in quotations.
  • We must box in the source by introducing source
    first and then citing at the end.
  • ACTIVITY 3 PRINT THIS SLIDE
  • AND USE IT AS A GUIDE AS WE PARAPHRASE

12
LETS PRACTICE
  • ORIGINAL STATEMENT When we paraphrase, we
    should make sure to allow our original voice to
    explain the text to our readers without stealing
    the original tone or sentence patterns.
    Paraphrasing is always better than quoting too
    much.
  • PARAPHRASE ATTEMPT Diana Agy, in her text How
    to Paraphrase seems to privilege paraphrasing in
    place of quoting too much. She talks about
    how important it is for a writer to know his or
    her sources and to talk the research to his or
    her readers (Agy13).
  • Any common terms?
  • Yes Paraphrase
  • Notice it is not in quotation marks because it
    is a common term.
  • 2. Are there any unique or key words that we
    borrowed from original writer?
  • Yes quoting too much and talk
  • Notice how we put this phrase in quotation marks
    because we borrow the original writers language.
    We think this is an important phrase.
  • 3. Did the author introduce the source and cite
    it at the end?
  • Yes. She introduced the source here, and she
    cites it at the end.
  • This helps us know where this paraphrase begins
    and where it ends.


13
PRINT THIS SLIDE TO USE WITH THE UPCOMING
ACTIVITIES
  • HERE IS AN ORIGINAL TEXT
  • The more we write and talk about writing, the
    better writers we become. The Writing Fellow
    Program provides an outlet for students to chat
    with peers about any stage of writing
    prewriting, drafting, revising, close editing,
    etc Writing Fellows use redirection and sample
    writings to help students better understand the
    whys of each writing stage.
  • Text by Diana Agy.

14
INCORRECT PARAPHRASINGSample 1
  • Students can benefit from the Writing Fellow
    Program by understanding redirection and
    considering sample papers. The more students
    talk about writing, the more skilled they become.
  • Did the writer use common terms?
  • Yes writing and students . She did not
    need quotation for these common words.
  • Did the writer borrow key words and use
    quotations correctly?
  • YES, she borrowed key words,
  • BUT
  • She did not use quotations with borrowed
    language.
  • To correct, she should use quotation marks with
    redirection, sample papers and talk about
    writing
  • Did the writer introduce the source and cite it
    at then end?
  • No. We do not know where the writer begins and
    ends and where the source begins and ends.

15
ACTIVITY 4
  • EXPLAIN IN A PARAGRAPH WHY THE PREVIOUS EXAMPLE
    WAS AN INCORRECT PARAPHRASE. TALK TO YOUR
    INSTRUCTOR ABOUT WHY THAT PARAPHRASE IS
    PLAGIARIZED.

16
CORRECT PARAPHRASE
  • Correct paraphrasing
  • In the text by Diana Agy, she explains the
    importance of communication and social activities
    centered around writing. She particularly
    targets a program she calls Writing Fellow
    Program, and she explains how these tutors help
    engage their tutees through various methods. Her
    text also highlights the importance of
    understanding writing as a process and that we
    become better writers if we understand the whys
    of various writing stages (qtd. In Paraphrase
    GPAW).
  • Does it use common terms
  • Yes writing (writers) , importance,
    understandingno need for quotation marks.
  • Does it borrow key words and cite them with
    quotation marks?
  • Yeswriting stages and whys
  • Does it introduce and cite the source correctly?
  • Yes In the text, and (qtd. In
    Paraphrase GPAW).

17
ACTIVITY 5
  • EXPLAIN IN ONE PARAGRAPH WHY THE PREVIOUS SLIDE
    IS A CORRECT PARAPHRASE. TALK TO YOUR INSTRUCTOR
    ABOUT WHAT YOU ARE LEARNING ABOUT PARAPHRASE.
  • NOTE PLEASE DO NOT SIMPLY LIST THE THREE RULES
    OVER AGAINTALK ABOUT WHAT YOU ARE LEARNING ABOUT
    THE PARAPHRASE FROM THIS LAST EXAMPLE.

18
THE MOST COMMON PROBLEM
  • The main problem is using the original source as
    a mirror.
  • Mirroring occurs when the writer imitates the
    original sentence patterns and voice. Some
    writers have learned that as long as they replace
    the original text with their own language, then
    all is well. But, they are mistaken!
  • When we paraphrase we are putting someone elses
    information in our own sentence patterns. Not
    only must the wording be different, but the
    rhythm and pattern must also be our own.
  • We think that we are paraphrasing when we are
    rearranging our sources sentences while we keep
    their original sentence patterns, BUT WE ARE NOT.
  • Be very careful here. This is the most common
    form of plagiarism.

19
Consider this exampleIncorrect
paraphrase--plagiarism
  • Original
  • Ask not what your country can do for you. But
    ask what you can do for your country.
  • Incorrect Paraphrase
  • Dont ask what your nation can give you instead,
    consider what you are willing to do for your
    country.
  • Notice the rhythm, the sentence pattern, and the
    sound are exactly the same.
  • Notice also, although there are some word
    changes, the second example only
  • mimics the firstit does NOT
    paraphrase the first.
  • Correct Paraphrase
  • John Kennedys introduction stresses the
    importance of citizens becoming civically engaged
    in their countrys affairs.

20
ACTIVITY 6
  • WRITE A PARAGRAPH EXPLAINING THE DIFFERENCE
    BETWEEN THE INCORRECT PARAPHRASE AND THE CORRECT
    PARAPHRASE IN THE PREVIOUS SLIDE (slide 19).
  • BE SPECIFIC AS YOU TALK TO YOUR TEACHER ABOUT
    WHAT YOU ARE LEARNING.

21
ACTIVITY 7
  • CONSIDER THE NEXT EXAMPLE.
  • Read it carefully. Know it.
  • Students who submit plagiarized writing
    (purposefully or unintentionally misquoting,
    incorrectly paraphrasing, or incorrectly citing
    sources) run the risk of academic dishonesty and
    producing poor writing. Know the research, and
    talk it to your reader. Understand the
    conventions of citing sources, and understand the
    difference between quoting and paraphrasing.
  • Text by Joe Schmoe from page 23 in a book titled
    Sources.
  • 1. Write an INCORRECT PARAPHRASE of the above
    text , and follow the chart on slide 14. Go
    through each paraphrase process, and explain why
    your incorrect paraphrase is incorrect.
  • 2. Write a CORRECT PARAPHRASE of the above text,
    and follow the chart on slide 16. Go through
    each paraphrase process, and explain why your
    correct paraphrase is correct.

22
PARAPHRASE APPLICATIONACTIVITY 8
  • Revisit your entire essay.
  • Write down each of your paraphrases.
  • Find the original article.
  • Highlight the sections where the paraphrases
    comes from.
  • Staple the original source text to your work so
    your instructor can scan it.
  • Answer the following questions.
  • Does your paraphrase
  • mirror the rhythm of the original?
  • have similar
    sentence patterns?

  • sound like the original?

23
ReflectionACTIVITY 9 PLEASE ANSWER IN 3-4
SENTENCES EACH
  • What have you learned from this workshop?
  • How will your writing change as a result of
    completing this workshop?
  • If you have any questions, please contact
  • (jacobsgeraldii_at_jccmi.edu)
  • (agydianam_at_jccmi.edu)
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