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POETRY

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POETRY Introduction: Reading Poetry POETRY How to Read Poetry: Notice PUNCTUATION: question marks, exclamation marks, period is a line (or more) a question or a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: POETRY


1
POETRY
  • Introduction Reading Poetry

2
POETRY
  • How to Read Poetry
  • Notice PUNCTUATION
  • question marks, exclamation marks, period
  • is a line (or more) a question or a statement
  • adjust your inflection accordingly
  • Read to a COMMA or SEMICOLON or PERIOD
  • don't stop necessarily at the end of each line
  • enjambment

3
POETRY
  • How to Read Poetry
  • Watch for ROAD SIGNS
  • watch for changes in logic or time
  • notice conjunctions such as but or yet
  • recognize transitions such as then or
    meanwhile or afterwards
  • Read with a DICTIONARY at hand
  • look up
  • key words
  • words you do not recognize
  • to note Connotation vs. Denotation
  • look up various definitions of words to note how
    different meanings different
    interpretations for the work

4
POETRY
  • How to Read Poetry
  • Sparingly and Cautiously use PERSONAL experiences
    or personal tastes, attitudes, beliefs
  • while your own views may, occasionally, shed
    light on the work
  • more often than not, they can lead to
    misinterpretations and prejudices
  • a grain of salt
  • Realize that the SPEAKER and the POET are not
    necessarily one and the same
  • because poetry is by nature quite subjective and
    emotional,
  • we readers have a tendency to confuse the views
    expressed in the poem with the views held by the
    writer
  • Disclaimer Please understand that the
    opinions, views, and comments that appear in the
    poem will not necessarily reflect the views held
    by .

5
POETRY
  • How to Read Poetry
  • Notice the POETIC ELEMENTS employed
  • diction, symbolism, imagery, metaphors,
  • similes, conceit, meter, rhythm, rhyme,
  • stanza, persona, alliteration, assonance
  • Note the RHYME SCHEME and RHYTHM
  • at the end of each line, note the rhyme with a
    letter (a, b, c, )
  • read the poem aloud, noticing and enunciating
    each piece of punctuation, to discover its rhythm

6
POETRY
  • How to Read Poetry
  • READ, PARAPHRASE, and then SUMMARIZE
  • read the poem through the first time
  • then begin to put it into your own words, to
    simplify its meaning (paraphrase)
  • then summarize the entirety in a brief statement
    relating to its meaning, message, theme
    (summarize)
  • EXPLICATE and ANALYZE
  • explain each line of the poem interpret line by
    line (explicate)
  • analyze the piece focusing on a single
    literary/poetic element (analyze)

7
POETRY
  • Introduction Poems

8
LANGSTON HUGHES
9
LANGSTON HUGHES
  • 1902-67
  • Born in Joplin, Missouri
  • Mexico, NYC, Paris
  • Fiction, Drama, Essays, Biographies,
  • Newspaper column
  • In the Chicago Defender
  • Jesse B. Simple (fictional Everyman)
  • Poetry
  • Poet Laureate of the Negro Race

10
LANGSTON HUGHES
  • Harlem (1951)
  • re-titled in 1959 as Dream Deferred
  • Which do you prefer?
  • 11 lines
  • 1st and last
  • questions
  • 1-line stanzas
  • Middle stanzas 4 questions (possibilities)
  • 2 lines, 2 lines, 1 line, 2 lines
  • similes
  • last not a question
  • Last line italicized

11
LANGSTON HUGHES
  • Harlem (1951)
  • Thesis Question
  • What happens to a dream deferred?
  • Answers
  • dries up (raisin in sun)
  • festers (sore)
  • stinks (rotten meat)
  • crusts over (sweet syrup)
  • sags (heavy load)
  • explodes (bomb)

12
LANGSTON HUGHES
  • Harlem (1951)
  • Diction
  • Dream
  • hopes, aspirations, wishes, talents
  • delusion
  • Fester
  • to rot, puss, ulcerate
  • (ugly, repulsive images)
  • Heavy load sag
  • Burden
  • Slaves carrying bales of cotton, supplies
  • Raisin, sore, black meat, syrup, bomb
  • Black in color
  • Syrup
  • Not so disgusting
  • Why?

13
LANGSTON HUGHES
  • Harlem (1951)
  • Title
  • Harlem Renaissance (1920s)
  • New Negro Movement
  • post-Civil War, move North
  • Harlem, Manhattan, New York
  • _at_ 3 miles, _at_ 175,000 blacks
  • WEB DuBois, Langston Hughes
  • Countee Cullen, Zora Neale Hurston,
  • Jazz Age, Roaring 20s
  • Great Depression, Harlem Riots

14
LANGSTON HUGHES
  • Harlem (1951)
  • Title
  • Harlem, 1950s
  • Racial inequality
  • Riots 1935, 1943, 1964 (Watts 1965, Detroit
    1967)
  • How did people react?
  • Rot
  • Anger, frustration festers
  • Uncle Toms
  • Anger, frustration explodes

15
LANGSTON HUGHES
  • Harlem (1951)
  • Questions
  • Why are the 1st and last lines separated?
  • Why is the last line italicized?
  • Why is the last line w/o simile?
  • Why is the heavy load not a question?
  • What is the answer to the thesis question?
  • Why are load and explode the only rhymes?
  • Why the break from disgusting images with syrup?

16
APHRA BEHN
17
APHRA BEHN
  • Ay-fra Bean
  • (1640-89)
  • 1st English woman to earn a living through
    writing (1st professional woman writer)
  • Married London merchant of Dutch descent
  • Served as a spy in the Dutch Wars, 1665-67 (after
    his death)
  • Novels
  • Oroonoko (royal slave, one of 1st English works
    to question slavery)
  • Plays, Poetry

18
APHRA BEHN
  • Song Love Armed (1676)
  • Characters
  • Love Cupid, the god of love
  • Persona man
  • Addressee woman
  • Poetic conventions
  • Unrequited love of the man
  • toward a disdainful woman
  • Unrequited love is painful
  • Yet pleasurable

19
APHRA BEHN
  • Song Love Armed (1676)
  • Structure
  • 2 4-line stanzas
  • Rhyme scheme ABAB
  • Refrain
  • from me
  • from thee
  • (variations on)

20
APHRA BEHN
  • Song Love Armed (1676)
  • Structure
  • Whats Taken (to arm Love)?
  • From man (persona)
  • desire from his eyes
  • sighs tears
  • languishments fears
  • From woman
  • fire from her eyes
  • pride cruelty
  • killing dart

21
APHRA BEHN
  • Song Love Armed (1676)
  • Themes
  • Love war connection
  • Battle of the sexes
  • Alls fair in love war
  • Cupid w/bow arrow
  • Why do we enjoy suffering? Listening to others
    suffer?
  • The Blues
  • Sad songs, break-up songs
  • Why do we name hurricanes?
  • To impose form onto suffering To master or
    control suffering, the unknown, uncontrollable

22
APHRA BEHN
  • Song Love Armed (1676)
  • Questions
  • What is its theme concerning love or
    relationships?
  • Is this a mans poem to be enjoyed more by male
    readers than female readers?
  • Is it sexist in its portrayal of women?
  • The persona man, written by a woman Does that
    make a difference?

23
POETRY
  • Narrative Poetry

24
BACKGROUND
  • Transition from Prose to Poetry
  • Historically, move from stories in poetry to
    stories in prose
  • verse narratives
  • stories in poetic form
  • narrative
  • beginning, middle, end
  • basic Plot
  • Action, Characterization, Setting, Dialogue
  • Symbolism, Irony, Juxtaposition

25
BACKGROUND
  • Historically
  • Oral Tradition
  • illiterate masses
  • poetic structure makes it easy to remember pass
    along
  • stories about heroes history
  • epic poetry (Homer)
  • sagas (scops)

26
BACKGROUND
  • Historically
  • Literacy
  • Wm. Caxtons printing press (1440)
  • Gutenbergs bible (1450)
  • More literacy
  • less oral tradition
  • change in literature

27
POPULAR BALLADS
28
POPULAR BALLADS
  • authors
  • anonymous, undated
  • persona
  • detached, objective, impersonal, characterless
  • 3rd person POV
  • themes
  • death, fate
  • perils of sea

29
POPULAR BALLADS
  • use of repetition
  • of sounds
  • alliteration (Anglo-Saxon hold-over)
  • consonance (consonant)
  • assonance (vowel)
  • of words, phrases
  • musical rhythm
  • meant to be sung

30
POPULAR BALLADS
  • omissions
  • ellipses
  • not so descriptive (omitting key details)
  • NO SHIPWRECK
  • told in flashes, quick glimpses
  • photo slide show
  • little description
  • photo show
  • omitted details, scenes (ellipses)
  • some dialogue

31
POPULAR BALLADS
  • 4-line stanzas
  • ABAB rhyme scheme (typically unrhymed)
  • 1st, 3rd lines 4 accents
  • 2nd, 3rd lines 3 accents
  • The king sits in Dumferling toune,
  • Drinking the blude-reid wine
  • O quhar will I get guid sailor
  • To sail this schip of mine?

32
POPULAR BALLADS
  • Belong to the Oral Tradition
  • not written down
  • until 18th century
  • multiple versions
  • Enlightenment (frowned upon)
  • undignified
  • lacks decorum
  • Romantics (resurgence)
  • poetry of the people, masses
  • Old ballads written down
  • New ballads composed (literary ballads)

33
Sir Patrick Spence
34
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • BACKGROUND
  • Written
  • _at_ 15th century
  • Published
  • in 1765
  • Thomas Percys Reliques of Ancient English Poetry
  • (famous collection of folk ballads)

35
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • BACKGROUND
  • possible (though never verified) historical
    allusion
  • 1281 marriage
  • of Margaret, daughter of Alexander III of
    Scotland
  • to King Eric of Norway in 1281
  • on the return voyage, many of her noble escorts
    were drowned
  • 1290 succession
  • the death of Margaret's daughter, "the Maid of
    Norway,"
  • while she was being brought back to Scotland in
    1290
  • to succeed her grandfather, who died in 1286.

36
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • Dumferling
  • Dumferline, a town in Fife, on the Firth of Forth
  • an early residence of the Scottish kings
  • sits
  • reigns, rules AND is stationary, seated BUT will
    make others move
  • blood red
  • mighty power, power over life death,
    foreshadowing

37
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • wine
  • party (Eros in Love Armed)
  • suggests the ease with which he wields such power
  • suggests that the question (sailing mission)
    not well-thought, casual
  • that the one who takes this mission will die
  • The Lottery
  • win BUT lose by winning
  • typically an honor to be chosen by the king
  • BUT this is an impossible, dangerous suicide
    mission

38
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • good sailor
  • skillful sailor
  • brave
  • decent human
  • loyal, obedient to king

39
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • Elder Knight
  • elder respected
  • (respect your elders)
  • favored, respected by king, yields political
    power
  • (sits at kings right knee)
  • line 14
  • suggests Elder Knight enemy of Sir Patrick
    Spence (ill deid)

40
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • alliteration stanza 3
  • repetition of sound
  • s
  • sounds like snake, waves crashing on beach
  • (foreshadows SPS death)
  • Long Letter to SPS
  • written, signed, sealed by king
  • royal decree
  • MUST be obeyed
  • SPS must sail the royal ship

41
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • Sir Patrick Spence
  • 1st meeting reading kings letter, walking on
    the beach
  • at leisure
  • his 1st reaction, 1st line laugh
  • modest laughs at praise
  • humor thinks the mission is a practical joke
  • his 2nd reaction cry
  • realizes this mission will be his death
  • but he cannot refuse the kings command
  • feels set up/betrayed by someone
  • O who is this who has done this deed / This ill
    deed done to me
  • (repetition for emphasis in Oral Tradition -
    foreshadowing)

42
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • done deed to deed done
  • repetition
  • certainty of death
  • Mirror World
  • Court vs. Ordinary, appearance vs. reality
  • true friends
  • court politics, stab in the back, set up for
    death
  • Blinded by tears
  • tears water waves, storm,his death
  • blind seers of old see the future, his future
    is death

43
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • merry men
  • good men on leave
  • at leisure, as SPS was on the beach
  • at leisure yet dutiful to SPS
  • from merriment to death (Contrast)
  • bad signs
  • bad moon rising omens, harbinger
  • new moon with the old moon in its arms
  • dangerous weather bad sailing, danger, death

44
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • repetition
  • I fear, I fear
  • stresses the danger
  • stresses the switch from merry to fear

45
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • nobles
  • Nobles dont want to ruin their expensive shoes
  • IRONY
  • b/c SPS knows they will drown anyway
  • CONTRAST
  • Nobles nobility
  • (b/c of family inheritance)
  • SPS nobility
  • (brave, loyal, follows orders on suicide mission)

46
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • Shipwreck play
  • play game (like flies to wanton boys, they
    kill us for sport)
  • humans at the mercy of fate, the fates, the
    gods
  • play drama, to be watched by nobles
  • IRONY
  • their hats swim while they drown
  • their hats are symbols of their wealth BUT all
    the money wont save them from death
  • perhaps drowned by the weight of their opulent
    attire

47
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • hands
  • CAUSE-EFFECT
  • King signs letter w/hand, sending them to their
    deaths
  • Women hold fans in their hands, awaiting in vain
    the men to return

48
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • Fans
  • used to control the weather (when its too hot)
  • BUT
  • cannot control the weather at sea
  • CONTRAST
  • women hot
  • men drenched
  • women stand for their mens return (tension)
  • king sits to send them to their death (ease)

49
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • gold combs
  • symbols of opulence, richness
  • misplaced focus b/c worldliness/materialism
    meaningless to Death
  • their hair will turn gray as the combs stay gold
  • IRONY
  • Danse Macabre
  • Their own dear lords
  • not theirs any more belong to Death, the Sea
  • they wait to see them again (alive) BUT dont
  • reader sees them again (dead)

50
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • Mirror World
  • ironic twist of social class IRONY
  • the lords sit at SPS feet
  • he knew they were going to die
  • had no illusions
  • they had vanity, materialism
  • Will he go to heaven before them?

51
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • Aberdour
  • half over to Aberdour
  • half-way from Norway to Aberdour
  • two villages of Aberdour on the east coast of
    Scotland
  • one in Aberdeenshire
  • the other in Fife, on the north shore of the
    Firth of Forth.
  • Either may be meant.

52
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • THEMES
  • anti-materialism
  • anti-worldliness
  • power
  • abuse of power (knight)
  • reckless or indifferent wielding of power (king)
  • anti-monarchy?
  • Fate, Death
  • cannot escape, control (like seas)
  • must obey (like kings command)
  • SPS accepts his fate gets his crew to, too
  • Nobles are ignorant of their fate

53
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • THEMES
  • duty
  • to king
  • to men/sailors
  • to wives
  • Why do men serve those they serve?
  • in court for political favor, power
  • on ship allegiance, respect, honor
  • criticism of court life
  • pettiness
  • spitefulness
  • luxury
  • materialism

54
SIR PATRICK SPENCE
  • Sir Patrick Spens video
  • The Ballad of Gilligans Island

55
JOHN KEATS
56
JOHN KEATS
  • (1795-1821)
  • father London stable keeper
  • apprenticed to be apothecary surgeon
  • gave it up to be poet
  • books of poetry in 1817, 1818, 1820
  • dead at 25
  • tuberculosis

57
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • 1819
  • Latin
  • The Beautiful Woman without Mercy
  • Literary Ballad
  • 12 4-line stanzas
  • repetitions
  • supernatural
  • knights, kings, princes
  • dialogue

58
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • title
  • The lovely lady without pity
  • medieval ballad by Alain Chartier
  • title quoted in The Eve of St. Agnes
  • but Keats borrows only the title, not the subject
    matter
  • story mortal destroyed by his love for a
    supernatural femme fatale
  • format folk ballad ? dialogue form
  • 1st 3 stanzas addressed to the Knight
  • 4-12 Knights reply

59
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • setting late fall
  • no birds, withered grass plant
  • harvest is done
  • squirrels holes are fully stocked
  • Speaker comes upon a knight
  • refrain O what can ail thee, knight-at-arms

60
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • Knight
  • pale, haggard,
  • woe-begone, fever, sweats
  • described as flowers lily rose

61
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • Knights story
  • met a beautiful lady in the meads
  • meadow, fields
  • a fairys child (?)
  • really (language, home)
  • OR
  • her beauty

62
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • Knights story
  • made her
  • garland for her head
  • bracelets, girdle/belt
  • rode with her on my horse
  • she sang a fairys song
  • she fed him roots, honey, manna
  • she spoke in a strange language
  • he didnt understand
  • BUT assumed she was saying she loved him

63
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • Knights story
  • she took him to her elfin grot
  • she cried
  • Why does she cry?
  • What was she trying to say in her language?
  • he calmed her with kisses
  • truly calmed or mask, faking it?
  • what she really needed?

64
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • Knights story
  • she lulled him asleep ? dreamed
  • nightmare
  • warned by previous kings, princes, warriors
    that La belle dame sans merci / Hath thee in
    thrall!
  • previous victims
  • pale as death, life sucked out of them
  • high social status (literary genre)
  • trying to warn him (title)

65
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • Knights story
  • he awoke in this same spot
  • and thats why hes there, pale alone
  • sojourn BUT loitering
  • movement BUT stationary
  • moved emotionally, creatively, spiritually

66
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • La Belle Dame
  • WHO is she?
  • fairy, elf, supernatural being
  • woman, beautiful
  • creativity, muse

67
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • La Belle Dame
  • THEMES based on who she is?
  • 2 different worlds, culture
  • love between 2 worlds doomed, never work
  • communication breakdowns
  • women different creatures, unknowable to men
  • assumptions of men, women need to be taken care
    of, comforted
  • men are from Mars, women are from Venus
  • unrequited love (Love Armed)
  • Dame Beauty can only be glimpsed

68
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • La Belle Dame
  • THEMES based on who she is?
  • She Muse, Knight Poet
  • men cannot live in World of Imagination
  • once in World of Imagination, men can no longer
    live in the Ordinary World
  • Poet caught between 2 worlds

69
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • THEMES
  • Love
  • dangers of love
  • danger signs at the start of relationships
  • unrequited love (Love Armed)
  • embarrassment, frustration
  • losing oneself in love, loss of control
  • despair emotionally crippled
  • shock of sudden end
  • after this love is gone now what?
  • cant go back once been there
  • supernatural?

70
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • THEMES
  • Despair
  • in life, in love
  • lost all hope
  • Nature
  • seasons in Nature
  • Nature in Death (winter, his imagery)
  • She child of Nature wild
  • food of Nature
  • home of Nature
  • Civilization vs. Natural World (Romanticism)

71
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • Knight
  • WHY is he there?
  • lost, bewildered
  • cant leave for some reason
  • cant go back to his old lifestyle
  • there looking for her again
  • wants to go back
  • there warning others against her
  • what others did in his dream hes doing in
    reality
  • The Poet-Prophet?
  • Is that the role of the Poet?

72
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • SUPERNATURAL
  • Eve of St. Agnes
  • La Belle Dame
  • STCs Christabel
  • Other related works
  • To Autumn
  • Keats celebrates the season
  • season of completion, summation, peacedeath
  • (remember, Keats is dying, brother dead)

73
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • Other related works
  • Lamia
  • female snake transforms into woman
  • man woman live in blissful love until scholar
    intervenes dispels the spell
  • suspension of conscious state (reasoning,
    thinking) magic
  • ruined by reason, logic
  • unweaving of the rainbow
  • Ode to a Nightingale
  • enthralled out of the ordinary life by beauty,
    nature
  • suspension of conscious state - reasoning,
    thinking
  • On Melancholy
  • melancholy, despair
  • only the Poet can appreciate sadness (of all
    things are ephemeral)
  • Ode on a Grecian Urn
  • a scene of beauty is captured forever
  • eternal moment better than reality

74
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • KEATS DREAMS
  • fine line between reality dream
  • dreams related to poetic vision
  • Eve of St. Agnes
  • La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • Ode to Psyche
  • Ode to a Nightingale

75
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • Like Popular Ballads
  • narrative
  • Repetitions
  • musical quality rhythm
  • noble men (victims)
  • supernatural
  • plain language
  • dialogue
  • no background
  • slide show images

76
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • Unlike Popular Ballads
  • Literary
  • allusions, imagery, craftsmanship
  • multiple meanings, themes, interpretations
  • rhyme scheme (ABCB)
  • lines 1-3 8 syllables/beats
  • last line only 4/5 syllables/beats

77
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • FEMINIST reading
  • Femme fatale, succubus Sexist?
  • powerful, beautiful women supernatural,
    succubae to weak, threatened men
  • Knight doesnt know what she says BUT assumes
    its that she loves him
  • Knight doesnt know why shes crying BUT assumes
    he needs to comfort her, that she needs him to
    comfort her, with kisses
  • She powerful
  • pretends to be weak sucks him in to traditional
    male-female role
  • has ruined men of power before

78
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • BIOGRAPHICAL reading
  • What if she is NOT
  • fairy, supernatural, proto-Feminist?
  • What if she TUBERCULOSIS?
  • effects of TB effects of Dame
  • victims pale, dying, haggard
  • Keats physician
  • Keats brother died of it
  • Keats himself would soon thereafter

79
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • OTHER readings
  • Cults Ideologies
  • Drug addiction
  • Vampires
  • Religious rapture
  • English history of fairies
  • Beauty realm of Ideals vs. of Shadows

80
La Belle Dame sans Merci
  • JW Waterhouses painting
  • lthttp//www.jwwaterhouse.com/paintings/images/wate
    rhouse_la_belle_dame_sans_merci.jpg gt
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