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Chapter Nine: Charlemagne and the Rise of Medieval Culture

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... Ordo Virtutum Monasticism and Gregorian Chant Monasteries and Opus Dei Centrality of liturgy Lectio divina Development of sacred music Gregorian Chant ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Nine: Charlemagne and the Rise of Medieval Culture


1
Chapter NineCharlemagne and the Rise of
Medieval Culture
  • Culture and Values, 6th. Ed.
  • Cunningham and Reich

2
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3
Charlemagne Ruler and Diplomat
  • Papal Coronation
  • Leo III, Christmas 800
  • Revival of Western Roman Empire
  • Feudal Administration
  • Legal decrees
  • Bureaucratic system
  • Literacy
  • Foreign Relations
  • Byzantines, Muslims

4
Charlemagne Economic Developments
  • Stabilized the currency
  • Denier
  • Trade Fairs
  • Jewish merchants
  • Trade Routes
  • Import / Export Relationships
  • Iron Broadswords

5
Learning in the Time of Charlemagne
  • Palace School at Aachen
  • Scholar-teachers
  • Curriculum
  • Trivium, quadrivium
  • Mastery of texts
  • Text reform
  • Literary revival Liturgical revival
  • Literacy as prerequisite for worship

6
Learning in the Time of Charlemagne
  • Alcuin of York
  • Sacramentary
  • Corrected errors in the Vulgate Bible
  • Developed Frankish school system
  • Literacy and Women
  • Dhouda
  • Illuminated manuscripts

7
Benedictine Monasticism
  • Early monasticism
  • Varying monastic lifestyles
  • No predominate rule
  • The Rule of St. Benedict
  • Magna Carta of monasticism
  • Poverty, stability, obedience, chastity
  • Balance of prayer, work, and study
  • Horarium

8
Women and the Monastic Life
  • Scholastica (d. 543)
  • St. Benedicts sister
  • Brigid of Ireland (d. 525)
  • Hilda, abbess of Whitby (614-680)
  • Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)
  • Writer, painter, illustrator, musician, critic,
    preacher
  • Scivias, Physica, Causae et Curae, Symphonia,
    Ordo Virtutum

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Monasticism and Gregorian Chant
  • Monasteries and Opus Dei
  • Centrality of liturgy
  • Lectio divina
  • Development of sacred music
  • Gregorian Chant
  • Ambrosian music
  • Mozarabic chant
  • Frankish chant

11
Monasticism and Gregorian Chant
  • Gregorian chant and Carolingian reform
  • Gregorian characteristics
  • Monophonic
  • Melismatic
  • Acapella
  • Cantus planus
  • neums

12
Liturgical Music and the Rise of Drama
  • The Liturgical Trope
  • Verbal elaborations of textual content
  • Added to the long melismas
  • Aid in memorization
  • Origin of drama in the West
  • Quem Quæritis

13
The Morality Play Everyman
  • Links liturgical and secular drama
  • Allegorical, moralistic
  • Instructs for moral conversion
  • Religious themes
  • Life as a pilgrimage
  • The inevitability of death (memento mori)
  • Faith vs. Free Will
  • Liturgical overtones

14
Nonliturgical Drama
  • Hroswitha (d. 1000)
  • Wrote in Latin
  • Roman stylistic influences
  • Poetry, legends, plays
  • Theophilus
  • The Conversion of the Harlot Thaïs
  • Heavily moralistic to educate and convert

15
The Legend of CharlemagneSong of Roland
  • Charlemagne canonized 1165
  • Reliquaries and commemoratives
  • Epic poem
  • Charlemagnes battle with the Basques (778)
  • Chansons de geste, chansons dhistoire
  • Oral tradition, jongleurs
  • Military and religious ideals
  • 11th c. martial virtues and chivalric code
  • Anti-Muslim bias

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The Visual ArtsThe Illuminated Book
  • Carolingian manuscripts on parchment
  • Gospel Book of Charlemagne
  • Roman, Byzantine, Celtic styles
  • Utrecht Psalter
  • Masterpiece of the Carolingian Renaissance
  • Dagulf Psalter
  • Carved ivory book covers
  • Carolingian miniscule

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Charlemagnes Palace at Aachen
  • Kingdom modeled on ancient Rome
  • Palace
  • Large royal hall, lavishly decorated
  • Joined to chapel by a long gallery
  • Chapel
  • Church of San Vitale (Ravenna) as model
  • Altar to the Savior (liturgical services)
  • Chapel to the Virgin (reliquary)
  • Charlemagnes Throne
  • this most wise Solomon.

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The Carolingian Monastery
  • Monastery as miniature civic center
  • Complexity of function and design
  • Center of life for rural populations
  • Saint Gall plan
  • Basilica style
  • Designed to house 120 monks, 170 serfs

25
The Romanesque Style
  • Large, Roman-looking architecture
  • Influenced by travel, expansion
  • Pilgrimages
  • Heavy stone arches
  • Larger, more spacious interiors
  • Fireproof stone and masonry roofs
  • Church of Saint Sernin in Toulouse

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The Romanesque Style
  • Exterior decoration (sculpture)
  • Lack of interior light
  • Portal (doorway)
  • Jamb, capital, trumeau
  • Tympanum (mandorla, archivolts)
  • Church of Sainte Madeleine at Vézelay

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Chapter Nine Discussion Questions
  • Explain the function of the Song of Roland as
    both religious and political propaganda during
    the eleventh and twelfth centuries. What values
    are extolled within the text that would serve
    religious and political leaders as they shape
    their culture? Do we, as a culture, subscribe to
    these same values today? Why or why not?
  • Why was Charlemagne so interested in developing
    literacy? Explain his motives and methods for
    establishing schools and supporting scholars.
  • Describe the role of the liturgical trope in the
    development of drama in the West. For example,
    how does one begin with the Quem Quæritis trope
    and arrive at Everyman? Explain the evolution of
    the art form.
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