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History of historic preservation: A national and global perspective

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Title: History of historic preservation: A national and global perspective


1
History of historic preservation A national and
global perspective
2
Historical Museums and Historic Preservation
  • Preservation Goals
  • Commemoration - 1800s
  • Recordation - 1930s
  • Evaluation - 1970s
  • Protection
  • Acquisition
  • Deaccession
  • Adaptation
  • Conservation

3
Historical Museums and Historic Preservation
  • Museum Goals
  • Collection - 1800s - 1950s
  • Description - 1950s - 1960s
  • Analysis - 1970s - present

4
1786 - 1827
  • Peale Museum in Philadelphia, opened by Charles
    Willson Peale, painter and collector
  • Collections include
  • Art
  • Natural history
  • American Indian artifacts
  • American history exhibits

5
1813
  • Philadelphia State House (Independence Hall)
    saved from demolition

6
1824
  • The Historical Society of Pennsylvania founded
    in Philadelphia
  • Library holdings include
  • Genealogical information
  • Manuscripts
  • Printed historical information

7
1835
  • Eugène Viollet-le-Duc appointed to supervise the
    restoration of the basilica of St. Madeleine in
    Vézelay, France

8
1846
  • Smithsonian Institution established as national
    museum by act of US Congress
  • Main building, the Castle, designed by James
    Renwick, finished in 1855

9
1853
  • Mount Vernon Ladies' Association formed to save
    Mount Vernon by Ann Pamela Cunningham and
    volunteers

10
1872
  • Yellowstone National Park designated a federally
    protected area

11
1876
  • Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia
  • Celebrates 100 anniversary of US
  • Introduces telephone, telegraph, linoleum,
    typewriter
  • New England Kitchen of 1776 exhibit

12
New England Kitchen of 1776
13
1877
  • Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings
    founded by William Morris and Philip Webb in
    London, England

14
Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings
Manifesto, 1877."A society coming before the
public with such a name as that above written
must needs explain how, and why, it proposes to
protect those ancient buildings which, to most
people doubtless, seem to have so many and such
excellent protectors. This, then, is the
explanation we offer. No doubt within the last
fifty years a new interest, almost like another
sense, has arisen in these ancient monuments of
art and they have become the subject of one of
the most interesting of studies, and of an
enthusiasm, religious, historical, artistic,
which is one of the undoubted gains of our time
yet we think that if the present treatment of
them be continued, our descendants will find them
useless for study and chilling to enthusiasm. We
think that those last fifty years of knowledge
and attention have done more for their
destruction than all the foregoing centuries of
revolution, violence and contempt
15
It is for all these buildings, therefore, of all
times and styles, that we plead, and call upon
those who have to deal with them, to put
Protection in the place of Restoration, to stave
off decay by daily care, to prop a perilous wall
or mend a leaky roof by such means as are
obviously meant for support or covering, and show
no pretence of other art, and otherwise to resist
all tampering with either the fabric or ornament
of the building as it stands if it has become
inconvenient for its present use, to raise
another building rather than alter or enlarge the
old one in fine to treat our ancient buildings
as monuments of a bygone art, created by bygone
manners, that modern art cannot meddle with
without destroying. Thus, and thus only, shall we
escape the reproach of our learning being turned
into a snare to us thus, and thus only can we
protect our ancient buildings, and hand them down
instructive and venerable to those that come
after us. Society for the Protection of Ancient
Buildings Manifesto, 1877.
16
1879
  • Boston Antiquarian Club founded to save the Old
    State House from being moved to Chicago for
    World's Fair
  • Reorganized as Bostonian Society in 1881 to
    operate museum in Old State House

17
1880
  • The Seven Lamps of Architecture by John Ruskin
    published in London
  • In the Lamp of Memory he advocated for
    conservation instead of restoration of old
    buildings

18
Neither by the public, nor by those who have the
care of public monuments, is the true meaning of
the word restoration understood. It means the
most total destruction which a building can
suffer a destruction out of which no remnants
can be gathered a destruction accompanied with
false description of the thing destroyed. Do not
let us deceive ourselves in this important
matter it is impossible, as impossible as to
raise the dead, to restore anything that has ever
been great or beautiful in architecture.
John Ruskin, The Lamp of Memory, Seven Lamps of
Architecture, 1880.
19
1882
  • Ancient Monuments Act enacted by UK parliament.
  • Provides for government to have the authority and
    funding for maintaining monuments, the
    appointment of monument inspectors, a schedule
    list of monuments and legal penalties for persons
    who deface monuments

20
1889
  • First national funding for historic preservation
    in USUS Congress appropriates 2,000 to
    preserve Casa Grande ruin in Arizona

21
1895
  • National Trust founded in Great Britain as a
    charity to acquire and protect threatened
    coastline, countryside and buildings

22
1898
  • Fanueil Hall (1762/1806) in Boston, rebuilt to
    make fireproof

23
1899
  • John Dewey in The School and Society, encourages
    teachers to provide students with direct
    experience of history by visiting historic places
  • The aim of education is to enable individuals to
    continue their education.

24
1901
  • William Sumner Appleton founded the Society for
    the Preservation of New England Antiquities
    (SPNEA), now known as Historic New England

25
Appletons Five Principles
  • Proceed slowly and when in doubt, wait
  • Hire experienced professionals to do the work
  • Document every stage, taking plenty of pictures
  • Save samples of the originals as evidence when
    anything must be replaced
  • Mark new work so that it cannot be later confused
    with the original

26
1906
  • Antiquities Act
  • first national preservation legislation in the US
  • designated national monuments on federal land
  • imposes penalties for destroying federally owned
    sites

27
1911
  • Parks Canada founded
  • world's first national park service
  • Currently an agency in Environment Canada

28
Parks Canada
  • Mandate On behalf of the people of Canada, we
    protect and present nationally significant
    examples of Canada's natural and cultural
    heritage, and foster public understanding,
    appreciation and enjoyment in ways that ensure
    the ecological and commemorative integrity of
    these places for present and future generations.

29
1913
  • Wallace Nutting (1861-1941) minister,
    photographer and preservationist, publishes Old
    New England Pictures
  • Over the next several years he acquires and
    restores a Chain of Colonial Picture Houses
    which are open to the public for a fee and serve
    as backdrops for his photographs
  • 1918 - publishes first catalog of reproduction
    furniture
  • 1922 - publishes Beautiful Vermont

30
Wallace Nutting
  • The acquisition of old paneling and its
    installation in rooms which perhaps never had
    any, is legitimate. If the dwelling is
    substantial there is nothing but praise in the
    effort to give it good dress. 1936

31
1916
  • National Park Service established in the US

32
1926
  • John D. Rockefeller, Jr. begins funding support
    for the restoration of Williamsburg, Virginia

33
Colonial Williamsburg
  • Project lead by Rev. W. A. R. Goodwin
  • Buildings on the 130 acre site, weeded to
    preserve 18th century structures, with important
    missing buildings added as replicas, including
    the 1770 Courthouse recreated in 1932.

34
1927 - 1931
  • Storrowton Village erected at Eastern States
    Exposition, West Springfield, MA, as a recreated
    antique village using disassembled buildings from
    Massachusetts and New Hampshire
  • Named for Helen Storrow, benefactor and trustee
    of Eastern States Exposition

35
1929
  • Henry Ford establishes Edison Institute, renamed
    Greenfield Village, in Dearborn, Michigan with
    relocated and replicated historic buildings,
    including a replica of Independence Hall

36
1931
  • Historic Maryland founded in 1931 as the Society
    for the Preservation of Maryland Antiquities.
    Purpose preserving historic buildings,
    neighborhoods, landscapes and archaeological
    sites through outreach, funding and advocacy

37
1931
  • Charleston, South Carolina establishes its "Old
    and Historic District," the country's first
    designated historic district

38
1931
  • The Athens Charter for the Restoration of
    Historic Monuments adopted at the First
    International Congress of Architects and
    Technicians of Historic Monuments in Athens,
    Greece

39
At the Congress in Athens the following seven
main resolutions were made and called "Carta del
Restauro"1. International organizations for
Restoration on operational and advisory levels
are to be established.2. Proposed Restoration
projects are to be subjected to knowledgeable
criticism to prevent mistakes which will cause
loss of character and historical values to the
structures.3. Problems of preservation of
historic sites are to be solved by legislation at
national level for all countries.4. Excavated
sites which are not subject to immediate
restoration should be reburied for protection.5.
Modern techniques and materials may be used in
restoration work.6. Historical sites are to be
given strict custodial protection.7. Attention
should be given to the protection of areas
surrounding historic sites.
40
1933
  • Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS)
    authorized by President Franklin Roosevelt

41
1935
  • Historic Sites Act passed by US Congress to
    establish historic preservation policy it
    "established policy ...to preserve for public use
    historic sites, buildings and objects of national
    significance for the inspiration and benefit of
    the people of the United States."

Historic Sites Act of 1935 PUBLIC N o . 2 9 2
74TH CONGRESS S. 2 0 7 3 AN ACT To provide
for the preservation of historic American sites,
buildings, objects, and antiquities of national
significance, and for other purposes. Be it
enacted by the Senate and House of
Representatives of the United States of
America in Congress assembled, That it is hereby
declared that it is a national policy to preserve
for public use historic sites, buildings and
objects of national significance for the
inspiration and benefit of the people of the
United States.
42
1936
  • Vieux Carré established as historic district in
    New Orleans, Louisiana

43
1941
  • Lewis Mumford, encourages architects to seek a
    new direction for the future within the context
    of regionalism, rather than just reproducing
    historical designs in The South in Architecture.

44
Lewis Mumford
  • Let us be clear about this, the forms that
    people used in other civilizations or in other
    periods of our own countrys history were
    intimately part of the whole structure of their
    life. There is no method of mechanically
    reproducing these forms or bringing them back to
    life it is a piece of rank materials to attempt
    to duplicate some earlier form, because of its
    delight to the eye, without realizing how empty a
    form is without the life that once supported it.
    There is no such thing as a modern colonial house
    any more than there is such a thing as a modern
    Tudor house.

45
Lewis Mumford
  • If one seeks to reproduce such a building in
    our own day, every mark on it will betray the
    fact that it is a fake, and the harder the
    architect works to conceal that fact, the more
    patent the fact will beThe great lesson of
    historyand this applies to all the artsis that
    the past cannot be captured except in spirit. We
    cannot live another persons life we cannot,
    except in the spirit of a costume ball Our task
    is not to imitate the past, but to understand it,
    so that we may face the opportunity of our own
    day and deal with them in an equally creative
    spirit.
  • From The South in Architecture, 1941.

46
1946
  • Old Sturbridge Village in Sturbridge,
    Massachusetts opened to public
  • Recreated village used to display collection of
    antiques with guides in period costume
  • Mixture of moved and reassembled buildings and
    recreated conjectural historic buildings

47
1947
  • Shelburne Museum in Shelburne, Vermont, founded
    by Electra Havemeyer Webb, collector of American
    folk art.
  • Of 39 exhibition buildings, 25 are historic. Most
    were relocated to the site.

48
1949
  • National Trust for Historic Preservation
    established by an act of the US Congress as
    membership-based organization partially supported
    by federal appropriation
  • Headquartered in Washington, D.C.
  • Currently has 270,000 members, 6 regional
    offices, 28 historic sites

49
(No Transcript)
50
1952
  • Historic Deerfield incorporated by Mr. Mrs.
    Henry Flynt of Greenwich, CT, to preserve the
    historic Deerfield, MA village with some
    relocated houses as a public museum

51
Mission Statement
  • Historic Deerfield, Incorporated, is dedicated
    to the heritage and preservation of Deerfield,
    Massachusetts, and the Connecticut River Valley. 
    Its museums and programs provide today's
    audiences with experiences that create an
    understanding and appreciation of New England's
    historic villages and countryside.

52
1958
  • Upper Canada Village, Morrisburg, Ontario,
    established as a heritage park as part of the St.
    Lawrence Seaway project. It depicts a historic
    village of 1866, using buildings relocated from
    areas flooded by the construction.

53
1963
  • Destruction of Pennsylvania Station in New York
    City mobilizes preservation movement in US

54
"Any city gets what it admires, will pay for,
and, ultimately, deserves. Even when we had Penn
Station, we couldnt afford to keep it clean. We
want and deserve tin-can architecture in a
tinhorn culture. And we will probably be judged
not by the monuments we build but by those we
have destroyed. - "Farewell to Penn Station,"
New York Times editorial, October 30, 1963
55
1964
  • First university degree in Historic Preservation
    established at Columbia University by James
    Marston Fitch

56
1964
  • International Charter on the Conservation and
    Restoration of Monuments and Sites (Venice
    Charter) adopted by the Second Congress of
    Architects and Specialists of Historic Buildings

57
Imbued with a message from the past, the historic
monuments of generations of people remain to the
present day as living witnesses of their age-old
traditions. People are becoming more and more
conscious of the unity of human values and regard
ancient monuments as a common heritage. The
common responsibility to safeguard them for
future generations is recognized. It is our duty
to hand them on in the full richness of their
authenticity.Preamble, Venice Charter, 1964
58
1965
  • International Council on Monuments and Sites
    (ICOMOS), an international non-governmental
    organization of professionals dedicated to the
    conservation of the world's historic monuments
    and sites, was established by UNESCO

59
1966
  • National Historic Preservation Act passed by US
    Congress established
  • preservation roles for federal, state and local
    levels of government
  • the National Register of Historic Places
  • the concept of historic districts
  • the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation

60
1967
  • Civil Amenities Act passed in England
  • Provides for local authorities to designate
    conservation areas
  • Extends concept of heritage conservation to move
    beyond preservation (i.e. protection) to the
    management of change (i.e. enhancement)
  • Currently over 8,000 conservation areas and
    500,000 heritage buildings are listed in England
  • Application, review and approval from local
    authorities required for
  • Demolitions
  • Minor developments and exterior alterations
  • Tree cutting or lopping

61
1968
  • Association for Preservation Technology (APT) was
    founded by US and Canadian preservationists.Opera
    ting in English and in French, it grows to 1500
    members from 19 countries by 1998.

62
1972
  • Convention Concerning the Protection of World
    Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the
    General Conference of UNESCO, establishing the
    World Heritage Site program

63
1973
  • Heritage Canada Foundation started as a
    registered charity and membership-based
    organization

64
Heritage Canada
  • Mandate "...preserve and demonstrate and to
    encourage the preservation and demonstration of
    the nationally significant historic,
    architectural, natural and scenic heritage of
    Canada with a view to stimulating and promoting
    the interest of the people of Canada in that
    heritage."

65
1976
  • US Bicentennial
  • Major patriotic cultural event celebrated at
    national and local levels

66
1977
  • Main Street Project launched by National Trust
    for Historic Preservation to help advocate for
    downtown revitalization
  • National Main Street Center established in 1980
    with financial support from various federal
    agencies
  • Evolves into a fee-based consulting service

67
1978
  • US Congress passes Revenue Act that established
    investment tax credits for rehabilitation of
    historic buildings
  • Revised in 1986
  • Certification regulations codified in 36 CFR 67

68
1978
  • The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for
    Historic Preservation Projects developed by the
    National Park Service and codified in the Code of
    Federal Regulations 36 CFR 68
  • Revised in 1983

69
1979
  • National Council for Preservation Education
    (NCPE) established

70
1982
  • CHARTER FOR THE PRESERVATION OF QUEBEC'S
    HERITAGE(Deschambault Declaration)
  • Adopted by the Conseil des monuments et des sites
    du Québec, ICOMOS Canada French-Speaking
    Committee, April 1982

71
Deschambault Declaration
  • DEFINITION OF HERITAGE AND PRESERVATION
  • Heritage is defined as "the combined creations
    and products of nature and man, in their
    entirety, that make up the environment in which
    we live in space and time.Heritage is a reality,
    a possession of the community, and a rich
    inheritance that may be passed on, which invites
    our recognition and our participation."(Quebec
    Association for the Interpretation of the
    National Heritage, Committee on Terminology, July
    1980).

72
Deschambault Declaration
  • Article VIII THE REVIVAL OF OUR HERITAGE MUST BE
    COMPATIBLE WITH THE MAINTENANCE, AND EVEN THE
    IMPROVEMENT, OF ITS SPECIFIC IDENTITY, INTEGRITY
    AND CULTURAL VALUES
  • Article VIII-B We must promote the continuous use
    of our heritage, without any interruption of
    occupation.
  • Article VIII-C Whenever we decide to make new use
    of heritage material, we must ensure the
    preservation of all the important characteristics
    of that material.Any changes that are made must,
    at all times, be reversible.
  • Article VIII-D The selection of a new function
    for heritage material must avoid excessive use
    and the deterioration that would result from such
    use.

73
Deschambault Declaration
  • Article IX THE PRESERVATION OF THE DYNAMIC AND
    FUNCTIONAL CHARACTER OF OUR HERITAGE IS ENSURED
    BY LOCAL RESIDENTS WHO ARE AN INTEGRAL PART OF
    THAT HERITAGE AND CONTRIBUTE TO ITS PROTECTION
    AND ITS VITALITY
  • Article IX-A In using our heritage, we must
    preserve or reintroduce everyday life rather than
    the artificial life of museums and tourist
    centres. Preference should be given to
    traditional occupations and we must, in any
    case, respect the needs and legitimate
    aspirations of the inhabitants, even if this
    requires us to adopt uses that are different from
    the original uses.

74
Deschambault Declaration
  • Article IX THE PRESERVATION OF THE DYNAMIC AND
    FUNCTIONAL CHARACTER OF OUR HERITAGE IS ENSURED
    BY LOCAL RESIDENTS WHO ARE AN INTEGRAL PART OF
    THAT HERITAGE AND CONTRIBUTE TO ITS PROTECTION
    AND ITS VITALITY
  • Article IX-B In other words, it is necessary to
    encourage respect for the established rights of
    the local population. The housing function should
    take precedence over all other uses and be given
    first priority.

75
Deschambault Declaration
  • Article X OUR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS MUST
    PROMOTE THE IDEA THAT EVERYONE HAS TO TAKE
    RESPONSIBILITY FOR PRESERVING THE NATIONAL
    HERITAGE
  • Article X-A Our educational system must
    disseminate knowledge pertaining to our heritage,
    to make people aware of its value and of the need
    to preserve it.
  • Article X-B The educational system must ensure
    that traditions are passed on, and thereby
    encourage the training of artisans, technicians
    and professionals who will be able to work to
    safeguard our heritage.

76
Deschambault Declaration
  • Article X OUR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS MUST
    PROMOTE THE IDEA THAT EVERYONE HAS TO TAKE
    RESPONSIBILITY FOR PRESERVING THE NATIONAL
    HERITAGE
  • Article X-C Other educational authorities (the
    family, newspapers and magazines, radio and TV,
    etc.) must also do their part in furthering
    heritage education. In particular, heritage
    practitioners and specialists increase awareness
    through the communication of their knowledge to
    the general public.

77
1983
  • English Heritage established under National
    Heritage Act. Officially known as the Historic
    Buildings and Monuments Commission for England,
    it is the statutory adviser to the government on
    the historic environment.

78
English Heritage
  • Partially funded by government and partially from
    revenues from its properties and services,
    English Heritage works in partnership with the
    central government departments, local
    authorities, voluntary bodies and the private
    sector toConserve and enhance the historic
    environment Broaden public access to the
    heritageIncrease people's understanding of the
    past

79
English Heritage
  • Meets those responsibilities by  acting as a
    national and international champion for the
    heritagegiving grants for the conservation of
    historic buildings, monuments and
    landscapesmaintaining registers of England's
    most significant historic buildings, monuments
    and landscapesadvising on the preservation of
    the historic environmentencouraging broader
    public involvement with the heritagepromoting ed
    ucation and researchcaring for Stonehenge and
    over 400 other historic properties on behalf of
    the nationmaintaining the National Monuments
    Record as the public archive of the
    heritagegenerating income for the benefit of
    the historic environment

80
1984
  • Statue of Liberty restoration begins
  • Listed on World Heritage site
  • 62 million federal project with substantial
    private fund raising
  • American Express promotion raises 1.7 million
  • Reopened to public in 1986

81
1988
  • 11 Most Endangered Places annual list launched
    by National Trust for Historic Preservation
  • Soon many statewide and local preservation
    organizations develop similar lists to drawn
    public attention to preservation threats
  • Entire state of Vermont listed in 1993 and 2004

82
1990
  • Town Country Planning Act and the Planning
    (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act
    enacted in England Wales
  • Listed buildings designated if of national
    importance
  • Consent required for demolitions and alterations
    of listed buildings from local authority's
    planning department
  • Reviewed by planning or conservation officer (and
    occasionally by English Heritage)
  • Local authorities can designate conservation
    areas of 'special architectural or historic
    interest' worth protecting or enhancing with
    character or appearance assessed according to
    local and regional criteria
  • Demolitions and alterations to buildings in
    conservation area require local consent
  • Violations considered criminal offences

83
1991
  • New Orleans Charter drafted jointly by members of
    The Association for Preservation Technology
    International (APT) and American Institute for
    Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works (AIC)

84
New Orleans Charter Arising from a concern for
the coexistence of historic structures and the
artifacts housed within themRecognizing our
responsibility as stewards to provide the highest
levels of care for the structures and other
artifacts placed in our careRecognizing that
many significant structures are used to house,
display and interpret artifactsRecognizing that
historic structures and the contents placed
within them deserve equal consideration in
planning for their careRecognizing that
technologies and approaches will continue to
change and Recognizing that those involved in
preservation are part of a continuum, and are
neither the first nor the last to affect the
preservation of historic structures and
artifactsWe, therefore, adopt these principles
as governing the preservation of historic
structures and the artifacts housed in them
85
1.Institutions' statements of mission should
recognize the need to preserve the unique
character of both the historic structure and
artifacts.2.The preservation needs of the
historic structure and of the artifacts should be
defined only after study adequate to serve as the
foundation for the preservation of
both.3.Requisite levels of care should be
established through the interdisciplinary
collaboration of all qualified professionals with
potential to contribute.4.Appropriate
preservation must reflect application of
recognized preservation practices, including
assessment of risk before and after intervention,
and the expectation of future intervention.5.Meas
ures which promote the preservation of either the
historic structure or the artifacts, at the
expense of the other, should not be considered.
86
6.Regarding public use, the right of future
generations to access and enjoyment must outweigh
immediate needs.7.Appropriate preservation
strategies should be guided by the specific needs
and characteristics of the historic structure and
artifacts.8.Appropriate documentation of all
stages of a project is essential, and should be
readily accessible and preserved for the
future.9.The most appropriate action in a
particular case is one which attains the desired
goal with the least intervention to the historic
structure and the artifacts.10.Proposed
preservation strategies should be appropriate to
the ability of the institution to implement and
maintain them.
87
1995
  • The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for
    Historic Preservation Projects were revised as
    the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the
    Treatment of Historic Properties and codified in
    the Code of Federal Regulations 36 CFR 68

88
CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS TITLE 36--PARKS,
FORESTS, AND PUBLIC PROPERTY CHAPTER I-NATIONAL
PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIORPART
68--THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR'S STANDARDS FOR
THE TREATMENT OF HISTORIC PROPERTIES
  • s68.1 Intent The intent of this part is to set
    forth standards for the treatment of historic
    properties, preservation, containing standards
    for preservation, rehabilitation, restoration,
    and reconstruction. These standards apply to all
    proposed grant-in-aid development projects
    assisted through the National Historic
    Preservation Fund. s68.2 Definitions The
    standards for the treatment of historic
    properties will be used by the National Park
    Service and State historic preservation officers
    and their staff members in planning, undertaking,
    and supervising grant-assisted projects for
    preservation, rehabilitation, restoration, and
    reconstruction.

89
  • For the purposes of this part(a) Preservation
    means the act or process of applying measures
    necessary to sustain the existing form,
    integrity, and materials of an historic property.
    Work, including preliminary measures to protect
    and stabilize the property, generally focuses
    upon the ongoing maintenance and repair of
    historic materials and features rather than
    extensive replacement and new construction. New
    exterior additions are not within the scope of
    this treatment however, the limited and
    sensitive upgrading of mechanical, electrical,
    and plumbing systems and other code-required work
    to make properties functional is appropriate
    within a preservation project.(b)
    Rehabilitation means the act or process of making
    possible an efficient compatible use for a
    property through repair, alterations, and
    additions while preserving those portions or
    features which convey its historical, cultural,
    or architectural values.

90
  • (c) Restoration means the act or process of
    accurately depicting the form, features, and
    character of a property as it appeared at a
    particular period of time by means of the removal
    of features from other periods in its history and
    reconstruction of missing features from the
    restoration period. The limited and sensitive
    upgrading of mechanical, electrical, and plumbing
    systems and other code-required work to make
    properties functional is appropriate within a
    restoration project.(d) Reconstruction means
    the act of process of depicting, by means of new
    construction, the form, features, and detailing
    of a non-surviving site, landscape, building,
    structure, or object for the purpose of
    replicating its appearance at a specific period
    of time and in its historic location.

91
  • s68.3 Standards. The set of standards--preservatio
    n, rehabilitation, restoration, or
    reconstruction--will apply to a property
    undergoing treatment, depending upon the
    property's significance, existing physical
    condition, the extent of documentation available,
    and interpretive goals, when applicable. The
    Standards will be applied taking into
    consideration the economic and technical
    feasibility of each project.

92
  • (a) Preservation. (1) A property will be used as
    it was historically, or be given a new use that
    maximizes the retention of distinctive materials,
    features, spaces, and spatial relationships.
    Where a treatment and use have not been
    identified, a property will be protected and, if
    necessary, stabilized until additional work may
    be undertaken.(2) The historic character of a
    property will be retained and preserved. The
    replacement of intact or repairable historic
    materials or alteration of features, spaces, and
    spatial relationships that characterize a
    property will be avoided.(3) Each property will
    be recognized as a physical record of its time,
    place, and use. Work needed to stabilize,
    consolidate, and conserve existing historic
    materials and features will be physically and
    visually compatible, identifiable upon close
    inspection, and properly documented for future
    research.(4) Changes to a property that have
    acquired historic significance in their own right
    will be retained and preserved.

93
  • (5) Distinctive materials, features, finishes,
    and construction techniques or examples of
    craftsmanship that characterize a property will
    be preserved.(6) The existing condition of
    historic features will be evaluated to determine
    the appropriate level of intervention needed.
    Where the severity of deterioration requires
    repair or limited replacement of a distinctive
    feature, the new material will match the old in
    composition, design, color, and texture.(7)
    Chemical or physical treatments, if appropriate,
    will be undertaken using the gentlest means
    possible. Treatments that cause damage to
    historic materials will not be used.(8)
    Archeological resources will be protected and
    preserved in place. If such resources must be
    disturbed, mitigation measures will be undertaken.

94
  • (b) Rehabilitation. (1) A property will be used
    as it was historically or be given a new use that
    requires minimal change to its distinctive
    materials, features, spaces, and spatial
    relationships.(2) The historic character of a
    property will be retained and preserved. The
    removal of distinctive materials or alteration of
    features, spaces, and spatial relationships that
    characterize a property will be avoided.(3) Each
    property will be recognized as a physical record
    of its time, place, and use. Changes that create
    a false sense of historical development, such as
    adding conjectural features or elements from
    other historic properties, will not be
    undertaken.(4) Changes to a property that have
    acquired historic significance in their own right
    will be retained and preserved.(5) Distinctive
    materials, features, finishes, and construction
    techniques or examples of craftsmanship that
    characterize a property will be preserved.

95
  • (6) Deteriorated historic features will be
    repaired rather than replaced. Where the severity
    of deterioration requires replacement of a
    distinctive feature, the new feature will match
    the old in design, color, texture, and, where
    possible, materials. Replacement of missing
    features will be substantiated by documentary and
    physical evidence.(7) Chemical or physical
    treatments, if appropriate, will be undertaken
    using the gentlest means possible. Treatments
    that cause damage to historic materials will not
    be used.(8) Archeological resources will be
    protected and preserved in place. If such
    resources must be disturbed, mitigation measures
    will be undertaken.(9) New additions, exterior
    alterations, or related new construction will not
    destroy historic materials, features, and spatial
    relationships that characterize the property. The
    new work will be differentiated from the old and
    will be compatible with the historic materials,
    features, size, scale and proportion, and massing
    to protect the integrity of the property and its
    environment.(10) New additions and adjacent or
    related new construction will be undertaken in a
    such a manner that, if removed in the future, the
    essential form and integrity of the historic
    property and its environment would be unimpaired

96
  • (c) Restoration.
  • (1) A property will be used as it was
    historically or be given a new use which reflects
    the property's restoration period.(2) Materials
    and features from the restoration period will be
    retained and preserved. The removal of materials
    or alteration of features, spaces, and spatial
    relationships that characterize the period will
    not be undertaken.(3) Each property will be
    recognized as a physical record of its time,
    place, and use. Work needed to stabilize,
    consolidate and conserve materials and features
    from the restoration period will be physically
    and visually compatible, identifiable upon close
    inspection, and properly documented for future
    research.(4) Materials, features, spaces, and
    finishes that characterize other historical
    periods will be documented prior to their
    alteration or removal.(5) Distinctive materials,
    features, finishes, and construction techniques
    or examples of craftsmanship that characterize
    the restoration period will be preserved.

97
  • (6) Deteriorated features from the restoration
    period will be repaired rather than replaced.
    Where the severity of deterioration requires
    replacement of a distinctive feature, the new
    feature will match the old in design, color,
    texture, and, where possible, materials.(7)
    Replacement of missing features from the
    restoration period will be substantiated by
    documentary and physical evidence. A false sense
    of history will not be created by adding
    conjectural features, features from other
    properties, or by combining features that never
    existed together historically.(8) Chemical or
    physical treatments, if appropriate, will be
    undertaken using the gentlest means possible.
    Treatments that cause damage to historic
    materials will not be used.(9) Archeological
    resources affected by a project will be protected
    and preserved in place. If such resources must be
    disturbed, mitigation measures will be
    undertaken.(10) Designs that were never executed
    historically will not be constructed.

98
  • (d). Reconstruction. (1) Reconstruction will be
    used to depict vanished or non-surviving portions
    of a property when documentary and physical
    evidence is available to permit accurate
    reconstruction with minimal conjecture, and such
    reconstruction is essential to the public
    understanding of the property.(2) Reconstruction
    of a landscape, building, structure, or object in
    its historic location will be preceded by a
    thorough archeological investigation to identify
    and evaluate those features and artifacts which
    are essential to an accurate reconstruction. If
    such resources must be disturbed, mitigation
    measures will be undertaken.(3) Reconstruction
    will include measures to preserve any remaining
    historic materials, features, and spatial
    relationships.

99
  • (4) Reconstruction will be based on the accurate
    duplication of historic features and elements
    substantiated by documentary or physical evidence
    rather than on conjectural designs or the
    availability of different features from other
    historic properties. A reconstructed property
    will re-create the appearance of the
    non-surviving historic property in materials,
    design, color, and texture.(5) A reconstruction
    will be clearly identified as a contemporary
    re-creation.(6) Designs that were never executed
    historically will not be constructed.

100
1995
  • Preserving The Recent Past conference held in
    Chicago
  • Sponsored by the National Park Service, the
    Association for Preservation Technology
    International and others
  • Follow-up conference in 2000 in Philadelphia

101
1995
  • National Trust for Historic Preservation ceases
    publication of Preservation News, which since
    1961 had served as the official journal to "keep
    members and the public informed about
    preservation issues and activities"

102
1998
  • Termination of federal appropriation for support
    of National Trust for Historic Preservation

103
1999
  • Burra Charter adopted by Australia ICOMOS
  • The Burra Charter advocates a cautious approach
    to change do as much as necessary to care for
    the place and to make it useable, but otherwise
    change it as little as possible so that its
    cultural significance is retained.

104
Burra Charter Conservation Principles 
  • Article 2Conservation and management 2.1 Places
    of cultural significance should be
    conserved. 2.2 The aim of conservation is to
    retain the cultural significance of a place. 2.3
    Conservation is an integral part of good
    management of places of cultural
    significance. 2.4 Places of cultural
    significance should be safeguarded and not put at
    risk or left in a vulnerable state. 

105
Burra Charter Conservation Principles 
  • Article 3Cautious approach 3.1Conservation is
    based on a respect for the existing fabric, use,
    associations and meanings. It requires a cautious
    approach of changing as much as necessary but as
    little as possible.The traces of additions,
    alterations and earlier treatments to the fabric
    of a place are evidence of its history and uses
    which may be part of its significance.
    Conservation action should assist and not impede
    their understanding.3.2 Changes to a place
    should not distort the physical or other evidence
    it provides, nor be based on conjecture. 

106
2005
  • 1897 Century Building in St. Louis, MO demolished
    despite local and national preservation efforts
  • National Trust for Historic Preservation
    criticized for supporting demolition while
    profiting from project

107
When Preservation Equals Demolition By BRADFORD
McKEE New York Times, March 31, 2005
St. Louis. FOR 108 years the neo-Classical style
Century Building, with its 10-story marble
facades accented by ornate friezes and pilasters,
graced half a block in downtown St. Louis.But
after 15 years of fighting by local
preservationists it was razed in February to make
way for a garage.The battle for the Century, with
its familiar plot and cast of characters -
preservationists squaring off against developers
and politicians - resembled a typical
preservation dispute. Yet it had an unusual
twist for the first time anyone involved can
remember, the National Trust for Historic
Preservation, the country's most powerful
preservation group, sided with the wreckers. In
fact the redevelopment project that led to the
Century's demise was financed with the national
trust's help.Although the circumstances
surrounding the Century are unusual, critics say
the national trust, a private nonprofit
organization with more than 200,000 members, has
set a dangerous precedent.
108
When Preservation Equals Demolition
For Carolyn Hewes Toft, the president of the
Landmarks Association of St. Louis, which has
become an improbable adversary of the trust, its
position was a violation of its mission to
preserve historic structures. Ms. Toft suggested
that the national trust had lost its integrity
and said that of all the demolitions she had
witnessed, "this loss is by far the most
difficult to accept. Officials at the national
trust said that its part in the demolition
reflects the changing role of preservation, which
they said includes fighting urban sprawl and
reviving entire downtown areas, as well as saving
historic buildings and sites. Increasingly, the
national trust is "using preservation as a tool
for community revitalization," said Richard Moe,
its president. Sacrificing the Century, he added,
was in line with the trust's efforts to broker
the renewal of historic but rundown neighborhoods
like downtown St. Louis, even at the occasional
expense of a treasured building. But for many
preservationists, like Michael Tomlan, the
director of the graduate program in historic
preservation at Cornell University, that price is
too high. What the national trust did, Mr. Tomlan
said, was wrong. "It's morally and in any number
of senses ethically inappropriate. It violates
preservation's Hippocratic oath if you can't be
supportive, for gosh sakes shut up."
109
2006
  • English Heritage introduces Conservation
    Principles for the Sustainable Management of the
    Historic Environment 

110
Conservation Principles for the Sustainable
Management of the Historic Environment
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2007-2008
  • National Trust for Historic Preservation
    addresses sustainability

120
2007-2008
  • National Trust for Historic Preservation
    addresses sustainability

121
2007-2008
  • National Trust for Historic Preservation
    addresses sustainability

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