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ALTERNATIVES TO REALISM / POWER POLITICS

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ALTERNATIVES TO REALISM / POWER POLITICS Liberalism Feminism Peace studies Constructivism Post-modernism Decision-making REALISM & LIBERALISM COMPARED issue realism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ALTERNATIVES TO REALISM / POWER POLITICS


1
ALTERNATIVES TO REALISM / POWER POLITICS
  • Liberalism
  • Feminism
  • Peace studies
  • Constructivism
  • Post-modernism
  • Decision-making

2
REALISM LIBERALISM COMPARED
  • issue realism liberalism
  • human nature selfish
    altruistic
  • antagonistic cooperative
  • actors unitary states pluralized
    states non-state
  • states autonomous interdependent
  • state interests conflicting often convergent
  • gains relative absolute
  • relations conflict
    harmony
  • sources of policy mostly external mainly
    internal
  • ends security, order
    equity, justice
  • means self-help intntl law
  • power max. cooperation
  • role of IGOs/law minimal
    significant
  • system anarchy
    society or community

3
Strengths and Weakness of Realism and Liberalism
Explaining the Post-9/11 World
4
THE LIBERAL TRIPOD
  • 1. The democratic peace
  • 2. Interdependence/commercial pacifism/
    Manchester School
  • 3. International Institutions
  • web of norms, rules, procedures
  • solve Collective Action problems
  • produce Global Public Goods

5
Regime Types
  • Democratic (liberal illiberal)
  • western fear re Islamic democracy
  • 1-person, 1-vote, 1-time
  • authoritarian/dictatorships
  • totalitarian
  • theocracy
  • monarchy
  • note national/domestic level of analysis how
    differences among states affect their foreign
    policies

6
The Democratic Peace
  • Kantian origins (pacific nature of republics),
    later Pres. Woodrow Wilson (contrast w/ Lenin)
  • democracies no gt or lt war-prone than other regime
    types
  • But strong historical pattern democracies almost
    never wage war against one another. Also, rarely
    ever in opposing alliances (though often engaged
    in violent conflict with non-democracies, and
    often successful)
  • thus, concept of democratic peace, democracies as
    forming zone of peace or security community
    (though transition to democracy can be unstable
    and violent)
  • Why democratic peace?
  • Checks balances?
  • Public opinion?
  • Economic interdependence?
  • Democratic culture Used to resolving
    differences peacefully?
  • Long-term implications? End of history?

7
IDEALIZED MODEL OF RATIONAL DECISION MAKING
  • 1. Clear definition of national interest goals
  • 2. Gather full / perfect information
  • 3. Analysis of all policy options
  • Likelihood of success
  • Costs benefits, risks
  • Transitive preferences
  • 4. Maximizing / optimizing choice
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ----------
  • 5. Implementation
  • 6. Evaluation of feedback
  • 7. Correction

8
More on RATIONALITY
  • Rationality as property of individuals
  • transitive ordering of preferences
  • state as unitary actor assumption
  • how define national interest
  • Role of assumptions (as if) models
  • unitary actor
  • perfect information
  • maximizing behavior
  • 2 uses of RAM revealed posited preference

9
Sources of deviation from rationality
  • Misperception more likely across cultural
    language barriers
  • Affective (emotional) bias personality
    idiosyncrasies, paranoia, ethnocentrism
  • Cognitive bias/dissonance wishful thinking,
    false analogy (evoked set)
  • Group Think how group dynamics affect d-m
    process

10
Common Misperceptions
  • Others (states or alliances) more unified,
    coherent than they actually are (SU China
    during Cold War)
  • others behavior always intentional and planned,
    w/o allowing for chance or accident (US bombing
    of Chinese embassy in Belgrade)
  • overestimating ones own capabilities and
    influence relative to others (WW1)
  • belief that others understand you are not a
    threat
  • belief in ones own inherent morality, others
    evilness (mirror image)

11
3 dimensions of Crisis Situations
  • Threat/stakes high---------------low
  • decision time short--------------long
  • awareness surprise---anticipated

  • implication expect more deviations from
    rationality. Why?

12
Feminist IR points to gendered nature of how we
think about IR
  • Feminine traits
  • Emotional, illogical
  • Complacent
  • Weak
  • Passive
  • Dependent
  • Follower
  • Suitable environments
  • Private
  • Domestic
  • ordered
  • Masculine traits
  • Rationality, logic
  • Ambitious
  • Strong
  • Active, aggressive
  • Autonomous
  • Leadership
  • Suitable environments
  • Public
  • Political
  • Anarchic

13
Feminist IR (continued) psychological
hypothesis relation to primary caretaker and
role of similarities differences in
socialization
  • Masculine behaviors
  • emphasize abstract rules
  • who is right wrong
  • argument/negotiation as means of conflict
    resolution
  • fluidity of relationships (difference,
    separateness)
  • Feminine behaviors
  • emphasize context
  • mutual responsibility
  • group cohesion, loyalty
  • Stress similarity, connectedness
  • Enduring relationships

14
Feminist IR (cont.)
  • Some consequences of these socially constructed
    gender roles
  • anarchy/sovereignty/autonomy/independence/individu
    ality reflect how males tend to interact (eg, the
    Marlboro man)
  • in contrast, connectedness, interdependence,
    cohesion are more characteristic of females
  • Feminist thought not monolithic. One main
    difference
  • Essentialist feminism (core bio diff) v.
    Liberal feminism (M F )
  • Margaret Thatcher and Madeleine Albright as
    exceptions that prove the rule

15
PEACE STUDIES
  • ACTIVISM, participation, integration of theory
    practice rather than objectivity, scholarly
    attachment (realism is ideology, not neutral)
  • WAR is not normal part of IR is presumptively
    bad.
  • MILITARISM as
  • glorification of war, force, violence
  • structuring of society around war,
    military-industrial complex
  • making resort to war more likely
  • assoc. w/ states, hence states state system
    need to be transformed

16
Peace Studies (cont.)
  • POSITIVE PEACE
  • --not just (temp) absence of war
  • --also resolves underlying causes
  • --provides political equality, human
    rights
  • --concept of structural violence
  • PEACE MOVEMENTS as strategy, means toward end.
  • NONVIOLENCE as philosophy, practice, tool of
    powerless.
  • Renunciation of force
  • not passive, but active in
  • resolving conflict
  • preventing violence
  • standing up to injustice
  • associated with M. Gandhi Martin Luther King,
    Jr.

17
CONSTRUCTIVISM
  • social reality is what we make of it, a matter of
    how we construct it, how ideas, norms culture
    shape it. Note the contrast between this
    ideational emphasis and the realist emphasis on
    material capabilities.
  • key constructivist concepts
  • identity how created expressed
  • norms how formed diffused agents
    structures how codetermined
  • From a constructivist perspective, realism
    becomes a set of self-fulfilling prophecies. To
    focus on one key realist concept, anarchy is
    what we make of it
  • More specifically, consider, for example, the
    question of whether China is a threat?
    Constructivists say, if we treat China as a
    threat (eg, containment, strategic competitor),
    then it is highly likely that it will in fact
    become one.
  • Share w/ post-modernists the emphasis on lack of
    a stable, objective reality unlike
    post-modernists, however, constructivists attempt
    to offer a positive alternative

18
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