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JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY (1824-1840) John Quincy Adams (1825-1829) Andrew Jackson (1829-1837) Martin Van Buren (1837 1841) William Henry Harrison (1841) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • John Quincy Adams (1825-1829)
  • Andrew Jackson (1829-1837)
  • Martin Van Buren (1837 1841)
  • William Henry Harrison (1841)

Missouri Compromise, 1821
  • Population Growth
  • the United States grew from 7 to 13 million from
  • Six new states entered the Union during this
  • (Ms., Ala., Ind., Ill.,Me.,Mo.)
  • Sectionalism
  • The west was quickly becoming a new force in
  • threatened the balance of power between the north
    and south
  • Missouri Statehood
  • Tallmadge Amendment
  • manumit slaves in that territory and outlaw
    slavery in the future.
  • slave v. free states even at 11 11, the
    amendment passes the House twice, but is blocked
    in the Senate.
  • Compromise
  • Henry Clay proposed a compromise to this hotly
    contested issue
  • 36 30 N dividing line slave v. free in the
    Louisiana Territory
  • Maine entered the Union to match Missouri in
    order to maintain the balance of the free and
    slave states in Congress

Election of 1824
  • Signs of Sectionalism
  • 5 members of the DemocraticRepublican Party run
    for election as President
  • The Death of King Caucus
  • Party Caucus Candidate was William Crawford from
  • 4 other candidates earn the right to run
    through Nominating Conventions
  • John Quincy Adams Massachusetts
  • Andrew Jackson Tennessee
  • Henry Clay Kentucky
  • John Calhoun South Carolina
  • Collapse of the Democratic Republicans
  • Jackson wins the popular vote, but doesnt win a
    majority in the electoral college
  • John Q. Adams wins the vote in the House with
    the help of Henry Clay.
  • A Corrupt Bargain
  • Jackson supporters cry foul when Adams appoints
    Clay Secretary of State
  • since the first Jefferson administration, the
    Secretary of State had ascended to the Presidency
  • The corrupt bargain between the Puritan and the
    Black Leg.  

Democratic Victory in 1828
  • Martin Van Buren creates this new party in an
    effort to help Jackson win the presidency in
  • Albany Regency
  • New York vote getting machine Van Buren created
    in NYC
  • The party is based on Loyalty, Discipline,
  • Political Base
  • Jacksons western supporters
  • NY and PA brought by Van Buren
  • the South brought by adding John Calhoun as
  • 1st Million Dollar Campaign
  • Jackson must get word out to common man, some of
    which can not read.
  • Buttons, Rallies, Campaign Slogans

Political Changes During the Jacksonian Era
  • Era of the Common Man
  • New western states bring political power to
    people with frontier image.
  • Universal Suffrage
  • Land requirements in western states dropped,
    allowing more people to vote
  • Increased western political power pressured
    eastern states to liberalize suffrage
  • Nominating Conventions
  • allow people to determine candidates instead of
    party bosses.
  • Political Parties
  • Political parties become legitimate institutions
    to represent the popular will.
  • Running for Office
  • People begin to actively seek the presidency.
  • Secret Ballot
  • allows people to vote conscience, making votes
    more credible.

President Andrew Jackson (1829 1837)
  • Henry Clay calls Jackson, King Andrew I
  • Jackson brings a strong personality to the office
    and sees everything as a personal confrontation.
  • He uses the veto power 12 times in order to
    support his political platform.
  • The previous 6 presidents only used the power 6
    times combined in order to protect the
  • Jackson overtly defends his use of patronage by
    calling it rotation in office.
  • The average citizen common man should be able to
    perform the job and rotation prevents corruption.
  • He appoints Cabinet Members he can dominate
  • he fires 2 Secretaries of the Treasury when they
    dont follow his command to remove Government
    funds from the 2nd National Bank.

Nullification Crisis (1828-1833)
  • Tariff of Abominations, 1828
  • In an attempt to demonstrate President Adams as
    unsupported even in the North, Jackson supporters
    in Congress worked to amend his tariff bill to
    include excessively high duties on imported raw
    materials. They hoped that more expensive raw
    materials would inspire northerners to vote
    against the tariff bill.
  • Speaking about the tariff, Sen. Daniel Webster
    observed Its enemies spiced it with whatever
    they thought would render it distasteful its
    friends took it drugged as it was.
  • South Carolina Exposition and Protest, 1832
  • (Calhouns version of the Nullification
  • Sen. Daniel Webster, (MA) vs. Sen. Robert Hayne,
    (S.C.) Debates
  • Hayne, The Union was a creature of the States
    that had created it and therefore they had the
    right to nullify any Federal statute deemed
  • Webster, The glorious Union, he declared, was
    the creation of all the American people, not the
    separate states. Therefore the Government was
    answerable only to the people, and only the
    Supreme Court could decide whether or not a
    Federal law conformed to the Constitution.
  • Senator Hayne resigned from the Senate was
    elected Gov. of South Carolina
  • The South Carolina voted to nullify the Tariff of
  • Senator Haynes called up and began to drill the
    S.C. militia.

Nullification Crisis (1828-1833)
  • Force Bill, 1833
  • President Jackson issued a proclamation declaring
    nullification an impractical absurdity and
    warned that disunion, by armed force, is
    treason and would be treated as such.
  • The Congress passed a bill authorizing military
    action to uphold Federal law. However, at the
    same time, on the advise of Henry Clay, they
    passed a bill reducing the hated tariff.
    (Compromise Tariff of 1833)
  • Violence was avoided when South Carolina,
    asserting that it had forced a reduction in the
    tariff, rescinded its Ordinance of Nullification.
  • As proof of trouble to come however, after the
    crisis had past, South Carolina asserted what it
    believed to be its right, by voting to nullify
    to federal force bill.

Bank War
  • Jacksons Position on the Bank
  • Anti-bank history (Panic of 1819)
  • Institution of privilege
  • Foreign investors
  • Bank leaders influenced people to vote against
    Jackson in 1828.
  • Election of 1832
  • Whigs under Clay request 2nd National Bank seek
    re-charter in 1832 in order to create political
  • Re-charter passes congress, but Jackson vetoes
  • Bank recalls loans in retaliation hurting
  • Jackson removes Govt. funds and places them in
    pet state banks.
  • Lack of economic restraint creates inflation and
    Panic of 1837.

Bank War Results in Panic of 1837
  • Henry Clay pushes through Congress the early
    re-chartering of the 2nd National Bank in order
    to create an in issue for the Whigs in the
    upcoming presidential election of 1832.
  • President Jackson vetoes bank re-charter.
  • Jackson wins re-election in 1832.
  • Jackson begins removing Federal from 2nd
    Nat.Bank and putting it in pet-(state)-banks.
  • Pet-banks start making huge loans from this ,
    stimulates economy.
  • 2nd National Bank losing operating funds calls in
    gold for bank notes tightening economy.
  • Jackson advisors, tell Jackson to relent in order
    to restore economy.
  • Jackson replies, Dont come to me, go to the
  • 2nd National Bank President, Nicholas Biddle
    relents, stimulates economy.
  • Federal government passes Dispersal Bill to
    release surplus to states, stimulates economy.
  • Jackson worried about flood of paper
    money/inflation passes Specie Circular.
  • Federal land can only be bought in gold.
  • People run on Banks to get gold for their notes,
    tightening economy.
  • Panic of 1837.

Indian Removal
  • Indian Removal Act, 1830
  • Remove Indians westward for their own physical
    protection as well as protection of cultural
    integrity. Protection against encroachment of
    American culture and greed
  • Black Hawks War, 1832 (Sauk/Fox tribes from
  • Seminole War, 1835-1842 (Florida)
  • Worcester v. Georgia, 1832
  • Cherokee do not want to leave. They sue to have
    Georgia uphold the Cherokees land treaty against
    encroachment by settlers. Chief Justice John
    Marshall finds in favor of the Cherokee (Sanctity
    of Contract). Jackson, Thats Marshalls
    decision let him carry it out.
  • Cherokee Trail of Tears, 1838
  • Cherokee eventually agree to be removed to
  • 25 of the 16,000 Cherokee die en-route to
    Indian territory.

Manifest Destiny 1841-1857
  • John Tyler (1841-1845)
  • James Polk (1845-1849)
  • Zachary Taylor (1849-1850)
  • Millard Fillmore (1850-1853)
  • Franklin Pierce (1853-1857)

It is our God given right to expand westward
bringing our culture and Democratic system to the
untamed frontier. Look at the number of people
our style of civilization can support per acre
vs. the barbarians nomadic lifestyle. God said,
Go forth and populate the earth. We do it more
efficiently. If the Indians do not realize all
of the benefits our civilization can bring them,
then they are obviously ignorant and must be
enlightened. 54 40 or fight In the
presidential race of 1844, the Manifest Destiny
slogan, 54 40 or fight helped the dark horse
candidate (a political unknown), James K. Polk to
win the election. This shows how popular the
idea of Manifest Destiny was with the American
people. The extreme northern boundary of the
diplomatically unsettled Oregon Territory was 54
degrees, 40 minutes north latitude. Polk
promised that he would settle the Oregon Boundary
Dispute and that if Britain would not come to the
table to negotiate the boundary, that the United
States would claim all of Oregon Territory.  
Oregon Trail Oregon Boundary Dispute Territory
  • With multiple potential claimants (Russia, Spain,
    Britain and the U.S.) settlement of the Oregon
    Territory was an open issue. By 1844, with
    Russia and Spain removed from the picture, future
    control of the territory was left to negotiation
    between the U.S. and Britain.
  • Inspired by reports of fertile soil in the
    Willamette Valley and aided by directions
    compiled by explorers (Mountain Men) settlers
    traveled westward in droves from 1843-1860 along
    what became known as the Oregon Trail.
  • The Oregon Trail represented a 2000 mile route
    leading from the Missouri River across the Great
    Plains, the Rockies and the Sierra Nevada to
    Oregon Territory. Settlers endured deserts,
    mountains, rivers, Indians, disease, starvation
    and exhaustion for the promise of a better life.
  • Even though the Convention of 1818 gave both
    countries joint rights in the region, the
    British-owned Hudson Bay Company was effectively
    in control. However, with American migration
    west along the Oregon Trail, the United States
    gained a much stronger presence and was able to
    demand that Britain agree to a compromise
    settlement (1846) dividing control of the region
    by extending the Louisiana Purchase border of 49
    degrees north latitude through Oregon.

Settlement of Texas, 1821
  • Moses Austin
  • Stephen Austin
  • the Old 300
  • The Constitution of 1824
  • Americans appreciated and recognized this style
    of Mexican law.
  • Requirements to settle
  • Become Mexican citizens.
  • Convert to Catholicism.
  • Denied the ability to own slaves (1829).
  • Many settlers wrote home raving about the success
    and abundance that they enjoyed having settled in
    Mexican Texas.
  • By 1830, approximately 20,000 Americans lived in

Independence of Texas, 1836
  • In 1830, fearing the overwhelming Americanization
    of Texas, Mexico closes Texas to further U.S.
  • The original violence between Texas and Mexico
    was over Dictator, General Antonio Lopez de Santa
    Annas repeal of the Mexican Constitution of
  • Massacres at Goliad and at the Siege of Alamo
    Mission in San Antonio (March 2nd) inspired
    Texans to fight for their independence.
  • General Sam Houston was able to surprise and
    capture the Mexican Dictator, Santa Anna at the
    Battle of San Jacinto (April 21st).
  • Santa Anna was forced to surrender Texas for his

Annexation of Texas, 1845
  • After winning independence, Texans chose their
    victorious military commander, Sam Houston, as
    their president and voted for annexation to the
    United States.
  • Mexico ousted General Santa Anna as Dictator and
    disavowed the independence he granted to Texas
    under personal duress. Mexico threatened that if
    the United States annexed Texas that there would
    be war.
  • Anti-slavery Northerners, led by Daniel Webster,
    blocked Texas admission into the Union fearing
    that its annexation would tip the national
    political balance in favor of the slave states.
  • For nine years 1836-1845, Texas was an
    independent nation, The Lone Star Republic.
  • Finally, when it appeared that Texas might form
    an alliance with Great Britain the
    administrations of John Tyler and James Polk were
    able to win Northern approval for annexation.

Mexican-American War, 1846-1848
  • When Texas won their independence they claimed
    the Rio Grande as their southern border. Mexico
    claimed that the southern border of Texas was the
    Nueces River.
  • When the United States annexed Texas, Mexico as
    promised, broke off diplomatic relations.
    However, when President Polk ordered General
    Zachary Taylor to cross the Nueces River to
    support the Texas boundary claim, Mexico agreed
    to receive an emissary from the U.S.
  • (John) Slidell Mission, 1845
  • The U.S. Ambassador sent to Mexico was not only
    authorized to negotiate the border of Texas but
    also to offer 30 million for the further
    purchase of California, Utah and New Mexico
    Territories. Outraged at this insult the Mexican
    Government refused to meet with Slidell.
  • When Slidell was not received, Polk ordered
    General Taylor further into the disputed
    territory where Mexican troops finally fired on
    the Americans. President Polk addressed Congress
    requesting a declaration of war because Americans
    had been fired upon on American soil.

Mexican-American War, 1846-1848
  • .Spot Resolution
  • Elected as a dark horse, President Polk believed
    that he had the mandate of the people on the
    issue of Manifest Destiny. Yet, not everyone
    supported this Manifest Destiny war. For
    example, elected as a Whig Representative to the
    House from Ill., Abraham Lincoln issued the
    Spot Resolution requesting proof that the
    troops were fired upon on American soil before he
    would support the declaration of war.
  • Yet, whatever the spot, Manifest Destiny was a
    popular issue and Polk was able to win his
    declaration of war in Congress.
  • Slidell Mission
  • U.S. willing to pay
  • 25 mil. For California
  • 5 mil. Utah/N.M. Territory
  • 30 mil. For the Southwest
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • U.S. pays
  • 15 mil. For Cali., UT., N.M.
  • 3.5 mil. Mexican debts.
  • 10 mil. Gadsden Purchase
  • 28.5 mil. cost of war.
  • Manifest Destiny Prevails!

The Compromise of 1850
  • (David) Wilmot Proviso, 1846
  • Representative from Pennsylvania,
    Wilmot proposed an addition to the fiscal bill
    for purchasing land from Mexico. The proviso
    would have banned slavery in the areas purchased.
    Even though it passed the House twice it was
    defeated in the Senate both times. As an
    Illinois Congressman, Abraham Lincoln repeatedly
    voted for the measure.
  • The California gold rush quickly gave newly
    established California Territory over 80,000
    citizens which was enough to apply for statehood.
  • In order to avoid the tensions that would surely
    be created by the Congressional debate over the
    status of the newly forming California territory.
    President Zachary Taylor suggested that
    California apply directly to become a state.
    When California applies as a free state, it
    unleashed southern accusations of
    treachery/trickery. Henry Clay steps in, to once
    again, broker a compromise. His Omnibus Bill
    attempts to address many of the tensions existing
    between Pro/Anti-Slavery forces.
  • Terms of the Compromise of 1850
  • Slave trade ended in Washington, D.C..
    (cultural embarrassment)
  • California enters Union as 16th free state.
    (breaks the balance)
  • Utah and New Mexico open to slavery.
    (popular sovereignty)
  • Texas compensated 10 million for land lost.
    (loss of slave territory)
  • Stronger Fugitive Slave Law Passed.
    (creates abolitionists)

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