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The Murders of Juarez, Mexico


The Murders of Juarez, Mexico Alien Tort Claims Act Justice denied anywhere diminishes justice everywhere. Martin Luther King Jr. Amber Jacobs Elizabeth Thorson – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Murders of Juarez, Mexico

  • The Murders of Juarez, Mexico
  • Alien Tort Claims Act
  • Justice denied anywhere diminishes justice
  • Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Amber Jacobs Elizabeth Thorson
  • Brianne Minarsich Gonzalo Vazquez
  • Carriena Mullen

  • Women have been brutally murdered for more than
    thirteen years and the mothers of the victims do
    not see any justice in sight.
  • The El Paso Times claims that there are "nearly
    340" victims since 1993.1 There have been
    arrests made, however the body count is still
  • The Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA) states District
    courts shall have original jurisdiction of any
    civil action by an alien for a tort only,
    committed in violation of the law of nations or a
    treaty of the United States.2

Facts of the Case
  • Since 1993, more than 500 women and girls have
    been murdered or disappeared in Ciudad Juarez and
    Chihuahua City.
  • The victims fit a certain profile slender, poor,
    and young with dark hair. 3
  • It has been repeatedly reported by Amnesty
    International and other Human Rights watch groups
    that the investigations have been botched,
    evidence has been falsified and the police
    officials have failed to preserve vital evidence.

Juana Sandoval Reyna and Esmeralda Juarez
Gloria Rivas
Neyra Azucena Cervantes
Paula Flores, mother of Sagrario Gonzales Flores
Consuelo Valenzuela, mother of Julieta Marleng
Gonzalez Valenzuela
Mother of Erika Ivon Ruiz Zabala
Esther Luna, mother of Brenda Alfaro Luna
" ....We went to her workplace, we went to see
her friends, we went to see her clients. On
Monday I went to the Special Prosecutor's office
and they couldn't find the report Id lodged. We
went out searching every day and we said to other
mothers and relatives of missing persons, what
are we going to do? ... We went to the Special
Prosecutor's office, then to the Office for the
Care of Victims and all those places ... after
a while they changed the Special Prosecutor. We
went there time and time again. But the case
stayed stuck there. They said there were no lines
of enquiry, it went from one prosecutor to
another, but no investigation was carried out and
they didn't do a search for her either. We went
to see the Public Prosecutor, I asked him why
they hadn't carried out a search for her, why
they hadn't pursued the investigations and he
said there were no lines of enquiry but I told
him there were. I told him you have the names of
the people, why don't you call them in to make
statements? They replied that they had already
followed up with everyone. They told me that just
to make out they were doing something but they
were doing nothing. We went to Chihuahua, we
asked for copies of the file, there we saw that
there had been no movement in the proceedings for
four and a half years and that they had not
searched for Silvia .... We went to see the
governor, I told him what was going on, I asked
him why, if those were the men who did it, there
was no right to punish them, he told me don't
worry, we're going to get them, we're going to
see that justice is done. Next time we went to
see him, he asked us why we were asking him for
justice and said we should be asking the
previous governor, that's what he told us ..."
Evangelina Arce, mother of Silvia Arce who went
missing on 12 March 1998
Testimony from the Mother of Silvia Arce
  • Suly Ponce Prieto 1998 - resigned March 1, 2002.
  • When an FBI leak revealed witness testimony
    linking Lilia Garcia's killers to drug dealers,
    Suly Ponce dismissed it, calling it erroneous.
    She instead blamed workers in a circus across the
    street from the strip mall where Garcia was last
    seen. When circus managers claimed that Ponce
    offered them money to blame co-workers, she
    dropped the investigation. Garcia and Gonzalez's
    murders are rumored to be the work of a serial
    killer with possible ties to drug dealers. Yet
    Garcia was found with marks on her wrists that,
    according to local forensics experts, were
    identical to those made by police handcuffs.  
  • Guillermo Prieto Quintana  Former Chief of
  • Attorney Arturo Gonzalez Rascon State Prosecutor
    before 1999, District Attorney general in 2001.
  • When Attorney General Rascon accused the two bus
    drivers of the cotton field murders in November
    2001, Izaguirre hosted the drivers' wives on her
    show. After that interview, advertisements began
    appearing in local newspapers smearing Izaguirre
    with claims that Esmeralda Juarez Alarcon she
    frequented strip clubs and was romantically
    involved with one of the bus drivers. News media
    on both sides of the border have reported that
    the receipt for the ad was signed by government
    officials who paid for it.  
  • Jose Reyes Baeza Terrazas Governor
  • Patricio Martinez Prior Governor 
  • When I want an issue not to be resolved, I
    entrust it to a committee.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte

The Sosa Test
  • The actionable violations of international law
    must be of a norm that is specific, universal,
    and obligatory.(4)
  • In Doe I v. Unocal Corp. the court stated we
    have recognized that torture, murder, and slavery
    are jus cogens violations and, thus, violations
    of the law of nations. Rape can be a form of
  • Finally, the court held that in order to qualify
    as a crime against humanity both rape and sexual
    violence must be committed widely or
    systematically against a civilian
  • The numbers of rapes involved in the murders, of
    the women of Juarez, can be considered widespread
    and a crime against humanity.

  • Torture is defined by the CAT as being
  • Any act by which severe pain or suffering,
    whether physical or mental, is intentionally
    inflicted on a person for such purposes as
    obtaining from him or a third person information
    or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a
    third person has committed or is suspected of
    having committed, or intimidating or coercing him
    or a third person, for any reason based on
    discrimination of any kind, when such pain or
    suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation
    or with the consent or acquiescence of a public
    official or other person acting in an official
    capacity. 8 C.F.R. 208.18 (a)(1).

Acquiescence Continued
  • Acquiescence is well established in both Domestic
    and International Law
  • International Law
  • Asylum Cases
  • Domestic Law
  • Zheng v. Ashcroft
  • Bullies v. Nye
  • Khouzam v. Ashcroft

Zheng v. Ashcroft
  • Court concluded that the BIAs interpretation of
    acquiescence to require that government officials
    are willfully accepting of torture to their
    citizens by a third party is contrary to clearly
    expressed congressional intent to require only
    awareness and not actually knowledge or willful
    acceptance in the definition of acquiescence
  • The Court cited Ontunez-Turious v. Ashcroft,
    which held that willful blindness suffices to
    prove acquiescence

Willful Acceptance v. Willful Blindness
  • Willful Acceptance is a thing of the past.
  • Bullies v. Nye
  • acquiescence must be more than the awareness by
    government officials of torture and their
    inability to prevent it they must willfully
    accept it, or at least turn a blind eye
  • Khouzam v. Ashcroft
  • The Court cited Zheng, which again held that
    willful acceptance of acquiescence is no longer
    the standard to abide by, but rather, willful

Application to Juarez.
  • Acquiescence is applicable to the case at hand
  • The defendants did have awareness of the
    activities taking place in Juarez by attempting
    to investigate however, these did not involve
    full fresh investigations, with the
    re-interviewing of witnesses or gathering other
    new evidence.
  • Therefore, the defendants remained willfully
    blind to women being tortured in Juarez.

Color of Law
  • The color of state law can be defined as a
    "misuse of power, possessed by virtue of state
    law and made possible only because the wrongdoer
    is clothed with the authority of state law, is
    action taken under color of' state law."6
  • Second Circuit Court of Appeals held that alien
    plaintiffs may sue Bosnian-Serb leader Radovan
    Karadzic in a United States Appellants'
    allegations that Karadzic personally planned and
    ordered a campaign of murder, rape, forced
    impregnation, and other forms of torture designed
    to destroy the religious and ethnic groups of
    Bosnian Muslims and Bosnian Croats clearly state
    a violation of the international law norm
    proscribing genocide, regardless of whether
    Karadzic acted under color of law or as a private
  • Further, the court held that an individual could
    be held liable for such acts regardless of
    whether he was acting under color of law if such
    acts were committed in the course of genocide
    and/or war crimes.

Legal Hurdles
  • Statute of limitations
  • The Torture Victims Protection Act of 1991
    provides that "no action shall be maintained
    under this section unless it is commenced within
    ten 6  (10) years after the cause of action
    arose." 28 U.S.C. 1350 (note).

Statute of Limitations Cont
  • We overcame the Statute of Limitations hurdle by
    choosing Plaintiffs and Defendants who meet the
    ten year requirement.

Statute of Limitations Cont.
  • For cases after the ten year limit, the Statute
    of Limitations hurdle can be overcome by
    equitable tolling.
  • the doctrine of equitable tolling should apply
    "where extraordinary circumstances outside
    plaintiff's control make it impossible for
    plaintiff to timely assert his claim." Forti v.
    Suarez-Mason, 672 F. Supp. 1531, 1549 (N.D. Cal.
  • The victims families could not bring their claims
    in a timely manner because of the lack of
    response from the government of Ciudad Juarez and
    the state of Chihuahua.

Equitable Tolling
  • The Sixth Circuit has identified five-factors to
    consider when determining whether to apply
    equitable tolling,
  • 1) lack of notice of the filing requirement
  • 2) lack of constructive knowledge of the filing
  • 3) diligence in pursuing one's rights
  • 4) absence of prejudice to the defendant
  • 5) the plaintiff's reasonableness in remaining
    ignorant of the particular legal requirement(7).

Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act
  • Statute under U.S. law that sets the limits of
    how a foreign government may be sued in U.S.
    civil courts.
  • Since torture and genocide cannot, under any
    circumstance, be recognized as lawful or official
    acts, immunity cannot be applied to anyone who
    commits acts of torture and genocide regardless
    of their official status.(8)
  • We have overcome this hurdle because the
    defendants are not the Head of the State and they
    are not diplomats, therefore they are not immune
    to civil suit under the ATCA.

Legal Hurdle
  • The CAT definition of torture states that such
    pain or suffering has to be inflicted by or at
    the instigation of or with the consent or
    acquiescence of a public official or other person
    acting in an official capacity.
  • However, case precedent allows an alien to bring
    a case against a public official under the ATCA
    when the public official participates in willful
    blindness of the torturous act.(9)
  • Willful blindness is knowing that an act is
    occurring and turning a blind eye.

Torture Definition Cont
  • It is obvious that the Mexican governmental
    officials know about the murders due to the fact
    that the they have conducted investigations (or
    should we say skimming the surface) of these
  • A 2004 CNN article discusses the first time the
    crime scene was preserved by the Mexican
    government (and this sight was only preserved due
    to the presence of federal authorities).10
  • Thus, the government officials have known and
    continue to know about these murders but have
    done nothing to prevent or completely investigate
    the murders until 2004.

Torture Definition Cont
  • The government may now claim that they are
    powerless to stop these torturous acts. Some of
    these reasons may include the police being
    untrained or lacking the funds to prevent the
  • However, there have been no indications of the
    government implementing any training programs nor
    is there a lack of funds in the government. The
    money that should be funding these programs and
    investigations is actually going into the pockets
    of the government officials and drug dealers due
    to the governments corruption.11
  • Therefore, the government has no argument of
    being powerless to stop these torturous acts.

  • We believe that there is an excellent likelihood
    of winning this case. We would bring the case to
    trial in the 9th circuit and ask that Attorney,
    Paul Hoffman, argue this case. The 9th circuit
    has continually demonstrated a liberal
    interpretation of the ATCA and Paul Hoffman is an
    authority on ATCA cases. Also, we would be able
    to use the jurys emotions by showing the
    unlimited number of women that have been murdered
    under the governments watchful eye. Therefore,
    by Paul Hoffman arguing an emotional case in the
    9th circuit, along with our solid argument of the
    Juarez Murders and case law, we believe that we
    will prevail.

The dead cannot cry out for justice it is a
duty of the living to do so for them. Lois
McMaster Bujold
Women Murdered
  • 1. Adriana Martínez Martínez2. Adriana Saucedo
    Juárez 3. Adriana Torres Márquez 4. Aída Carrillo
    5. Alejandra Viescas Castro 6. Alicia Herrera 7.
    Alma García 8. Alma Mireya Chavira (o Chavarría)
    Fávila 9. Alma P. o Leticia Palafox Z. 10. Amalia
    Saucedo Díaz de León 11. Amelia Lucio Borja 12.
    Amparo Guzmán Caixba 13. Ana Gil Bravo 14. Ana
    Hipólito Campos 15. Ana Ma. Gardea Villalobos 16.
    Apolonia Fierro P. 17. Araceli Gómez Martínez 18.
    Araceli Lozano Bolaños 19. Araceli R. Martínez
    Montañés 20. Aracely Esmeralda Martínez 21.
    Aracely Gallardo Rodríguez 22. Aracely Manríquez
    Gómez 23. Aracely Núñez Santos 24. Argelia Irene
    Salazar Crispín 25. Bárbara Araceli Martínez
    Ramos 26. Bertha Luz Briones 27. Blanca Estela
    Velázquez Valenzuela28. Blanca Yadira Nuñez29.
    Brenda Alfaro Luna 30. Brenda Berenice Delgado
    Rodríguez31. Brenda Herrera 32. Brenda Lizeth
    Nájera Flores 33. Brenda Patricia Méndez Vásquez
    34. Brisa Narváez Santos 35. Carolina Carrera 36.
    Cecilia Sáenz Parra 37. Celia Guadalupe Gómez de
    la Cruz 38. Cynthia Rocío Acosta Alvarado 39.
    Clara Hernández Martínez 40. Clara Zapata Zepeda
    Álvarez 41. Claudia Ivette González 42. Claudia
    Ramos López 43. Cristina Quezada Mauricio 44.
    Cynthia Portillo de González 45. Dalia Maribel
    Prieto 46. Deisy Salcido Rueda 47. Domitila
    Trujillo Posadas 48. Donna Maurine Striplin Boggs
    49. Dora Alicia Martínez Mendoza 50. Elba
    Reséndiz Rodríguez 51. Elba Verónica Olivas 52.
    Elena García Alvarado 53. Elena Salcido Meraz 54.
    Elsa Rivera Rodríguez 55. Elizabeth Castro García
    56. Elizabeth Flores Sánchez 57. Elizabeth Gómez
    58. Elizabeth Martínez Rodríguez 59. Elizabeth
    Ramos 60. Elizabeth Robles Gómez 61. Elizabeth
    Soto Flores 62. Elodia Payán Núñez 63. Elsa
    América Arrequín Mendoza 64. Elva Hernández
    Martínez 65. Elvira Carrillo de la Fuente 66.
    Emilia García Hernández 67. Eréndira Buendía
    Muñoz 68. Eréndira Ivonne Ponce Hernández 69.
    Erica García Moreno 70. Erika Ivonne Ruiz Zavala
    71. Erika Pérez72. Esmeralda Juárez Alarcón 73.
    Esmeralda Leyva Rodríguez 74. Esmeralda Urías
    Sáenz 75. Estefanía Corral González 76. Eugenia
    Martínez Poo 77. Fabiola Zamudio 78. Fátima
    Vanessa Flores Díaz 79. Flor Idalia Márquez 80.
    Francisca Epigmenia Hernández 81. Francisca
    Lucero Gallardo 82. Francisca Sánchez Gutiérrez
    83. Gabriela Bueno Hernández 84. Gabriela
    Domínguez Aguilar 85. Gabriela Edith Márquez
    Calvillo 86. Gladys Janeth Fierro Vargas 87.
    Gladys Lizeth Ramos Esc 88. Gloria Betances
    Rodríguez89. Gloria Elena Escobedo Piña 90.
    Gloria Escalante Rodríguez 91. Gloria Olivas
    Morales 92. Gloria Rivas Martínez 93. Graciela
    García Primero 94. Guadalupe Ivonne Estrada Salas
    95. Guadalupe Luna de la Rosa 96. Guadalupe
    Verónica Castro Pando 97. Guillermina Hernández
    Chávez 98. Hester Van Nierop 99. Hilda Fierro
    Olivas 100. Hilda Rodríguez Núñez 101. Ignacia
    Morales Soto 102. Inés Silvia Merchant 103. Irene
    Castillo 104. Irma Angélica Rosales Lozano 105.
    Irma Arellano Castillo 106. Irma Márquez 107.
    Irma Rebeca Fuentes 108. Irma Valdez Sánchez 109.
    Jacqueline Cristina Sánchez Hernández 110.
    Jessica Lizalde León 111. Jessica Martínez
    Morales 112. Juana González Piñón 113. Juana
    Iñiguez Mares 114. Juana Sandoval Reyna115. Julia
    Luna Vera 116. Julieta Enríquez González 117.
    Karina Ávila Ochoa 118. Karina Daniela Gutiérrez
    119. Karina Candelaria Ramos González120. Karina
    Soto Cruz 121. Laura Alondra Márquez 122. Laura
    Ana Inere 123. Laura Berenice Ramos Monárrez 124.
    Laura Georgina Vargas 125. Laura Lourdes Cordero
    García 126. Leticia Armendáriz Chavira127.
    Leticia Caldera Arvídez128. Leticia de la Cruz
    Bañuelos129. Leticia García Rosales130. Leticia
    Quintero Moreno131. Leticia Reyes Benítez132.
    Leticia Vargas Flores133. Lilia Alejandra García
    Andrade 134. Liliana Frayre Bustillos135. Liliana
    Hodging de Santiago136. Linda Ramos Sandoval137.
    Lorenza Isela González Alamillo138. Lourdes
    Gutiérrez Rosales139. Lourdes Ivette Lucero
    Campos140. Lucila Silva Dávalos141. Luz Adriana
    Martínez Reyes142. Luz Ivonne De la O García143.
    Manuela Hermosillo Quintero 144. Marcela
    Hernández Macías Marcela Macías Hernández 145.
    Marcela Santos Garza 146. Marcela Viviana Rayas
    Arellanes147. Margarita Briseño Rendón 148. María
    Agustina Hernández 149. María Ascensión Aparicio
    Salazar 150. María Cristina Quezada Amador 151.
    María de Jesús Fong Valenzuela 152. María de
    Jesús González 153. María de la Luz Murgado G.
    154. María de los Ángeles Acosta Ramírez 155.
    María de los Ángeles Alvarado Soto 156. María del
    Refugio Núñez L. 157. María del Rosario Cordero
    Esquivel 158. María E. Luna Alfaro 159. María
    Elba Chávez 160. María Elena Caldera 161. María
    Elena Saucedo Meraz 162. María Estela Martínez
    163. María Estela Martínez Valdez 164. María
    Eugenia Mendoza Arias 165. María Inés Ozuna
    Aguirre 166. María Irma Blancarte Lugo 167. María
    Irma Plancarte 168. María Isabel Chávez G. 169.
    María Isabel Haro Prado 170. María Isabel
    Martínez González 171. María Isabel Nava Vázquez
    172. María Isela Núñez Herrera 173. María López
    Torres 174. María Luisa Luna Vera 175. María
    Luisa y sus tres niños 176. María Maura Carmona
    Zamora 177. María Rocío Cordero Esquivel 178.
    María Rosa León Ramos 179. María Rosario Ríos y
    esposo 180. María Sagrario González Flores 181.
    María Santos Ramírez Vega 182. María Santos
    Rangel Flores 183. María Saturnina de León 184.
    María Teresa Rentería Salazar 185. María Victoria
    Arellano Z. 186. Maribel Palomino Arvizo 187.
    Maritza Toribio Flores 188. Martha Alicia
    Esquivel 189. Martha Arguijo Castañeda 190.
    Martha Cecilia Navarrete Reyes 191. Martha
    Claudia Pizarro Velásquez 192. Martha Esmeralda
    Veloz Valdez 193. Martha Francisca Hernández 194.
    Martha Gutiérrez García 195. Martha Yolanda
    Gutiérrez García 196. Mayra Gema Alamillo
    González197. Mayra Juliana Reyes Solís 198.
    Merced Ramírez Morales 199. Mireya Hernández
    Méndez 200. Miriam García Solorio 201. Miriam
    Adriana Vázquez202. Miriam Aguilar Rodríguez 203.
    Miriam Arlem Vázquez Mendoza 204. Miriam de los
    Ángeles Deras205. Nancy Guillermina Quintero G.
    Nelly América Gómez H.206. Nora Elizabeth Flores
    Flores207. Norma Julissa Ramos Muñoz208. Norma
    Leticia Luna Holguín209. Norma Leticia Quintero
    M.210. Norma Mayela Palacios López211. Olga
    Alicia Carrillo Pérez212. Olga González López213.
    Otilia Santos Trujillo214. Paloma Angélica
    Escobar Ledezma215. Paloma Rodríguez Ruges216.
    Patricia Alba Ríos217. Patricia Cortés Campos218.
    Patricia Monroy Torres219. Paula Zepeda Soto220.
    Paulina León221. Perla Chávez Rodríguez222. Perla
    del Castillo 223. Perla Parker Hopking224. Perla
    Patricia Sáenz Díaz225. Petra de la Rosa Masa
    226. Raquel Lechuga Macías 227. Reina Sarriá o
    Sarahí Lara Lucero 228. Rocío Agüero Miranda 229.
    Rocío Barraza Gallegos 230. Rocío Miranda Agüero
    231. Rocío Rincón 232. Rosa Isela Carmona 233.
    Rosa Isela de la Cruz Madrigal 234. Rosa Isela
    Tena Quintanilla 235. Rosa Ivonne Páez Márquez
    236. Rosa Margarita Arellanes García 237. Rosa
    María Hernández 238. Rosa María Lerma Hernández
    239. Rosa María Rivera 240. Rosa Virginia
    Hernández Cano 241. Rosalba López Espinoza 242.
    Rosario Aguayo M. 243. Rosario Fátima Martínez
    Ángel 244. Rosario Rocío García Leal 245. Sandra
    Corina Gutiérrez Estrada 246. Sandra Henry
    Monreal 247. Sandra Juárez V. 248. Sandra Maribel
    Frías García 249. Silvia Elena Rivera Morales250.
    Silvia Gabriela Laguna o Luna Cruz251. Silvia
    Guadalupe Díaz252. Silvia Marchant 253. Silvia
    Ocón López 254. Silvia Rivera Salas 255. Sofía
    González Vivar 256. Soledad Beltrán 257. Soledad
    Sáenz Acosta 258. Sonia Ivette Ramírez 259. Sonia
    Yareli Torres Torres 260. Susana Enríquez
    Enríquez 261. Susana Flores Flores 262. Teodora
    de la Rosa Martínez 263. Teresa de Jesús González
    Mendoza 264. Teresa Mélida Herrera Rey 265.
    Teresita López 266. Tomasa Salas Calderón267.
    Vanessa Horcasitas 268. Verónica Beltrán
    Manjarrez Máynez269. Verónica Guadalupe Castro
    Pando270. Verónica Huitrón Quezada271. Verónica
    Martínez Hernández272. Verónica Santillanes
    Madera273. Victoria E. Parker Hopking274. Violeta
    Mabel Alvídrez Barrios275. Virginia Rodríguez
    Beltrán276. Viridiana Torres Moreno277. Yésica
    Martínez Morales278. Yolanda Álvarez Esquihua279.
    Yolanda Tapia Vega280. Zenaida Bermúdez Campa281.
    Zulema Olivia Alvarado Torresy 72 desconocidas más

281 identified and 72 unidentified women
  • http//
  • 1
  • (2) 28 U.S.C. 1350
  • 3 William Paul Simmons, (2006), Remedies for
    the Women of Ciudad Juarez through the
    Inter-American Court of Human Rights,
    Northwestern Journal of International Human
    Rights, 4(3), at page 493
  • 4 Sosa v Alvarez-Machain et al.
  • 5 Seattle Journal for Social Justice, spring /
    summer, 2005, 3 Seattle J. Soc. Just. 757,GENDER
    AND JUSTICE IN AFRICA Remembering Justice in
    Rwanda Locating Gender in the Judicial
    Construction of Memory, Matthew J. Burnett
  • 6http//
  • (7) Graham-Humphreys v. Memphis Brooks Museum of
    Art, Inc., 209 F.3d 552, 561 (6th Cir. 2000).
  • (8)http// /dmdocuments/UsSkl arAmiciAppeal
    glusctclnkc d10 Brief Amicus Curiae of the
    World Organization Against Torture USA and Other
    Groups in Support of the Appellants, In Re Wang
    v Zemin
  • (9) Ontunez-Turios v. Ashcroft Bullies v. Nye
    Zheng v. Ashcroft
  • 10 Grinberg, Emanuella. In Juarez murders,
    progress but few answers CNN Court TV April
  • 11 Lupsha, Peter. Whats Going on in Mexico
    Today is Beyond Fiction PBS Frontline.