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Chapter 1 Food Choices and Human Health

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Chapter 1 Food Choices and Human Health Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney Nutrition on the Net Judging website credibility Who is responsible for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1 Food Choices and Human Health


1
Chapter 1 Food Choices and Human Health
  • Nutrition Concepts Controversies, 12e
    Sizer/Whitney

2
Learning Objectives
  • Discuss how particular lifestyle choices can
    either positively impact or harm overall health.
  • Define the term nutrient and be able to list the
    six major nutrients.
  • Recognize the five characteristics of a healthy
    diet and give suggestions for using them.

3
Learning Objectives
  • Summarize how a particular culture or
    circumstance can impact a persons food choices.
  • Describe and give an example of the major types
    of research studies.
  • Discuss why national nutrition survey data are
    important for the health of the population.

4
Learning Objectives
  • List the major steps in behavior change and
    devise a plan for making successful long-term
    changes in the diet.
  • Recognize misleading nutrition claims in
    advertisements for dietary supplements and in the
    popular media.

5
Introduction
  • Nutrition
  • Science
  • Studying nutrition
  • Why care about nutrition?
  • What are the nutrients in food?
  • What constitutes a nutritious diet?
  • How do we know what we know about nutrition?
  • How do people go about making changes?

6
A Lifetime of Nourishment
  • Chosen foods have a cumulative effect
  • Good health and poor health
  • Your body continuously renews itself
  • Best foods
  • Support your bodys growth maintenance
  • Malnutrition
  • Deficiencies, imbalances, and excesses

7
The Diet and Health Connection
  • Influential lifestyle habits
  • Tobacco use, alcohol use, nutritional choices
  • Chronic diseases
  • Connection with poor diet

8
Genetics and Individuality
  • Genetics and nutrition affect diseases to varying
    degrees
  • Human genome
  • DNA

9
Other Lifestyle Choices
  • Tobacco alcohol use
  • Substance abuse
  • Physical activity
  • Sleep
  • Stress
  • Environmental factors

10
Health People 2010 Nutrition Objectives for the
Nation
  • U.S. Department of Health
  • Nutrition and food-safety objectives
  • Improvements
  • Foodborne infections
  • Some cancers
  • Declines
  • Heart disease
  • Overweight people diagnosed with diabetes

11
The Human Body and Its Food
  • Your body uses energy
  • Comes indirectly from the sun
  • Six kinds of nutrients
  • Four are organic
  • Contain carbon
  • Three provide energy

12
Elements in the Six Classes of Nutrients
13
Meet the Nutrients
  • Human body food
  • Same materials
  • Different arrangements

14
Meet the Nutrients
  • Energy-yielding nutrients
  • Carbohydrates 4 cal/g
  • Fats 9 cal/g
  • Proteins 4 cal/g
  • Vitamins and minerals
  • Provide no energy
  • Some are essential
  • Scientists calculate needs

15
Can I Live on Just Supplements?
  • Elemental diets
  • Administered to severely ill people
  • Real food is superior to supplements
  • Nutrient interactions
  • Phytochemicals
  • Physical contributions
  • Psychological contributions

16
The Abundance of Foods to Choose From
  • Whole foods
  • Typical consumption
  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Types of foods
  • Fast, processed, functional, staple

17
How, Exactly, Can I Recognize a Nutritious Diet?
  • Five characteristics
  • Adequacy
  • Balance
  • Calorie control
  • Intakes should not exceed need
  • Moderation
  • Not abstinence
  • Variety

18
Why People Choose Foods
  • Eating is an intentional act
  • Factors influencing food-related choices
  • Traditional and ethnic foods
  • Convenience
  • Physical factors
  • Psychological factors
  • Social factors
  • Philosophical factors

19
The Science of Nutrition
  • Nutrition
  • Field of knowledge composed of organized facts
  • Active, changing, and growing body of knowledge
  • The scientific approach
  • Systematic process to answer questions
  • Scientific challenge
  • Theories

20
The Scientific Method
21
Types of Studies
  • Case study
  • Examples
  • Epidemiological study
  • Correlation
  • Intervention study
  • Blind studies
  • Laboratory study
  • Example

22
Examples of Research Design
23
Can I Trust the Media to Deliver Nutrition News?
  • Training of news media
  • Sensationalism
  • Be a trend watcher
  • Read news with an educated eye
  • Published in peer-reviewed journal
  • Description of research methods subjects
  • Findings presented in context of previous research

24
National Nutrition Research
  • National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys
    (NHANES)
  • What people eat
  • Recording of health status
  • Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals
    (CSFII)
  • What people eat for two days
  • Comparing foods eaten with recommendations

25
A Guide for Behavior Change
  • Behavior change takes substantial effort
  • Six stages of change
  • Assessment and goals
  • Realistic goals
  • Obstacles to change
  • Competence
  • Confidence
  • Motivation

26
Stages of Behavior Change
27
Adequate Nutrients Without Excessive Calories
  • Evaluate nutrient density
  • Vegetables have high nutrient density
  • Time for food preparation
  • Options to save time
  • Foods to avoid
  • Combining foods into meals

28
A Way to Judge Which Foods Are Most Nutritious
29
Sorting the Imposters from the Real Nutrition
Experts
  • Controversy 1

30
Information Sources Costs of Wrong Choices
  • Quackery
  • Sources of nutrition information
  • Television and magazines
  • Nutrition-related products and services
  • Billions in customer dollars
  • Identifying quackery

31
Earmarks of Nutrition Quackery
32
Identifying Valid Nutrition Information
  • Characteristics of scientific research
  • Properly designed scientific experiments
  • Inadequacy of anecdotal evidence
  • Animal findings applied to humans
  • Careful with generalizations
  • Report of findings in scientific journals

33
Credible Source of Nutrition Information
  • American Dietetic Association
  • www.eatright.org
  • National Council Against Health Fraud
  • www.ncahf.org
  • American Council on Science and health
  • www.acsh.org

34
Nutrition on the Net
  • Judging website credibility
  • Who is responsible for the site?
  • Do the names and credentials of information
    providers appear?
  • Are links with other reliable information sites
    provided?
  • Is the site updated regularly?
  • Is the site selling a product or service?
  • Does the site charge a fee to gain access?

35
True Nutrition Experts
  • American Dietetic Association (ADA)
  • Registered dietitian (RD)
  • Certified diabetes educator
  • Public health nutritionist
  • Dietetic technician
  • Dietetic technician registered

36
True Nutrition Experts
  • Credentials
  • Accredited institution
  • Licensing
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