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HS: Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006 First and Second Language Acquisition

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Title: HS: Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006 First and Second Language Acquisition


1
HS Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS
2006 First and Second Language Acquisition
  • Tatiana Prozorova (HS/TN) Irina Novikava (HS/TN)
  • Alexandra Wolek (HS/LN)
  • Vanessa Hollands (HS/LN)
  • Verena Scheulen (HS/LN)
  • Nadiya Sowa (HS/LN)
  • Kirsten Leicht (HS/TN)

2
Overview
  • Instruction and Second Language Acquisition
  • Variation in Child Language
  • Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition
  • Social and Discourse Aspects of Interlanguage
  • Psycholinguistic Aspects of Interlanguage
  • Contrastive Linguistics

3
Instruction and Second Language Acquisition
  • Tatiana Prozorova
  • Irina Novikava

4
Structure
  • main theories dealing with instruction in L2
    acquisition
  • effectiveness of instruction
  • key principles for an effective instruction
  • instructions appropriate to each acquisition
    stage
  • ten things the teacher can do to improve
    instruction for ELL students

5
Introduction
  • Grammar Translation Method
  • non-communicative approach that relies on reading
    and translation, mastery of grammatical rules and
    accurate writing
  • Audiolingual Method
  • non-communicative approach that involves heavy
    use of mimicry, imitations and drill. Speech, not
    writing is emphasised
  • Communicative Language Teaching
  • is based on the assumption that learners do not
    need to be taught grammar before they can
    communicate but will acquire it naturally as part
    of the process of learning to communicate

6
Basic theories of L2 acquisition
  • "Comprehensible Input" hypothesis (by Stephen
    Krashen)
  • learners acquire language by "intaking" and
    understanding language that is a "little beyond"
    their current level of competence
  • "Comprehensible Output" hypothesis (by Merrill
    Swain and others)
  • providing learners with opportunities to use the
    language and skills they have acquired, at a
    level in which they are competent, is almost as
    important as giving students the appropriate
    level of input
  • Affective Filter hypothesis (by Krashen and
    Terrell)
  • individuals emotions can directly assist in the
    learning of a new language

7
Basic theories of L2 acquisition
  • Basic interpersonal communications skills (BICS)
    and cognitive academic language proficiency
    (CALP)
  • Context-embedded communication
  • provides several communicative supports to the
    listener or reader(objects, gestures, vocal
    inflections)
  • Context-reduced communication
  • provides fewer communicative clues to support
    understanding
  • Cognitively undemanding communication
  • requires a minimal amount of abstract or critical
    thinking
  • Cognitively demanding communication
  • requires a learner to analyze and synthesize
    information quickly and contains abstract or
    specialized concepts

8
Four key principles for an effective instruction
  • Increase Comprehensibility
  • involves the ways in which teachers can make
    content more understandable to their students
  • Increase Interaction
  • language skills are used in real-life situations
  • Increase Thinking/Study Skills
  • advanced thinking skills are developed
  • Use a students native language to increase
    comprehensibility

9
Examples of Instructional Strategies
  • Silent/ Receptive Stage I
  • Use of visual aids and gestures
  • Slow speech emphasizing key words
  • Do not force oral production
  • Write key words on the board with students
    copying them as they are presented
  • Use pictures and manipulatives to help illustrate
    concepts
  • Use multimedia language role models
  • Use interactive dialogue journals
  • Encourage choral readings
  • Use Total Physical Response (TPR) techniques

10
Examples of Instructional Strategies
  • Early Production Stage II
  • Engage students in charades and linguistic
    guessing games
  • Do role-playing activities
  • Present open-ended sentences
  • Promote open dialogues
  • Conduct student interviews with the guidelines
    written out
  • Use charts, tables, graphs, and other conceptual
    visuals
  • Use newspaper ads and other mainstream materials
    to encourage language interaction
  • Encourage partner and trio readings

11
Examples of Instructional Strategies
  • Speech Emergence Stage III
  • Conduct group discussions
  • Use skits for dramatic interaction
  • Have student fill out forms and applications
  • Assign writing compositions
  • Have students write descriptions of visuals and
    props
  • Use music, TV, and radio with class activities
  • Show filmstrips and videos with cooperative
    groups scripting the visuals
  • Encourage solo readings with interactive
    comprehension checks

12
Examples of Instructional Strategies
  • Intermediate /Advanced Proficiency Stages IV V
  • Sponsor student panel discussions on the thematic
    topics
  • Have students identify a social issue and defend
    their position
  • Promote critical analysis and evaluation of
    pertinent issues
  • Assign writing tasks that involve writing,
    rewriting, editing, critiquing written examples
  • Encourage critical interpretation of stories,
    legends, and poetry
  • Have students design questions, directions, and
    activities for others to follow
  • Encourage appropriate story telling

13
Ten Things the Teacher Can Do To Improve
Instruction
  • Enunciate clearly, but do not raise your voice.
    Add gestures, point directly to objects, or draw
    pictures when appropriate
  • Write clearly, legibly, and in printmany ELL
    students have difficulty reading cursive
  • Develop and maintain routines. Use clear and
    consistent signals for classroom instructions
  • Repeat information and review frequently. If a
    student does not understand, try rephrasing or
    paraphrasing in shorter sentences and simpler
    syntax. Check often for understanding, but do not
    ask "Do you understand?" Instead, have students
    demonstrate their learning in order to show
    comprehension

14
Ten Things the Teacher Can Do To Improve
Instruction
  • Try to avoid idioms and slang words
  • Present new information in the context of known
    information
  • Announce the lessons objectives and activities,
    and list instructions step-by-step
  • Present information in a variety of ways
  • Provide frequent summations of the salient points
    of a lesson, and always emphasize key vocabulary
    words
  • Recognize student success overtly and frequently.
    But, also be aware that in some cultures overt,
    individual praise is considered inappropriate and
    can therefore be embarrassing or confusing to the
    student

15
Conclusion
  • The main theories dealing with instructions in L2
    acquisition have been considered
  • Instruction can be both successful and
    non-successful
  • Four key principles for an effective instruction
    have been pointed out
  • Examples of concrete instructions appropriate to
    each acquisition stage have been introduced

16
  • http//www.nwrel.org/request/2003may/general.html
  • Rod Ellis Second Language Acquisition. Oxford
    University Press
  • Thank you for your attention!

17
NEXT PART
18
Language and the Brain Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006
Variation in child language
Aleksandra Wolek (Hauptstudium LN)
19
Content
  • Characteristics considering first language
    acquisition
  • Basic requirements for first language acquisition
  • Variation in child language
  • Variation in rate
  • Variation in route
  • Types of variation
  • Direct indirect influences
  • Summary
  • Conclusion

20
Characteristics considering first language
acquisition
  • It is remarkable for its speed
  • In normal conditions language acquisition
    generally occurs
  • Small differences in a range of social and
    cultural factors have, according to various
    studies, no meaning
  • Belief that there is some innate predisposition
    of human child to acquire language exists

TRUTH each human child posses a language
-faculty
21
Basic requirements for first language acquisition
  • Biological aspects must be fulfilled
  • This process requires interaction
  • Language must be culturally trasmitted

22
Variation in child language
  • Variation in rate
  • Variation in route

23
Types of variation
Inherited attributes Sex, intelligence,
personality and learning style
Situation setting, activity, number of
participants
Social background Family structure, cultural
environment, social group affiliation
Child's linguistic behaviour
Style of linguistic interaction interpersonal
relations etc.
24
Direct indirect influences
  • Indirect influence
  • Social background
  • Direct influences
  • Inherited attributes
  • Situation
  • Style of linguistic interaction

25
Inherited attributes
  • Sex
  • no genetic superiority of girls
  • Intelligence
  • correlation between language and intelligence
    strongly related to environmental variation
  • Personality and learning style
  • no strong evidence for such relationship,
    still demands researching

26
Situation
  • Setting
  • Activity
  • Number of participants
  • all factors are very significant
  • for child's linguistic behaviour

27
Style of linguistic interaction
  • Interpersonal relations
  • Parental child-rearing methods
  • relationship between experience of
  • linguistic interaction and patters of
    language learning is very complex
  • and variable

28
Social background
  • Family structure
  • cultural environment
  • social group affiliation
  • child's linguistic behaviour depends, for sure,
    on all these factors, however, the size and
    nature of this variation is unknown

29
Summary
  • Characteristics considering first language
    acquisition
  • Basic requirements
  • Review of the major dimensions of variation in
    child's language behaviour
  • Evaluation of significance of these factors

30
Conclusion
  • It is still a young discipline
  • There is a need for further research
  • There is a need for a theory or theories
    integrating all observations and results

31
References
  • Wells, Gordon , Variation in child language,
    In Fletcher, Paul and Garman, Michael 1997.
    Language Acquisition. Cambridge University
    Press.
  • Yule, George 1996. The study of language.
    Cambridge University Press.

32
  • THE END!!!
  • Thank you for your attention!

33
Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS
2006 Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition
  • Vanessa Hollands (Hs/LN)

34
Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition
  • Content
  • Introduction
  • Piagets Theory
  • Vygotskys Theory
  • Conclusion

35
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Introduction
  • Language acquisition does not take place in a
    vacuum. As children acquire language, they
    acquire a sign system which bears important
    relationships to both cognitive and social
    aspects of their life.

36
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Introduction
  • Psychosocial aspects of language acquisition are
  • mainly concerned about how language, thought
  • and social interaction interrelate in the childs
  • development.
  • Does social interaction influence the
    childs language acquisition?

37
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Piagets Theory
  • Piaget focuses on the childs cognitive
  • development, which he describes as resulting
  • from the internalization of the means-ends
  • organization of the sensorimotor activity
  • achieved in early development.

38
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Piagets Theory
  • He sees the childrens use of language as one
  • among many behavoirs following principles of
  • organization and mechanisms of development
  • which are themselves autonomous .
  • autonomy and causal priority
  • cognitive development is in principle both
    autonomous from language development
  • and causal prior to it

39
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Piagets Theory
  • The nature of childrens language at any
  • particular time is explained as being merely one
  • of the many symptoms which reflect a
  • particular stage in their underlying cognitive
  • structure.
  • language as one phenomena among others, which
    can be explained in biological principles

40
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Piagets Theory
  • The childs cognitive development is relatively
  • autonomous, not only independent from
  • language, but also from social interaction.
  • social interaction as secondary
  • social interaction explained in logico-
  • mathematical principles

41
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Piagets Theory
  • Critique
  • Adult-child interaction can affect childrens
    reasoning about social or nonsocial objects.
  • There are reasoning processes in adult-child
    interaction, which cannot be reduced to
    individual units.

42
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Piagets Theory
  • Egocentricity
  • The childs egocentricity results from his lack
    of
  • decentering. His language, having private
  • characteristics, is at first not adapted to
    social
  • communicative situations. It becomes socialized
    at a
  • later point in development as in decentering the
    childs
  • cognitive organization allows him to participate
    in social
  • interaction.
  • child talks about what he does and is not
  • concerned about being understood
  • speech does not seem to have a real function

43
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Vygotskys Theory
  • Vygotskys approach to the inter-relations of
  • language, thought and social interaction is to
  • view language as a multifunctional and context-
  • dependent system mediating simultaneously
  • cognitive and social development.

44
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Vygotskys Theory
  • Vygotsky defines language as primary, context-
  • dependent and social natured.
  • Language development is the principal motor of
  • development, as it mediates the childs
    participation in
  • both the intellectual and social life surrounding
    him.
  • cognitive development is not independent from
    signs

45
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Vygotskys Theory
  • He sees a constant interaction between
  • language development and cognitive
  • development, such that thought is neither
  • autonomous from language nor causally prior
  • To it.
  • The use of a sign system such as language are
  • necessary for the development of uniquely
  • higher mental functions.

46
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Vygotskys Theory
  • The cognitive development is necessary
  • dependent on the fact that language is
  • multifunctional
  • Its a sign system which is simultaneously used
    for abstract representation
  • and for social interactive contexts.
  • The context-dependent indicatory aspects of
  • communication in social interaction are primary
    and
  • constitute the foundation for the development of
  • abstract reference-and-predication.

47
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Vygotskys Theory
  • Zone of proximal development
  • It can be generally described in terms of the
  • processes of social interaction between adults
  • and children which allow children to organize
  • complex series of actions in problem-solving
  • situations before they have the mental
  • capacities to decide on the actions on their
  • own.
  • shift from interpsychological to
    intrapsychological
  • function

48
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Vygotskys Theory
  • How does this shift in function take place?
  • According to Vygotskys principle of semiotic
    mediation, there are specifically communicative
    processes, and most importantly the processes
    that involve language, which make this shift
    possible.

49
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Vygotskys Theory
  • Egocentricity
  • At first, speech accompanies ongoing actions in
    the context of utterance, serving as a means of
    social contact with others. At a later point,
    when speech has been differentiated it forms a
    system which is multifunctional for the adult
  • used externally - social function
  • used internally mental function
  • change in different functions

50
Psychosocial Aspects of Language
Acquisition Conclusion
  • Contrast between Piaget and Vygotsky
  • Whether or not they give language development a
    special status in relation to other aspects of
    developments
  • Whether or not they see language as inherently
    social or more precisely as multifunctional

51
Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition
  • Thanks for your attention!

52
Psychosocial Aspects of Language Acquisition
  • Literature
  • Maya Hickmann, Psychosocial aspects of language
    acquisition, In Paul Flether Garmen, Language
    Acqusition,

53
Language and the Mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 06
Social and Discourse aspects of interlanguage
Verena Scheulen Hauptstudium LN
54
Social aspects
  • Socio-cultural models seek to explain
  • Speed of learning
  • Ultimate level of proficiency
  • in everyday communication

55
  • Accomodation Theory (Giles)
  • Convergence ?? Divergence
  • Speakers indicate cohesiveness or distinctiveness
    from a social group
  • L2 acquisition long-term convergence
  • Acculturation model (Schumann)
  • Willingness or ability to become part of the new
    culture
  • Social distance
  • How do the L2 group and the target language group
    see each other?
  • Are they equal?
  • Does the target language group want the L2 group
    to become a part?
  • Etc.
  • See also stylistic continuum (Tarone) and Social
    Identity (Peirce)

56
  • Social aspects influence
  • The opportunity for conversations
  • The kind of conversations
  • The commitment to learning the language

57
Discourse aspects - the role of input and
interaction
  • Foreigner talk
  • Ungrammatical
  • Often implies lack of respect
  • Certain grammatical features are left out, such
    as be, modal verbs (can, must), base forms
    instead of past tense, etc.
  • Grammatical
  • Slower pace
  • Simplified e.g. shorter sentences, avoidance of
    subordinate clauses, no complex grammatical
    forms, lengthening of phrases, etc.

58
Examples
59
  • Negotiation of meaning
  • Example
  • And then he put it in his knee.
  • He put it on his knee?

60
  • The relevance for L2 learning
  • Foreigner talk comprehensible input
  • Negotiation of meaning
  • negative evidence
  • corrected input
  • concerns aspects they have not mastered yet
  • See also theories by Krashen (Input hypothesis),
    Long (interaction hypothesis), Hatch and the
    activity theory based on Vygotsky

61
Conclusion
  • Social aspects determine
  • Extent/kind of contact
  • Commitment
  • Discourse aspects may contribute
  • Modified input
  • Negotiation of meaning

62
References
  • Ellis,Rod (1997). Second Language Acquisition.
    Oxford University Press.

63
Psycholinguistic Aspects of Interlanguage
  • Nadiya Sowa (Hauptstudium LN)

64
Overview
  • introduction
  • acquisition models
  • two types of computational model
  • conclusion
  • references

65
Introduction
  • Psycholinguistics is the study of the mental
    structures and processes involved in the
    acquisition and use of language.
  • L1 transfer
  • the role of consciousness
  • processing operations
  • communication strategies

66
L1 transfer
  • L1 transfer refers to the influence of the
    learners L1 on the acquisition of a L2. The
    learners L1 is one of the sources of error in
    learner language, this influence is called
    negative transfer
  • Nevertheless, in some cases, L1 makes an
    acquisition of L2 less difficult.
  • Example The man whom I spoke to him is a
    teacher
  • positive transfer
  • The influence of L1 can also result in avoidance
  • Example Chinese and Japanese languages dont
    contain relative clauses
  • Japanese and Chinese learners of English avoid
    the usage of these structures
  • On the other hand, L1 transfer may be reflected
    in the overuse of some forms
  • Example Chinese learners tend to overuse
    expressions of regret in English, because of
    norms of their mother tongue

67
L1 transfer
  • Influence of behaviourism it was believed that
    habits of the L1 prevent the learner from
    learning the habits of the L2
  • contrastive analysis
  • In the early 1970s behaviourism falls out of
    favour two developments
  • The first one some theorists try to play down
    the role of L1
  • The other one (represented by Larry Selinker)
    learners dont construct rules in vacuum, they
    work with whatever information is at their
    disposal. Knowledge of L1 is included. Selinker
    identifies language transfer as one of the mental
    processes responsible for fossilization
  • According to Eric Kellerman, learners are able
    to distinguish between potentially transferable
    and non-transferable features
  • Example Hij brak zijn been. (He broke his leg.)
    Het ondergrondse verset werd gebroken. (The
    underground resistance was broken.)

68
The Role of Consciousness
  • Stephen Krashen distinguishes between acquired
    L2 knowledge and learned. The first one is
    developed subconsciously through comprehending
    input during the act of communication, the second
    one is developed consciously through deliberate
    study of the L2
  • Richard Schmidt distinguishes between
    consciousness as intentionality and
    consciousness as attention
  • noticing
  • awareness

69
Processing Operations
  • operating principles
  • Avoidance of interruption and rearrangement of
    linguistic units
  • Avoidance of exceptions
  • Example My brother made me to give him some
    money.
  • Roger Anderson defines macro principles
  • Example noverb negatives to perform
    statements
  • dontverb negatives to
    perform commands
  • processing constraints
  • multidimensional model
  • developmental axis
  • Example Gestern ich gehe ins Kino. (Yesterday I
    go to the cinema.)
  • Gestern gehe ich ins Kino.
    (Yesterday go I to the cinema.)
  • variational axis
  • socio-psychological factors

70
Communication Strategies
  • model of speech production
  • a planning phase
  • an execution phase

71
Two Types of Computational Model
  • serial procesing (presupposes rule or
    strategy)
  • parallel distributed processing (rejects the
    whole notion of rule)

72
Conclusion
  • L1 influences the acquisition of L2 (positive and
    negative)
  • the role of consciousness is one of the most
    controversial issues in SLA
  • all acquisition models represent more theoretical
    material than practical application and demand
    further investigation

73
References
  • Ellis,Rod (1997). Second Language Acquisition.
    Oxford University Press.

74
Thank you for your attention!
75
Language and the mind Prof. R. Hickey SS 2006
Contrastive Linguistics
Kirsten Leicht TN Hauptstudium
76
Introduction
  • What I am going to tell you.
  • What is Contrastive Linguistics?
  • Interference
  • Differences in special areas
  • Phonology
  • Morphology
  • Nominal area
  • Syntax
  • Semantics
  • Idioms and Collocations
  • Pragmatics
  • Conclusion

77
What is Contrastive Linguistics?
  • it means comparing the structures of two
    present-day languages
  • goal is an immediate desire like improving
    instruction in one of the languages examined
  • it is
  • synchronically oriented
  • not concerned with genetic similarities
  • two languages
  • bound to a particular linguistic theory
  • divided into applied and theoretical sections
  • we will focus on the applied sections

78
Interference
  • transferring of structural features of ones
    native language when learning a second
    language
  • positive and negative transfer
  • negative transfer is called interference
  • four main types of interference
  • substitution a learner uses an already acquired
    element for one he does not yet possess, e.g. w
    for r in wein rain
  • over-and under-differentiation in early language
    acquisition clause types are under-differentiated,
    as more parataxis than hypotaxis is used
    over-differentiation use of several different
    verbs by English speakers of German, where
    Germans would just have machen
  • Over-indulgence and under-representation
    repeated use of structures, words, lack of
    special structures, words,
  • over-generalisation e.g. Mama comed home

79
Contrastive Phonology
  • tradition of incorrect pronunciation, e.g.
    /berlin vs. ber/lin pronounced consistently in
    an incorrect manner
  • transfer from principle in German to English,
    although it is incorrect e.g. voiced vs.
    voiceless s after n,l,r conversation
  • mixed pronunciation, e.g. Hifi haifi vs.
    haifai
  • allophonic differences, e.g. (ch) in Buch or Pech
  • contrastive stress
  • phenomenon of level stress in English where two
    or more elements have equal stress
  • e.g. /Second/World/War vs. \Zweiter/Welt\Krieg
    /Hong/Kong /Hong\Kong
  • different stress in noun and adjective, e.g.
    /content (noun) and con/tent (adjective)

80
Contrastive morphology
  • comparative forms of adjectives in English
    Romanic vs. Germanic, e.g. tall taller-tallest
    vs. terrible-more terrible-most terrible
  • two cases in English vs. four cases in German
  • affixation in German vs. Lexicalisation in
    English e.g. ver- used as a prefix to indicate a
    reversal in meaning, in English different words
  • mieten-vermieten rent-let
  • kaufen-verkaufen buy-sell
  • compounding German favours compounding whereas
    the English equivalents are lexicalised or
    arrived at by paraphrase, e.g.
  • snow-sleet vs. Schnee-Schneeregen
  • cup-saucer vs. Tasse-Untertasse
  • bissfeste Kartoffeln crunchy potatoes
  • ein schmerzarmer Tag a day with little pain
  • one should resist to translate piece by piece

81
Differences in the nominal area
  • use of the definite article not used with
    abstract terms, only if a qualifying clause or
    element follows, e.g.
  • She is interested in philosophy. vs. The
    philosophy of Kant.
  • singular and plural
  • formation of plurals in English, e. g. knife
    knives or thief thieves
  • formal plurals with singular meaning, e.g.
    contents der Inhalt or means das/die Mittel
  • Informationen information, Verwirrungen
    confusion
  • differences in singular and plural requirements,
    e.g.
  • Hose trousers, Schere scissors, die Möbel
    furniture
  • prepositional usage no hard and fast rule,
  • e.g. on foot zu Fuss, by train mit dem Zug
  • to fill in ausfüllen
  • to stand out - auffallen

82
Contrastive Syntax
  • different complement types complements are parts
    of a sentence which
  • follow a verb
  • e.g. He wants her to sing a song. (infinitive
    complement)
  • Er will, dass sie ein Lied singt. (causal
    complement)
  • He saw him running away. (participle
    construction)
  • Er sah ihn weglaufen. (infinitive
    complement)
  • passive constructions in some passive sentences
    English allows the original direct object to
    remain in its slot and only shifts the indirect
    object to subject position.
  • e.g. They gave him the book. -
    He was given the book.
  • i.o. d.o.
  • Sie gaben ihm das Buch. -
    Er wurde das Buch gegeben.
  • In German this is strictly forbidden.

83
Contrastive Syntax
  • prepositions
  • preposition vs. no preposition
  • e.g. Er ist Freitag abgereist. He departed on
    Friday.
  • 1980 ist er nach München gezogen. He moved to
    Munich in 1980.
  • - prepositional distinctions e.g. in time
    rechtzeitig, on time zur rechten Zeit

84
Contrastive Semantics
  • unusualness of English words many words are not
    very common in everyday usage, e.g. sibling vs.
    brothers and sisters
  • differing range e.g. Freundin female friend,
    girlfriend
  • false friends a word in the native language
    sounds similar to one in the foreign language
    different meaning
  • e.g. aktuell topical actual tatsächlich
  • dumm stupid dumb stumm
  • Gift poison gift Geschenk
  • sensibel sensitive sensible vernünfti
    g
  • equivalents one word in German often has more
    than one equivalent in English and the other way
    round, e.g.
  • glücklich happy, lucky
  • seit for, since
  • dress Kleidung, Kleid
  • go gehen, fahren

85
Idioms and Collocations
  • collocation a sequence of words or terms which
    co-occur more often than would be expected
  • equivalents can have different collocations e.g.
    krönend crowning
  • A crowning achievment. Eine Spitzenleistung
  • Der krönende Abschluss. The final flourish.
  • Ein preisgekröntes Buch. An award-winning book.
  • A crowning achievment. Eine Spitzenleistung
  • Der krönende Abschluss. The final flourish.
  • Ein preisgekröntes Buch. An award-winning book.
  • dictionaries dont provide enough information on
    the usage of the words
  • idioms
  • small number of idioms which are identical, e.g.
    Too many cooks spoil the broth.
  • idioms which are not quite the same, i.e. they
    are similar in their content, but slightly
    different in their form
  • e.g. Zwei Fliegen mit einer Klappe schlagen
  • To kill two birds with one stone.

86
Idioms and Collocations
  • die Daumen drücken
  • keep your fingers crossed
  • ganz Ohr sein
  • to be all ears
  • Eulen nach Athen tragen
  • to bring coals to Newcastle
  • rhyme-motivated compounds vs. alliterations
  • e.g. leagle eagle Staranwalt Kind und Kegel
  • shop till you drop über Stock und Stein,
  • dream-team,

87
Contrastive Pragmatics
  • use of discourse particles, e.g. oder? in German
    as a discourse particle is not or? in English
  • third person reference In England it is regarded
    as very impolite to refer to a third person who
    is present by means of a pronoun. In German it is
    quite acceptable.

88
Conclusion
  • in Contrastive Linguistics the structures of two
    present-day languages are compared to achieve
    an immediate aim
  • in many respects (phonology, morphology,
    syntax,) English and German differ in their
    structure
  • learners should be constantly aware of these
    differences to avoid too much interference
  • teachers should be aware of the danger of
    interference and should prevent this by naming
    the differences and talking about them in class,
    so that pupils cannot make up negative transfer
    on their own

89
References
  • ELE Multimedia, Version April 2003
  • Crystal, D. (1997) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of
    Language. Second Edition. Cambridge University
    Press.
  • Fisiak, J. (1981) Contrastive Linguistics and the
    Language Teacher. Oxford Pergamon Institute of
    English.
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