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Essential Question: How did World War I (WWI) change Europe and the world? (SS6H7a)

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Essential Question: How did World War I (WWI) change Europe and the world? (SS6H7a) Standard: SS6H7a Describe major developments following World War I: the Russian ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essential Question: How did World War I (WWI) change Europe and the world? (SS6H7a)


1
Essential QuestionHow did World War I (WWI)
change Europe and the world?(SS6H7a)
2
Standard SS6H7a
  • Describe major developments following World War
    I the Russian Revolution, the Treaty of
    Versailles, worldwide depression, and the rise of
    Nazism

3
Activating Strategy
  • Watch and listen to the clip about Europe after
    World War I and discuss the questions
    below.http//www.the-map-as-history.com/demos/to
    me03/index.php
  • Why do you think Russia signed a treaty to get
    out of World War I early? How did the map of
    Europe change after World War I? How do you think
    these changes affected people in Europe?

4
Causes of World War
"The Great War was without precedent ... never
had so many nations taken up arms at a single
time. Never had the battlefield been so
vastnever had the fighting been so gruesome..."
5
Causes of World War I(Take notes on graphic
organizer)
  • Militarism building up armed forces, getting
    ready for war
  • Alliances agreements or promises to
    defend and help another country
  • Imperialism trying to build up an empire
    (powerful country that controls
    several less powerful
    countries
  • Nationalism having pride in your country,
    willing to defend it

6
Militarism
  • There was fierce competition over land in Europe
  • Armies and navies were greatly expanded. The
    standing armies of France and Germany doubled in
    size between 1870 and 1914.
  • Naval expansion was also extremely competitive,
    particularly between Germany and Great Britain.
  • Russia wanted to expand its land and gain access
    to warm water ports. These ports would give the
    Russian navy the Mediterranean Sea
  • Germany began a military buildup and increased
    its navy

7
WWI Alliances
8
Alliance
  • An agreement among people or nations to unite
  • for a common cause. Each member of an
  • alliance agrees to help the other members in
  • case one is attacked.

9
How could Germanys location in Europe be a
problem for them?
10
Germany in the Middle
Germanys big problem was that it was in the
middle of Europe. That made it vulnerable if it
came to war.
11
In the 19th century, Germanys brilliant
Chancellor, Bismarck, solved this problem by
keeping friends with Russia and Austria-Hungary
12
Then Bismarck allied with Italy and
Austria-Hungary (the Triple Alliance).
Together with his friendship with Russia, this
kept Germany safe.
13
But when Kaiser Wilhelm became Emperor, he dumped
the Russian alliance. He kept the Triple
Alliance, but this did NOT solve the problem of
Germanys encirclement.
14
The Triple Entente
In 1907 Russia joined Britain and France to make
the Triple Entente. By 1914 Europe had divided
into two massive superpower blocks.
15
Distributed Summarizing
  • With a seat partner, discuss a time in your life
    when an alliance (with a friend, family member,
    or someone else) has caused problems.

16
Imperialism
  • Great Britain, Germany and France needed foreign
    markets after the increase in manufacturing
    caused by the Industrial Revolution.
  • These countries competed for economic expansion
    in Africa.
  • Although Britain and France resolved their
    differences in Africa, several crises
    foreshadowing the war involved the clash of
    Germany against Britain and France in North
    Africa.

17
Nationalism
  • Pride in ones country nations sought their own
    interests over others
  • In the 19th century, nationalism took the form of
    people struggling for independence
  • Serbia was at the center of the nationalist
    movement in an area of Europe known as the
    Balkans
  • What happened in the Balkans was a spark that
    started the war.
  • Serbia considered Austria-Hungary as an enemy
    because Serbs in Austria-Hungary wanted to unite
    with Serbia and create a larger Serbian state

18
What sparked it all?
19
The events that followed
  • Because of the assignation of Archduke Franz
    Ferdinand in June of 1914 by a member of a
    nationalistic secret Serbian society, the
    emperor of Austria-Hungary declared war of Serbia.

20
The events that followed
  • Russia sent troops to defend Serbia because
    Russia had a separate treaty with Serbia. Russia
    supported Serbia because they were both of a
    similar ethnic backgrounds.

21
The events that followed
  • Since Germany had a treaty with Austria-
  • Hungary (the Triple Alliance), Germany declared
    war on Russia.

22
The events that followed
  • France had a treaty with Russia (the Triple
  • Entente) so Germany declared war against France.

23
The events that followed
24
Things changed during the war
  • The Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente turned
    into these two WWI alliances.

The Triple Entente plus more formed the Allied
Powers
The Triple Alliance plus more formed the Center
Powers
25
(No Transcript)
26
Statistics from WWI
27
Some of the Technological Advances from WWI
  • Tank
  • Aircraft
  • Machine Gun
  • Gas used as a weapon
  • Flamethrower

28
Distributed Summarizing
  • Could World War I have been prevented? Why or why
    not? Would we have had the technological advances
    without WWI?

29
Russia A Background
  • Nicholas II autocratic and ineffective
  • He ruled a country covering one-sixth of the
    earths total land surface
  • He had massive personal wealth
  • He was backed by an army of 1 million and secret
    police
  • Political parties banned critics ended up in
    prison or exile
  • Press was censored

30
Russia A Background
  • Many Russians worshipped the Tsar and peasants
    typically had a picture of the Tsar on a wall of
    their hut.
  • His word was law
  • He appointed his ministers
  • But did not have to listen to them
  • AND could hire and fire them at will
  • He was a true autocrat.

31
(No Transcript)
32
Russia was
  • Only 40 ethnic Russians
  • 80 were peasants subsistence farmers
  • 60 illiterate
  • Life expectancy 40
  • Low tech and low investment
  • Land ownership rare
  • Land owned by the Commune
  • It also organized taxes and allotted strips of
    land to each household

33
Distributed Summarizing
  • During the time described, Russia was like
    ____________ because _________________________.
  • Share your answer with a partner.

34
Watch the United Streaming video clip Russian
Revolution (Time - 931 the first few minutes
link to previous video clips)http//player.dis
coveryeducation.com/?blnPreviewOnly1guidAssetId
ac3fe43d-f94f-494b-916e-c53c22ac7185
35
Russian Revolution
  • Russian revolution started in 1917 and had two
    parts.
  • The first part was the February Revolution in
    which the czar (Tsar, national ruler) was
    overthrown.
  • People were unhappy about how the czar and his
    government were running the country. People were
    starving while the aristocracy was living in
    luxury.
  • People were also upset about their participation
    in the war.

36
Russian Revolution
  • The Russian army was big but poorly equipped the
    army lost battles which lowered civilian and
    military morale
  • The czar was seen as a poor military and
    political leader while his German wife (tsarina)
    was left in charge of the government and was
    influenced by a man many thought was crazy
    (Rasputin)
  • There were not enough workers in the factories
    and farms which caused shortages of food and
    materials
  • The railway system was weak therefore, troops
    nor towns could get supplies

37
Russian Revolution
  • The second part of the Russian Revolution was the
    October Revolution (Bolshevik Revolution)
  • The October Revolution was led by Vladimir Lenin
  • After two years of civil war, the communist
    forces gained control
  • Russia became the communist country of the Soviet
    Union
  • Communism continued in Russia until nearly the
    end of the century

38
Distributed Summarizing
  • With a partner, discuss why the Russian
    Revolution occurred and what happened to Russia
    because of the revolution. Write your answers on
    the Major Developments in Europe After WWI sheet.

39
The War is Over!
Leaders come together to decide the terms of the
Treaty of Versailles.
40
Treaty of Versailles Simulation
In small groups, students will represent a main
character from the Treaty of Versailles. Students
will simulate debates during the signing of the
treaty and make decisions based on their
characters viewpoints.
41
Examining the Treaty of Versailles
  • After simulating discussions from the Treaty of
    Versailles, in small groups, students will
    examine components of the real treaty to
    determine the actual decisions that were made.
    Other groups will examine Germanys response to
    the treaty.

42
Examining the Treaty Questions
  • Which aspect of the treaty did you examine?
    (political, military, reparations, or Germanys
    response)
  • Those examining the treaty Describe the types of
    requirements or restrictions placed on Germany
  • Those examining the treaty How might these
    requirements or restrictions impact Germany?
  • Those examining Germanys response Do you agree
    or disagree with the Treaty of Versailles?
  • Those examining Germanys response How will the
    treaty impact you and your country?

43
The Treaty of Versailles(add requirements of the
treaty to Major Developments sheet)
  • The Treaty of Versailles officially ended WWI
  • It forced Germany to accept responsibility for
    causing the war
  • It required Germany to pay reparations (payments)
    to other countries for their losses and damage
  • It required Germany to give up 1 million square
    miles of land (size of Alaska and Texas combined)
    much of which was rich in natural resources (Why
    does this matter?)
  • It required Germany to limit its armed forces
  • The U.S. did not sign the Treaty of Versailles

44
Listen to the National Public Radio story about
Germany making its last reparation payment in
September 2010.
  • http//www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?story
    Id130232809

45
Treaty of VersaillesCopy Continue WritingAs
signment
46
The World After World War I
47
After WWI and worldwide depression
  • WWI affected the European economy because nations
    had war debt to repay
  • Soldiers came home needing jobs, but there were
    not enough. Unemployment skyrocketed.(Listen to
    Stony Broke in No Mans Land)
  • In 1929, the stock market crash led to depression
    in the U.S. but also all over the world
  • Countries experienced Inflation (a condition
    where prices rise and money loses value
    therefore, you cannot buy as much as you used to
    with the same amount of money)

48
After WWI and worldwide depression
  • Industry, shipping, and trade between countries
    were affected
  • Around the world, unrest and nationalism grew,
    people wanted strong leadership to make their
    countries rich and powerful again
  • However, the Great Depression weakened many
    countries when they needed to be strong. Why is
    this significant?

49
Image you are living in Germany after World War
I. The world is in the middle of a depression.
You do not have enough food, you do not have a
job, and you do not believe the leaders of your
country can improve the situation. On top of
that, your country, the place where you were born
and have lived all of your life is being blamed
and punished for World War I.Now, read Adolf
Hitlers speech on the Treaty of Versailles in
1923. Then, watch a video clip of Hitler
delivering a speech years later.
http//player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?g
uidAssetId7205F2A8-797E-4971-AEF4-6604694FC04Ebl
nFromSearch1productcodeUSWhy do you think
the German people followed Hitler?
50
Rise of Nazism
  • The democratic government in Germany after World
    War I (Weimar Republic) faced major problems
  • A political party called the Nazi Party attracted
    the attention of dissatisfied Germans
  • The Nazi Partys leader, Adolf Hitler, described
    ideas to strengthen Germany
  • Hitler also believed that Aryans (Germans) were
    the master race he had racist feelings about
    Jews, Slavs, gypsies, and blacks
  • The Nazi Party believed in fascism (where a
    strong central government is controlled by the
    military and run by a dictator)

51
Why Nazism grew
  • Nazis offered solutions for Germanys economic
    problems
  • Nazis appealed to German nationalism by calling
    for a larger military and an increase in German
    territory (violation of Treaty of Versailles)
  • Nazis united Germans against Jews by blaming them
    for the problems
  • Nazis assured Germans they could protect them
    from enemies
  • Nazis organized groups to threaten anyone who
    opposed them so few spoke out

52
Summarizing Strategy
  • Imagine that you are living in Europe during the
    1900s, but you have other family members living
    on another continent. Write a postcard to your
    relatives describing the events that you have
    witnessed from 1913 to 1920. Include World War I
    and its MAIN causes, the Russian Revolution,
    economic depression, and the rise of Nazism.
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