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How the Media Works

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How the Media Works ... Ethics-Broadcast News Broadcasters have Payola clauses in their contracts Broadcasters can do corrections during newscasts ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How the Media Works


1
How the Media Works
  • Miguel Navrot, Tierna Unruh-Enos Rick DeReyes

2
Local Media
  • Five Television Stations
  • KRQE/KASA (CBS) 13/2
  • KOB (NBC) 4
  • KOAT (ABC) 7
  • KNME (PBS) -5
  • KLUZ (Spanish Univision) 41
  • Two Daily Newspapers
  • Albuquerque Journal
  • Daily Lobo
  • Several Weekly Newspapers
  • The Alibi
  • El Semenario
  • New Mexico Business Weekly
  • Several News Radio Stations
  • KKOB
  • KUNM
  • One Monthly Magazine
  • Albuquerque the Magazine

3
Television Organization
  • Each newsroom is managed by a news director
  • The assignment editor controls the stories and
    who covers what.
  • Each station has about 5-10 reporters.
  • The majority of reporters are general assignment
    reporters.

4
The Desk
  • The Desk is manned about 24/7 by an assignment
    editor or a producer.
  • Majority of calls go through the Desk.
  • The desk has
  • Three police scanners
  • Several televisions to watch the other stations
  • Assignment Board

5
Newscasts
  • All Stations have a morning, evening and late
    night newscast
  • Two stations have a noon newscast.
  • Scripts are supposed to be written about an hour
    before the newscast. But breaking news, late
    reporters, inexperience, etc. can factor in.

6
Anchors
  • Anchors sometimes work on stories or write copy.
  • Often work on something called an anchor
    package, shot solo by a photographer or a sweeps
    piece
  • Anchors are among the most well paid people in
    the news organization
  • Some can make more than 100,000 a yr.

7
Television Reporters
  • Along with videographers are the workhorses of
    the organization
  • Are required to come up with at least one story a
    day
  • Some are required to have as many as three
    stories a day.
  • Have very little time to do their stories.
  • Average life span is 2 to 3 years
  • In Albuquerque, almost all are working to get to
    a larger market (i.e., Phoenix, Denver, Dallas,
    etc.)

8
Television Investigative Reporters
  • Sometimes can have several days or weeks to work
    on a storyoften, pressured to produce a story in
    a day or two
  • Can be more experienced or have been in the
    market longer
  • Are looking for
  • Scandal
  • Waste
  • Abuse
  • Corruption
  • Rarely do positive/fluff stories.

9
TV Brass
  • Two of the three stations are owned by a national
    corporation such as Hearst and Emmis.
  • Goal Turn A Profit.
  • General Manager is the top local official.
  • News Director runs the newsroom
  • Assistant News Director makes details happen
  • Executive Producers run the shows.
  • Assignment Editors manage the daily content.
  • Make sure everyone is doing what they are suppose
    to do.

10
Resources
  • Local television stations have bureaus in Santa
    Fe and Roswell (frequently, one-man band)
  • Trucks that can broadcast live by being able to
    point a microwave antenna at the top of Sandia
  • Have at least one satellite truck that can go
    live anywhere in the world
  • One station has a helicopter on site and a full
    time pilot.
  • KOB KRQE share a helicopter based at Double
    Eagle.

11
Nielsen Ratings
  • Occur four times a year
  • Referred to as the book or sweeps
  • Determines how much television stations can
    charge for advertising
  • Are monitored on a daily basis
  • Television news is extremely competitive.
  • Month long investigations are rolled out.
  • Every one in the organization is expected to have
    a good sweeps story
  • Ratings mean everything Jobs depend on it.
  • Crime/Fire drives 80 percent of the news coverage
    (stories easiest to get to/require little
    research/more visually interesting than meetings
  • If it bleeds it leads

12
Meetings/Deadlines
  • There are two meetings a day (930 a.m. and 200
    p.m.) - attended by assignment editor, news
    director, executive producers, show producers and
    reporters
  • Meetings determine what stories they are going to
    run with and for what newscast

13
Checks
  • Reporters are given several areas or beats to
    check. They call PIOs and sources every day
    before the afternoon or morning meeting
  • Every morning all television stations send
    someone to Metro Court and they read the criminal
    complaints of everyone who was arrested the day
    before on felony charges.
  • Every afternoon they check search warrants at
    District Court.

14
Access
  • All media has access to
  • Jail Mugs
  • Criminal Complaints
  • Court Files
  • Police Reports
  • Business License
  • Tax records
  • Professional License
  • Salaries of public employees
  • Citizen Complaints filed with the IRO
  • Personnel Files

15
Daily Newspaper Organization
  • Each newspaper is managed by an executive editor
  • Paper is divided into desks and each desk has an
    editor
  • City Desk
  • State Desk
  • Business Desk
  • Sports Desk
  • Papers have several Bureaus that are also
    considered Desks. The Journal Has
  • Santa Fe
  • Rio Rancho
  • West Side
  • Las Cruces
  • State Capitol
  • Washington D.C.

16
Newspaper Reporters
  • Unlike television, newspapers are very reporter
    driven
  • Journal has 40 reporters.
  • Newspaper reporters average lifespan is 10 years.
  • Half stay in one market for their entire career
  • Strict beats are adhered to. Average about three
    stories a week
  • Have more time to do stories and do more in-depth
    work.
  • They cover big crimes or events, issues and
    features, in depth work

17
Editorial Board
  • Every newspaper has an editorial board
  • Every day there is a staff editorial that is
    published.
  • Editorials are the newspapers opinion.
  • They take a position on controversial issues
  • Every day the board meets to discuss what they
    are going to editorialize
  • Most of the time editorials are written without
    any chance for one side to comment.
  • Editorial boards make political endorsements

18
Deadlines
  • Every morning, reporters are expected to notify
    their editors about potential stories.
  • Desk editors go to a meeting and talk. Reporters
    are not allowed.
  • By 4 p.m. reporters put what stories they have on
    a budget.
  • Editors meet at 4 p.m. to go over their budgets
    and determine what stories are going to go into
    the newspaper and where. Stories will hold.
  • Reporters must make these deadlines to meet the
    following editions
  • 6 p.m. Statewide
  • 11 p.m. City/Final

19
Newspaper Business Model
  • Newspapers dont have ratings
  • Ad rates are determined by circulation
  • Papers do not make money off of the sale of the
    newspaper. Sale covers cost of the paper
  • Money is made off of advertisements
  • Most papers in the country are owned by a large
    corporation like Gannett, Knight Rider, Times
    Tribune
  • Journal is one of the largest locally owned paper
    in the country
  • Journal has an owner who is from Albuquerque and
    is involved in the operation.

20
Newspaper Resources
  • Have the staff and money to send reporters to
    national events
  • Most newspapers have a Television partner in
    which they share photos, videos, resources and
    stories. Journal partners with KOAT

21
Newspaper Brass
  • Executive Editor is top decision maker.
  • Editorial Page editor holds a lot of power.
  • Desk editors make sure the beat reporters are
    doing their work.
  • Senior reporters have a lot of say and influence
    with the editors.

22
What Makes a Story
  • Timeliness
  • Did it happen recently
  • Proximity
  • Are readers/viewers effected
  • Significance
  • Are a lot of people effected
  • Prominence
  • Are famous people, politicians or people who hold
    the public trust involved
  • Human Interest
  • Is it different. Have you heard of anything like
    this before?
  • Television Key Demographic
  • Does it effect the people who are likely watching
    the news i.e. Hispanic women 35 to 49
  • Newspaper Agenda
  • Some newspapers have agendas that are priorities.
    The Journal has made DWI its top agenda.

23
Ethics-Newspapers
  • All Journalists are supposed to adhere to a set
    of ethics
  • Newspaper reporters say ethics are much more
    strict than in other mediums
  • Newspaper reporters get in serious trouble when
    there is a correction in one of their stories
  • Most newspapers have an ethics guide journalists
    are supposed to sign.

24
Ethics-Broadcast News
  • Broadcasters have Payola clauses in their
    contracts
  • Broadcasters can do corrections during newscasts
    (placement of correction is very important)
  • Journalists are supposed to be fence walkers
  • Reporters are required to remove themselves from
    any conflict of interests
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