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Climate, Agricultural, and Industry

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Climate, Agricultural, and Industry Geog410 Applied Climatology Agricultural has evolved into a highly technical field. Dramatic changes occurred in the 20th century ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Climate, Agricultural, and Industry


1
Climate, Agricultural, and Industry
  • Geog410 Applied Climatology

2
  • Agricultural has evolved into a highly technical
    field.
  • Dramatic changes occurred in the 20th century
    genetics, improved fertilizers, increased disease
    resistance, and the substantial input of energy
    into farming methods has dramatically increased
    on productivity. However
  • The prevailing climate of a region still places
    distinct limitations on what crops can be grown
    and, in part, determining the hazards to which
    the crops are exposed.
  • Example bananas will not grow in Wisconsin
    Deciduous fruit trees will not fruit in tropics
    Climate has impact on quality (protein content)
    of wheat. Highest protein content wheat is in
    wheat belts of North America and black-steppe
    area pf the former U.S.S. R (mid-lat grassland
    biomes of the world) But hazards for wheat are
    still problems hailstones. Example a single
    storm in Nebraska destroyed 3 million bushels of
    standing wheat.
  • Energy input sunlight, fuel for tractors, food
    for the farm workers
  • Monoculture
  • Pro maximize the benefits of this energy
    supplant and obtain highest yield for all input.
  • Con it contrasts to climax ecosystem, where
    diversity is a key to the maintenance of the
    system
  • Example Boll Weevil problem in the cotton belt
    of southern US
  • Potato famine of Ireland and Europe, 1840s
    (potato blight led to 2 million death).

3
  • Due to the weather-related risks in agricultural
    practices, some adaptations have been made to
    ease the vulnerability
  • Risk spreading though insurance schemes and
    cooperative farming schemes
  • Environmental manipulation (irrigation and
    fertilization)
  • Managed diversification (crop rotation and
    dual-purpose livestock)
  • Modified farming system (modified crop calendar
    and improved storage)

4
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5
Relocation of plants based on climate conditions
  • Banana is native to SE Asia, now spread into
    tropical America
  • Potato originated in America, now in Europe
  • Sugar cane from SE Asia, now in tropical America
  • Rubber trees from equatorial rainforest in
    Amazon basin, now are in plantations in SE Asia.
  • Relocation results in better yields
  • Native place, they are integral part of the
    environment, thus susceptible to pests and the
    competition of other plants of that origin.
    Through transportation natural limiting factors
    are removed
  • Due to purpose of production, they are treated
    with special care and afforded much attention.

6
Extending climate limits
  • 1. Frost protection
  • Radiation frost occurs
  • at local area Advection
  • frost is caused by cold air
  • flowing into region and covers a wider areas (cP
    air from North)
  • Plant way from cold valley (above inversion)
  • Heater to mix air
  • Sprinkling and flooding to increase thermal
    conductivity, reduce excessive cooling, supply
    latent heat
  • Brushing cover up plants to reduce nighttime
    radiation loss

7
  • 2. irrigation water required by a plant to
    function at its maximum capacity (PE) design
    irrigation system using water budget.
  • Three areas need augmentation of precipitation
  • Perpetual drought (desert)
  • Seasonally water deficit
  • Periodic drought

8
Thornthwaite and Mathers Water Budget Calculation
  • Rules
  • When P is larger than PE, excess water will go to
    recharge soil moisture until it reaches the field
    capacity, then leftover will be runoff
  • When PE is larger than P, plants draw moisture
    from soil and the soil storage falls below
    capacity
  • Actual evapotranspiration (AE)
  • If PgtPE, AEPE
  • If PltPE, AEP absolute value of storage change
  • 4. Deficit occurs when AEltPE
  • 5. After deficit period, (when P becomes gtPE),
    excessive water will recharge soil to capacity
    before surplus (or runoff) occurs

9
Climatic water budget for Wilmington, DE (using
handout soil moisture table)
10
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12
Climate and Crop Yield light, heat and moisture
condition are the most important factors
  • Light
  • (1)Photosynthesis carbonwatersolar
    energyhexose sugaroxygen (sun light determine
    the rate of photosynthsis)
  • (2) Photoperiodism plants response to the length
    of the daylight hours
  • Long-day plants flower only when daylight is
    greater than 14hours
  • Short-day plants flower only when daylight is
    less than 14hours
  • Day-neutral plants bud under any period of
    illumination
  • Intermediate plants flower with 12 to 14 hours
    of daylight but not outside these limits

13
  • (2) Temperature
  • Tropical plants 20-30C(68-86F)
  • Mid-latitude plants 15 to 20C (59-68F)
  • Growing degree days (GDD) degrees accumulated
    above a certain baseline (depending on plants)
  • Sunflower and potatoes 45F corn and soybeans
    50F
  • Agriclimatology

14
Industry and Climate
  • Primary industries exploitation of raw materials
    and foodstuffs directly from the physical
    environment (agricultural, forestry, mining)
  • Secondary industries utilize resources gained
    from primary activities for further processing
    (iron and steel work foodstuff processing)
  • Tertiary industries services, professional
    services, trading and tourism.
  • Factors contribute to industry location
    historical influence, provision of raw materials,
    availability of fuel and power resources, supply
    of labor and market consideration.
  • Climate impact may be hard to assess even it
    could be a major one
  • (1) Historical influence of climate
  • Example aircraft industry in California. Early
    aircraft manufacturers are attracted to locations
    with mild winter and light wind (flying weather)
    lower heating degree days.
  • Movie industry in southern California early
    cameras required natural light, sunny climate
    provide long hours of outdoor shooting. Also,
    geographical diversity in topography, vegetation,
    landforms etc are convenient within driving
    distance.
  • (2) Climate impact raw material
  • Large industrial processing plants appear where
    raw materials are found. Example meat-packing
    and grain-processing in American Midwest
    location of pulp and paper mills in the forest
    belt of Canada.
  • (3) Climate impact on production
  • West Africa is the major producer of cocoa.
    Western European countries are the main
    producers of chocolate and related products. The
    hot, humid conditions of the production areas
    would necessitate high-cost facilities to stop
    chocolate products from melting air-conditioned
    storage and shippig facilities are needed

15
  • (4) Climate impact on energy production
  • Hydroelectric power replies on sustained flow of
    water over a gradient. This is most often
    achieve by construction of dams to create large
    lakes. Example Hoover Dan over desert. Water
    comes from Lake Mead on the Colorado river,
    precipitation comes from Rockies. (precipitation)
  • Solar energy passive solar collectors mounted on
    the roof, heat energy collected is transferred to
    home by circulating air or fluids through a pipe
    system and its often used for water heating.
    (Sunny region)
  • Wind Energy has a long history. Sailing,
    windmills, wind-driven water pump, etc. Example
    wind farms at Atamont Pass in CA has 7000 wind
    turbines and supplies 1 of Californias energy
    use. (large wind speed).
  • (5) Climate Attracts workers
  • Example rapid growth of the sun-belt states is
    indicative of the attractiveness of a warm,
    almost winter-free environment.

16
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17
  • (6) Climate impact on transportation
  • Atmospheric condition for flight taking off,
    landing and flying condition. Icing, in-cloud
    turbulence, optimum cruise latitude, above ground
    wind.
  • Example icing formation of ice on
    lift-producing surfaces (wings, control surface
    propellers) so that smooth flow of air over such
    airfoils is interrupted. It occurs in clouds
    temperature slightly above freezing to -20C (-4F)
    when super-cooled water droplet exist
  • In cumuliform clouds formation of clear ice,
    heavier and more dangers
  • In stratiform clouds rime ice (smaller)
  • Turbulence irregular motion of air over short
    distances in atmosphere. Example downbursts or
    microburst associated with Thunderstorms. (using
    Doppler Radar to detect)
  • Clear-air turbulence 9-13KM height associated
    with strong vertical wind sheers and two
    different air masses on either side of the sheer
    (need to use microwave radar, optical or laser
    radar, and infrared sensors to detect
  • Fog in airports (using cloud seeding)
  • Shipping related to marine climate. Avoid
    violent storms at seas, heavy fogs cause ship
    accidents ice-free port for dock the ship. 32F
    line along 40N of Northwest U.S. In Sandinavia,
    located at 60N (affected by warm Atlantic ocean
    current)
  • Land transportations snow, ice, fog, flowing
    dust, frost heave ice grow in the form of lenses
    or veins inside soil, resulting surface raising
    (uneven surface).

18
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19
Fogs
  • Fog suspension of very small water droplets in
    the air the reduces visibility to less than 1KM
    (5/8th mile)

20
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21
Clouds
22
Ocean Currents
23
Thunderstorms
Severe T-storms ¾ inch hail and/or wind guests
of 50knots. The storm is considered ended 15
minutes after the last thunder clap is heard. In
dry climate, t-storms often occur without
measurable precipitation
24
T-storm formation
Conditions (1) Source of moist air and a
mechanism to produce required uplift (2) A
mechanism to initiate cumulonimbus cloud
development (intense convective activity or
forced uplift at fronts or squall lines Squall
line a narrow band of active t-storm or
instability line. Normally ahead of a cold front
25
Impact on Tourism
  • The worlds fastest growing industry. In some
    places, are the main source of national income.
    Example Bahamas and Cayman islands (80)
  • If not include cultural attraction (Paris,
    London, Religious Rome or Mecca), selection of a
    site to spend a vacation is most often weather
    related
  • Conditions
  • 1. Reliable weather at all time (Sun and sands)
    Caribbean and Hawaiian islands Canary Islands or
    the Riviera Coasts
  • 2. A set of condition for specialized sports
    (mountain resorts of the Alps and Rockies depends
    on snow wind for surfing in lakes or sea longer
    playing season for golfing hot-air ballooning,
    kite, hiking
  • 3. Indoor stadiums (climate controlled
    environment). Super Bowl and college Bowl games
    are either indoor stadiums or sun-belt cities

26
Impact on commerce
  • Climate affects business on malls or shopping
    centers
  • Regional climate determines the demand for the
    type of goods sold, weather conditions influences
    the day-to-day variations in spending
  • In large seasonal variation areas, stocks in
    store also change greatly
  • Both good and bad weather can influence retail
    sales
  • Bad weather prevent people from reaching stores
    (snow or people does not want get out of the
    house)
  • Heatwave lead people spend extra time in
    shopping mall
  • Good weather sunny, warm cause people enjoying
    weather by going to beach or working in their
    garden, les money is spent shopping
  • Insurance industry rely climate info to assess
    risk
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