Genre Action-Adventure Comedy Contemporary Crime Costume - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Genre Action-Adventure Comedy Contemporary Crime Costume


1
Genre
  • Action-Adventure
  • Comedy
  • Contemporary Crime
  • Costume Drama (no coverage)
  • Exploitation Cinema (no coverage)
  • Film Noir
  • Melodrama
  • The Musical
  • Science Fiction and Horror
  • Teenpics
  • The Western
  • Tim Dirks Filmsite.org Genres

2
Genre
3
Megagenre A large, all encompassing, umbrella
genre, having no distinct subject matter or style
or iconography or formulae. The megagenres of the
movies might be thought of as non-fiction
(documentary) film, fiction film, animated film,
and experimental / underground film.
Genre
4
Major Movie Genres (according to Tim Dirks
filmsite.org)
  • Action
  • Adventure
  • Comedy
  • Crime/Gangster
  • Drama
  • Epics/Historical
  • Musicals
  • Science Fiction
  • War
  • Westerns

Genre
5
Major Movie Sub-Genres (according to Tim Dirks
filmsite.org)
  • Biopics
  • Chick Flicks
  • Detective/Mystery
  • Disaster
  • Fantasy
  • Film Noir
  • Guy Films
  • Melodrama
  • Road Films
  • Romance
  • Sports
  • Supernatural
  • Thrillers/Suspense

Genre
6
Minor Movie Sub-Genres (according to Tim Dirks
filmsite.org)
  • Aviation
  • Buddy
  • Caper
  • Chase
  • Espionage
  • Fallen Woman
  • Jungle
  • Legal
  • Martial Arts
  • Medical
  • Parody
  • Police
  • Political
  • Prison
  • Religious
  • Slasher
  • Swashbucklers

Genre
7
  • Movie Genres/Subgenres
  • Action AdventureJungle Martial Arts Mountain
    Spy Swashbuckler
  • ArtAny genre or subgenre may be an "art" film
  • ComedyBuddy Black Comedy Mocumentary
    Parody Road Romantic Comedy Satire
    Screwball Comedy Slacker
  • CrimeBlaxploitation Caper Film Noir
    Gangster Hardboiled Detective Police
    Procedural Prison Private-Eye Trial Films
  • CultAny genre or subgenre may be a "cult" film
  • DramaDomestic Education Historical
    Political
  • Epic--Biblical Greek Myth Historicak
  • GenderGay and Lesbian Rape-Revenge Womens
    Pictures
  • HorrorDemonic Possession Haunted House
    Monster Serial Killer Slasher Vampire
  • Life StoryAutobiography Biopic Diary Film
  • MelodramaDisease/Disability Ethnic Family Saga
    Weepie Yuppie Redemption
  • MusicConcert Films Musicals Rocumentary
  • Science Fiction and FantasyCyber Punk Disaster
    Dystopia Fantasy Post-Apocalypse
    Prehistorical Space Opera Supermen and Other
    Mutants Time Travel
  • SportsAuto Racing Baseball Basketball
    Boxing Football Horse Racing Track
    Wrestling
  • Teen FilmsPre-Teen Comedy Teen Sex Comedy
    Coming of Age
  • WarAerial Combat Civil War Korean Prisoner
    of War Submarine Viet Nam World War I
    World War II
  • WesternCattle Drive Indian War Gunfighter

Genre
8
The classification of texts is not just the
province of academic specialists, it is a
fundamental aspect of the way texts of all kinds
are understood. (Neale in Creeber p. 1)
Genre
9
In many cases, of course, it is likely that
audiences will have some idea in advance of the
kind of film (or play or programme) they are
going to watch. They will have made an active
choice either to watch or, if their preferences
dictate, to avoid it. They will have done so on
the basis of information supplied by advertising,
by reviews, and previews, perhaps by a title
(such as Singin in the Rain) or by the presence
of particular performers. They are therefore
likely to bring with them a set of expectations,
and to anticipate that these expectations will be
met in one way or another. (Neale in Creeber 1)
Genre
10
Relevant Terms for Genre from Hans Robert Jauss,
German Reception Theorist/Reader-Response
Critic generic audience generic
frustration generic tension
Genre
11
In English-speaking countries, the term genre
came to be applied to literary works during the
nineteenth century, at a point in history at
which art of all kinds began to be
industrialized, mass-produced for a popular
public (Cohen, 1986, 120).--Neale in Creeber 2)
Genre
12
  • The repertoire of elements that identify genres
    (Lacey 2000, cited by Neale in Creeber 3)
  • Character Types
  • Setting
  • Iconography
  • Narrative
  • Style

Genre
13
  • Institutional Aspects of Genre
  • Scheduling
  • Modes of Production
  • Demands of Advertisers
  • Demands of Audiences
  • Developments in Adjacent Entertainment
    Institutions/Media (Neale in Creeber 4)

Genre
14
  • Complaints Against Genre Criticism
  • Circularity--critics dismiss texts for failing to
    meet criteria they have themselves established.
  • Prescriptiveness--critics dismiss genre
    shows/series for departing from Platonic ideal
    versions. (Turner in Creeber 6)

Genre
15
Hybridity The now common tendency to splice
together different genres.
Genre
16
Genres came to be identified with impersonal,
formulaic, commercial forms and distinguished
from individualized art. Ironically, this
represented a reversal of previous
characterizations, which saw high art as
rule-bound and ordered (as evident in genres lke
the sonnet and tragedy) and low art as
unconstrained by the rules of decorum (Cohen,
1986, 120).--Neale in Creeber 2
Genre
17
Some important new critical theories have
challenged the primacy of genre as a basic
critical concept. The next important task of
genre theory is to examine these objections in
order to discover to what extent they require
revision of the theory of popular genres and to
what extent they may require us to go beyond
genre (John Cawelti, The Question of Popular
Genres Revisited 1997).
Genre
18
Genre films essentially ask the audience, "Do you
still want to believe this?" Popularity is the
audience answering, "Yes."  Change in genre
occurs when the audience says, "That's too
infantile a form of what we believe. Show us
something more complicated." And genres turn to
self-parody to say, "Well, at least if we make
fun of it for being infantile, it will show how
far we've come." Films and television have in
this way speeded up cultural history.  Leo
Braudy, American film scholar
Genre
19
Thomas Schatz's life history of a genre (from
Hollywood Genres) an experimental stage,
during which its conventions are isolated and
established, a classic stage, in which the
conventions reach their equilibrium and are
mutually understood by artist and audience, an
age of refinement, during which certain formal
and stylistic details embellish the form, and
finally a baroque (or mannerist, or
self-reflexive) stage, when the form and its
establishments are accented to the point where
they themselves become the substance or
content of the work. (37-38) Thomas Schatz,
American film scholar
Genre
20
  • History of Genre Criticism
  • the studio system's dual need for standarisation
    and product differentiation (252)
  • A corrective to auteur criticisms treatment of
    the movies as high art which led to more focus on
    industrial conditions
  • First genres of interest western, gangster, noir
  • Enabled placement of a whole range of films
    auteurism could not touch
  • Led to a new reciprocity between art and society
  • From mise-en-scene (auteurism) to iconography


Genre
21
  • History of Genre Criticism
  • For such a type of genre to be successful
    means that its conventions have imposed
    themselves upon the general consciousness and
    become the accepted vehicles of a particular set
    of attitudes and a particular aesthetic effect.
    One goes to any individual example of the type
    with very definite expectations, and originality
    is to be welcomed only in the degree that it
    intensifies the expected experience without
    fundamentally altering it. Moreover, the
    relationship between the conventions which go to
    make up such a type and the real experience of
    its audience or the real facts of whatever
    situation it pretends to describe is of only
    secondary importance and does not determine its
    aesthetic force. It is only in an ultimate sense
    that the type appeals to its audience's
    experience of reality much more immediately, it
    appeals to previous experience of the type
    itself it creates its own field of
    reference.Robert Warshow


Genre
22
  • History of Genre Criticism
  • The relationship between the conventions which
    go to make up such a type genre and the real
    experience of its audience or the real facts of
    whatever situation it pretends to describe is of
    only secondary importance and does not determine
    its aesthetic force. It is only in an ultimate
    sense that the type appeals to its audience's
    experience of reality much more immediately, it
    appeals to previous experience of the type
    itself it creates its own field of
    reference.Robert Warshow


Genre
23
  • History of Genre Criticism
  • Iconography originates in the profilmic
    arrangements of sign events it is not
    produced by specifically filmic codes but was
    taken up and transformed by cinema from cultural
    codes already in circulation
  • Buscombe on Guns in the Afternoon (256)
  • History and Ideology America talking to itself
    (McArthur 256)


Genre
24
Genre
  • Action-Adventure
  • Hard/Hyperbolic Bodies? See Jeffords quote on p.
    265.
  • A lens for studying masculinity
  • Action heroes?
  • Pfeil (p. 266) fantasies of class- and
    gender-based resistance to the advent of a
    post-feminist/post-Fordist world keep turning
    over, queasily, deliriously, into accommodations
    and in which, within a very specifically
    white/male/hetero American capitalist dreamscape,
    inter- and/or multi-national at the top and
    multiracial at boththe bottom . . . all the old
    lines of force and division between races,
    classes and genders are both transgressed and
    redrawn.
  • Tasker knowing visual excess and
    tongue-in-cheek humor

25
Genre
  • Action-Adventure (cont.)
  • Now making norms of gender and sexual identity
    strange while also reinforcing them.
  • Debt to the romance.
  • Interest in the swashbucklerPirates of the
    Caribbean
  • Some interesting films to consider Crouching
    Tiger, Indiana Jones, Die Hard

26
Genre
  • Comedy
  • Comedys multi-faceted nature
  • Study of comedy is multi-disciplinary
  • Comic units and narrativeare they always
    digressive?
  • Gerald Masts eight comic film plots

27
Genre
  • Comedy (continued)
  • Theories of laughter (see next slides).
  • Screwball Comedy a fine website.

28
  • Comedy Theory
  • Notoriously incomplete and lacking in definitive
    answers. May well be a fourth tray phenomenon.
  • Plessners thesis in Laughing and Crying.
  • A Civil Servant used to keep four trays on his
    desk to put his papers in. The first was marked
    Incoming, the second Outgoing, the third Pending,
    and the fourth Too difficult.--Owen Barfield


Helmuth Plessner, author of Laughing and Crying
Genre
29
  • Comedy Theory
  • Three basic camps
  • Superiority--laughter reinforces social power.
  • Incongruity--humor the result of the clash of
    incompatible discourses.
  • Relief--the comic as a vent for repression.


Genre
30
  • Key Questions
  • Do we laugh at or with?
  • Is comedy innately subversive?
  • Is comedy congenitally offensive/politically
    incorrect?
  • What is the connection between the body and the
    comic?


Genre
31

Henri Bergson
Genre
32
Life is a comedy to those who think, a tragedy
to those who feel. --Horace Walpole, 18th Century

Genre
33
Genre
  • Contemporary Crime
  • The Detective Film
  • Ratiocination
  • Conversative (the crime is solved)
  • Investigation
  • Dirty Harry
  • The Gangster Film
  • Contemporaneousness
  • Warner Brothersknown for its social issues
    movies
  • Warshowsee following slides
  • Suspense Thriller

34
Robert Warshow, The Gangster as Tragic
Hero (from The Immediate Experience)
35
(No Transcript)
36
(No Transcript)
37
Genre

38
Genre

39
Genre
  • Film Noir
  • Tim Dirks Film Noir site.

40
Genre
  • Film Noir
  • (thanks to Danny Pearys Guide for the Film
    Fanatic and Ephraim Katz Film Encyclopedia)
  •  
  • Signatures/Motifs
  • often heavily narrated
  • tainted characters
  • entangled relationships
  • events determined by chance
  • large sums of money
  • murder
  • a tough, morally ambiguous hero with a gun in his
    trench coat, a hat on his head, and a cigarette
    in his mouth
  • a lying, cheating, chameleon-like femme fatale--a
    corruptive influence who leads an essentially
    decent guy down a wayward path, and, ultimately,
    betrayal

41
Genre
  • Film Noir
  • frame-ups
  • fall guys
  • most scenes at night, in metaphorical darkness
    heavy on shadows
  • tone of cynicism
  • Heroes and villains cynical, disillusioned, and
    often insecure loners
  • Its characters are inextricably bound to the
    past and unsure or apathetic about the future
    (Katz).
  • Abounds with night scenes, both interior and
    exterior, with sets that suggest dingy realism,
    and with lighting that emphasizes deep shadows
    and accents the mood of fatalism
  • Its dark tones and the tense nervousness are
    further enhanced by the oblique choreography of
    the action and the doom-laden compositions and
    camera angles (Katz)

42
Genre
Film Noir   Hollywood productions of the film
noir style include John Huston THE MALTESE
FALCON (1941), KEY LARGO (1948), and THE ASPHALT
JUNGLE (1950) Howard Hawks TO HAVE AND HAVE NOT
(1944) and THE BIG SLEEP (1946) Michael
Curtiz' CASABLANCA (1942) and MILDRED PIERCE
(1945) Tay Garnett THE POSTMAN ALWAYS RINGS
TWICE (1946)
43
Genre
Film Noir Billy Wilder DOUBLE INDEMNITY, THE LOST
WEEKEND (1945), SUNSET BLVD. (1950), and THE BIG
CARNIVAL (1951) Orson Welles THE LADY FROM
SHANGHAI (1948) Otto Preminger LAURA (1944),
FALLEN ANGEL (1945), and WHERE THE SIDEWALK ENDS
(1950) Robert Siodmak PHANTOM LADY (1944), THE
SUSPECT (1944), THE STRANGE AFFAIR OF UNCLE HARRY
(1945), THE KILLERS (1946), THE DARK MIRROR
(1946), and CRY OF THE CITY (1948)
44
Genre
Film Noir   Jacques Tourneur OUT OF THE PAST
(1947) Charles Vidor GILDA (1946) George
Cukor GASLIGHT (1944) Frank Tuttle THIS GUN FOR
HIRE (1942) Fritz Lang THE WOMAN IN THE WINDOW
(1944), SCARLET STREET (1945), and THE BIG HEAT
(1953)
45
Genre
Film Noir   John Brahm THE LODGER (1944) and
HANGOVER SQUARE (1945) Alfred Hitchcock SPELLBOUN
D (1945) Lewis Milestone THE STRANGE LOVE OF
MARTHA IVERS (1946) Edward Dmytryk MURDER, MY
SWEET (1944) and CORNERED (1945) André De
Toth DARK WATERS (1944) and PITFALL (1948)
46
Genre
Film Noir Stuart Heisler THE GLASS KEY
(1942) Jean Negulesco THE MASK OF DIMITRIOS
(1944), THREE STRANGERS (1946), NOBODY LIVES
FOREVER (1946), and ROAD HOUSE (1948) Anthony
Mann T-MEN (1947), RAW DEAL (1948), and SIDE
STREET (1949) Fred Zinnemann ACT OF VIOLENCE
(1949) Rudolph Maté THE DARK PAST (1948), D.O.A.
(1950), and UNION STATION (1950)
47
Genre
Film Noir   Henry Hathaway KISS OF DEATH (1947)
and CALL NORTHSIDE 777 (1948) Robert
Rossen JOHNNY O'CLOCK (1947) and BODY AND SOUL
(1947) Abraham Polonsky FORCE OF EVIL
(1948) John Cromwell DEAD RECKONING (1947) and
THE RACKET (1951) Robert Montgomery LADY IN THE
LAKE (1946) and RIDE THE PINK HORSE (1947)
48
Genre
Film Noir Delmer Daves DARK PASSAGE
(1947) Robert Wise THE SET-UP (1949) and THE
CAPTIVE CITY (1952) Jules Dassin BRUTE FORCE
(1947), THE NAKED CITY (1948), THIEVES' HIGHWAY
(1949), and NIGHT AND THE CITY (1950) John
Farrow THE BIG CLOCK (1948) and ALIAS NICK BEAL
(1949) Elia Kazan BOOMERANG! (1947) and PANIC IN
THE STREETS (1950)
49
Genre
Film Noir   Edgar G. Ulmer RUTHLESS
(1948) Joseph H. Lewis THE UNDERCOVER MAN (1949)
and GUN CRAZY (1949) Nicholas Ray THEY LIVE BY
NIGHT (1949), IN A LONELY PLACE (1950), and ON
DANGEROUS GROUND (1951) Phil Karlson SCANDAL
SHEET (1952), 99 RIVER STREET (1953), and TIGHT
SPOT (1955) Samuel Fuller PICKUP ON SOUTH STREET
(1953)
50
Genre
Film Noir   Robert Aldrich KISS ME DEADLY (1955).
51
Genre
  • Melodrama
  • Why has melodrama now become a genre of interest?
  • Todd Haynes, Far From Heaven (Douglas Sirk) to
    Mildred Pierce (Michael Curtiz)

52
Genre
  • The Musical
  • As mirror of society
  • As spectacle
  • Rock documentary

53
Genre
  • Science Fiction and Horror
  • Hard to distinguish?
  • SF
  • Sobchack contested space between the human
    community and an alien other
  • The iconography of SF
  • The sounds of science fiction
  • Telotte the issue of humanness
  • The robot and the cyborg
  • SF and wonder

54
Genre
  • Science Fiction and Horror
  • Horror
  • Slow to gain critical attention
  • Hammer films
  • The feminist complaint
  • Robin Wood
  • The horror film has consistently been one of the
    most popular and at the same times most
    disreputable of Hollywood genres. . . . It is
    restricted to aficionados and complemented by
    total rejection, people tend to go to horror
    films either obsessively or not at all.  (Robin
    Wood, The American Nightmare)

55
Genre
  • Science Fiction and Horror
  • Horror
  • Youth-oriented?
  • And the gothic
  • Reading horror psychoanalytically
  • The nightmarefilm and dream
  • Return of the repressed
  • the true subject of the horror genre is the
    struggle for recognition of all that our
    civilization represses or oppresses (Robin Wood,
    The American Nightmare)
  • Feminism and Horror See Clover quotes on p. 357
  • The final girl
  • Body Horror

56
Genre
  • Teenpicsa lame section
  • Adolescence as a problemVan Den Berg
  • The teenage audience
  • Rebel without a Cause
  • Reefer Madness
  • Teens in horror and SF
  • John Hughes/Brat Pack
  • American Graffiti and Back to the Future
  • What about teen raunch? Juno? Michael Sera?
    Kick-Ass?

57
Genre
  • The Western
  • Warshow and Bazin as pioneers
  • The West in American historyThe Turner
    Hypothesis
  • The Westerns universal appealthe Spaghetti
    Western the invention of America
  • Lovells four principal elements (377)
  • hero, villain, damsel in distress
  • action story violence, chases, crime
  • stories of migration and settlement
  • tales of revenge

58
Genre
  • The Western
  • Kitses the West was already myth when the
    Western film was born.
  • "This is the West, sir. When the legend becomes
    fact, print the legend.Ransom Stoddard (Jimmy
    Stewart) in The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance
    (John Ford, 1962)
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Genre Action-Adventure Comedy Contemporary Crime Costume

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Title: Genre Action-Adventure Comedy Contemporary Crime Costume


1
Genre
  • Action-Adventure
  • Comedy
  • Contemporary Crime
  • Costume Drama (no coverage)
  • Exploitation Cinema (no coverage)
  • Film Noir
  • Melodrama
  • The Musical
  • Science Fiction and Horror
  • Teenpics
  • The Western
  • Tim Dirks Filmsite.org Genres

2
Genre
3
Megagenre A large, all encompassing, umbrella
genre, having no distinct subject matter or style
or iconography or formulae. The megagenres of the
movies might be thought of as non-fiction
(documentary) film, fiction film, animated film,
and experimental / underground film.
Genre
4
Major Movie Genres (according to Tim Dirks
filmsite.org)
  • Action
  • Adventure
  • Comedy
  • Crime/Gangster
  • Drama
  • Epics/Historical
  • Musicals
  • Science Fiction
  • War
  • Westerns

Genre
5
Major Movie Sub-Genres (according to Tim Dirks
filmsite.org)
  • Biopics
  • Chick Flicks
  • Detective/Mystery
  • Disaster
  • Fantasy
  • Film Noir
  • Guy Films
  • Melodrama
  • Road Films
  • Romance
  • Sports
  • Supernatural
  • Thrillers/Suspense

Genre
6
Minor Movie Sub-Genres (according to Tim Dirks
filmsite.org)
  • Aviation
  • Buddy
  • Caper
  • Chase
  • Espionage
  • Fallen Woman
  • Jungle
  • Legal
  • Martial Arts
  • Medical
  • Parody
  • Police
  • Political
  • Prison
  • Religious
  • Slasher
  • Swashbucklers

Genre
7
  • Movie Genres/Subgenres
  • Action AdventureJungle Martial Arts Mountain
    Spy Swashbuckler
  • ArtAny genre or subgenre may be an "art" film
  • ComedyBuddy Black Comedy Mocumentary
    Parody Road Romantic Comedy Satire
    Screwball Comedy Slacker
  • CrimeBlaxploitation Caper Film Noir
    Gangster Hardboiled Detective Police
    Procedural Prison Private-Eye Trial Films
  • CultAny genre or subgenre may be a "cult" film
  • DramaDomestic Education Historical
    Political
  • Epic--Biblical Greek Myth Historicak
  • GenderGay and Lesbian Rape-Revenge Womens
    Pictures
  • HorrorDemonic Possession Haunted House
    Monster Serial Killer Slasher Vampire
  • Life StoryAutobiography Biopic Diary Film
  • MelodramaDisease/Disability Ethnic Family Saga
    Weepie Yuppie Redemption
  • MusicConcert Films Musicals Rocumentary
  • Science Fiction and FantasyCyber Punk Disaster
    Dystopia Fantasy Post-Apocalypse
    Prehistorical Space Opera Supermen and Other
    Mutants Time Travel
  • SportsAuto Racing Baseball Basketball
    Boxing Football Horse Racing Track
    Wrestling
  • Teen FilmsPre-Teen Comedy Teen Sex Comedy
    Coming of Age
  • WarAerial Combat Civil War Korean Prisoner
    of War Submarine Viet Nam World War I
    World War II
  • WesternCattle Drive Indian War Gunfighter

Genre
8
The classification of texts is not just the
province of academic specialists, it is a
fundamental aspect of the way texts of all kinds
are understood. (Neale in Creeber p. 1)
Genre
9
In many cases, of course, it is likely that
audiences will have some idea in advance of the
kind of film (or play or programme) they are
going to watch. They will have made an active
choice either to watch or, if their preferences
dictate, to avoid it. They will have done so on
the basis of information supplied by advertising,
by reviews, and previews, perhaps by a title
(such as Singin in the Rain) or by the presence
of particular performers. They are therefore
likely to bring with them a set of expectations,
and to anticipate that these expectations will be
met in one way or another. (Neale in Creeber 1)
Genre
10
Relevant Terms for Genre from Hans Robert Jauss,
German Reception Theorist/Reader-Response
Critic generic audience generic
frustration generic tension
Genre
11
In English-speaking countries, the term genre
came to be applied to literary works during the
nineteenth century, at a point in history at
which art of all kinds began to be
industrialized, mass-produced for a popular
public (Cohen, 1986, 120).--Neale in Creeber 2)
Genre
12
  • The repertoire of elements that identify genres
    (Lacey 2000, cited by Neale in Creeber 3)
  • Character Types
  • Setting
  • Iconography
  • Narrative
  • Style

Genre
13
  • Institutional Aspects of Genre
  • Scheduling
  • Modes of Production
  • Demands of Advertisers
  • Demands of Audiences
  • Developments in Adjacent Entertainment
    Institutions/Media (Neale in Creeber 4)

Genre
14
  • Complaints Against Genre Criticism
  • Circularity--critics dismiss texts for failing to
    meet criteria they have themselves established.
  • Prescriptiveness--critics dismiss genre
    shows/series for departing from Platonic ideal
    versions. (Turner in Creeber 6)

Genre
15
Hybridity The now common tendency to splice
together different genres.
Genre
16
Genres came to be identified with impersonal,
formulaic, commercial forms and distinguished
from individualized art. Ironically, this
represented a reversal of previous
characterizations, which saw high art as
rule-bound and ordered (as evident in genres lke
the sonnet and tragedy) and low art as
unconstrained by the rules of decorum (Cohen,
1986, 120).--Neale in Creeber 2
Genre
17
Some important new critical theories have
challenged the primacy of genre as a basic
critical concept. The next important task of
genre theory is to examine these objections in
order to discover to what extent they require
revision of the theory of popular genres and to
what extent they may require us to go beyond
genre (John Cawelti, The Question of Popular
Genres Revisited 1997).
Genre
18
Genre films essentially ask the audience, "Do you
still want to believe this?" Popularity is the
audience answering, "Yes."  Change in genre
occurs when the audience says, "That's too
infantile a form of what we believe. Show us
something more complicated." And genres turn to
self-parody to say, "Well, at least if we make
fun of it for being infantile, it will show how
far we've come." Films and television have in
this way speeded up cultural history.  Leo
Braudy, American film scholar
Genre
19
Thomas Schatz's life history of a genre (from
Hollywood Genres) an experimental stage,
during which its conventions are isolated and
established, a classic stage, in which the
conventions reach their equilibrium and are
mutually understood by artist and audience, an
age of refinement, during which certain formal
and stylistic details embellish the form, and
finally a baroque (or mannerist, or
self-reflexive) stage, when the form and its
establishments are accented to the point where
they themselves become the substance or
content of the work. (37-38) Thomas Schatz,
American film scholar
Genre
20
  • History of Genre Criticism
  • the studio system's dual need for standarisation
    and product differentiation (252)
  • A corrective to auteur criticisms treatment of
    the movies as high art which led to more focus on
    industrial conditions
  • First genres of interest western, gangster, noir
  • Enabled placement of a whole range of films
    auteurism could not touch
  • Led to a new reciprocity between art and society
  • From mise-en-scene (auteurism) to iconography


Genre
21
  • History of Genre Criticism
  • For such a type of genre to be successful
    means that its conventions have imposed
    themselves upon the general consciousness and
    become the accepted vehicles of a particular set
    of attitudes and a particular aesthetic effect.
    One goes to any individual example of the type
    with very definite expectations, and originality
    is to be welcomed only in the degree that it
    intensifies the expected experience without
    fundamentally altering it. Moreover, the
    relationship between the conventions which go to
    make up such a type and the real experience of
    its audience or the real facts of whatever
    situation it pretends to describe is of only
    secondary importance and does not determine its
    aesthetic force. It is only in an ultimate sense
    that the type appeals to its audience's
    experience of reality much more immediately, it
    appeals to previous experience of the type
    itself it creates its own field of
    reference.Robert Warshow


Genre
22
  • History of Genre Criticism
  • The relationship between the conventions which
    go to make up such a type genre and the real
    experience of its audience or the real facts of
    whatever situation it pretends to describe is of
    only secondary importance and does not determine
    its aesthetic force. It is only in an ultimate
    sense that the type appeals to its audience's
    experience of reality much more immediately, it
    appeals to previous experience of the type
    itself it creates its own field of
    reference.Robert Warshow


Genre
23
  • History of Genre Criticism
  • Iconography originates in the profilmic
    arrangements of sign events it is not
    produced by specifically filmic codes but was
    taken up and transformed by cinema from cultural
    codes already in circulation
  • Buscombe on Guns in the Afternoon (256)
  • History and Ideology America talking to itself
    (McArthur 256)


Genre
24
Genre
  • Action-Adventure
  • Hard/Hyperbolic Bodies? See Jeffords quote on p.
    265.
  • A lens for studying masculinity
  • Action heroes?
  • Pfeil (p. 266) fantasies of class- and
    gender-based resistance to the advent of a
    post-feminist/post-Fordist world keep turning
    over, queasily, deliriously, into accommodations
    and in which, within a very specifically
    white/male/hetero American capitalist dreamscape,
    inter- and/or multi-national at the top and
    multiracial at boththe bottom . . . all the old
    lines of force and division between races,
    classes and genders are both transgressed and
    redrawn.
  • Tasker knowing visual excess and
    tongue-in-cheek humor

25
Genre
  • Action-Adventure (cont.)
  • Now making norms of gender and sexual identity
    strange while also reinforcing them.
  • Debt to the romance.
  • Interest in the swashbucklerPirates of the
    Caribbean
  • Some interesting films to consider Crouching
    Tiger, Indiana Jones, Die Hard

26
Genre
  • Comedy
  • Comedys multi-faceted nature
  • Study of comedy is multi-disciplinary
  • Comic units and narrativeare they always
    digressive?
  • Gerald Masts eight comic film plots

27
Genre
  • Comedy (continued)
  • Theories of laughter (see next slides).
  • Screwball Comedy a fine website.

28
  • Comedy Theory
  • Notoriously incomplete and lacking in definitive
    answers. May well be a fourth tray phenomenon.
  • Plessners thesis in Laughing and Crying.
  • A Civil Servant used to keep four trays on his
    desk to put his papers in. The first was marked
    Incoming, the second Outgoing, the third Pending,
    and the fourth Too difficult.--Owen Barfield


Helmuth Plessner, author of Laughing and Crying
Genre
29
  • Comedy Theory
  • Three basic camps
  • Superiority--laughter reinforces social power.
  • Incongruity--humor the result of the clash of
    incompatible discourses.
  • Relief--the comic as a vent for repression.


Genre
30
  • Key Questions
  • Do we laugh at or with?
  • Is comedy innately subversive?
  • Is comedy congenitally offensive/politically
    incorrect?
  • What is the connection between the body and the
    comic?


Genre
31

Henri Bergson
Genre
32
Life is a comedy to those who think, a tragedy
to those who feel. --Horace Walpole, 18th Century

Genre
33
Genre
  • Contemporary Crime
  • The Detective Film
  • Ratiocination
  • Conversative (the crime is solved)
  • Investigation
  • Dirty Harry
  • The Gangster Film
  • Contemporaneousness
  • Warner Brothersknown for its social issues
    movies
  • Warshowsee following slides
  • Suspense Thriller

34
Robert Warshow, The Gangster as Tragic
Hero (from The Immediate Experience)
35
(No Transcript)
36
(No Transcript)
37
Genre

38
Genre

39
Genre
  • Film Noir
  • Tim Dirks Film Noir site.

40
Genre
  • Film Noir
  • (thanks to Danny Pearys Guide for the Film
    Fanatic and Ephraim Katz Film Encyclopedia)
  •  
  • Signatures/Motifs
  • often heavily narrated
  • tainted characters
  • entangled relationships
  • events determined by chance
  • large sums of money
  • murder
  • a tough, morally ambiguous hero with a gun in his
    trench coat, a hat on his head, and a cigarette
    in his mouth
  • a lying, cheating, chameleon-like femme fatale--a
    corruptive influence who leads an essentially
    decent guy down a wayward path, and, ultimately,
    betrayal

41
Genre
  • Film Noir
  • frame-ups
  • fall guys
  • most scenes at night, in metaphorical darkness
    heavy on shadows
  • tone of cynicism
  • Heroes and villains cynical, disillusioned, and
    often insecure loners
  • Its characters are inextricably bound to the
    past and unsure or apathetic about the future
    (Katz).
  • Abounds with night scenes, both interior and
    exterior, with sets that suggest dingy realism,
    and with lighting that emphasizes deep shadows
    and accents the mood of fatalism
  • Its dark tones and the tense nervousness are
    further enhanced by the oblique choreography of
    the action and the doom-laden compositions and
    camera angles (Katz)

42
Genre
Film Noir   Hollywood productions of the film
noir style include John Huston THE MALTESE
FALCON (1941), KEY LARGO (1948), and THE ASPHALT
JUNGLE (1950) Howard Hawks TO HAVE AND HAVE NOT
(1944) and THE BIG SLEEP (1946) Michael
Curtiz' CASABLANCA (1942) and MILDRED PIERCE
(1945) Tay Garnett THE POSTMAN ALWAYS RINGS
TWICE (1946)
43
Genre
Film Noir Billy Wilder DOUBLE INDEMNITY, THE LOST
WEEKEND (1945), SUNSET BLVD. (1950), and THE BIG
CARNIVAL (1951) Orson Welles THE LADY FROM
SHANGHAI (1948) Otto Preminger LAURA (1944),
FALLEN ANGEL (1945), and WHERE THE SIDEWALK ENDS
(1950) Robert Siodmak PHANTOM LADY (1944), THE
SUSPECT (1944), THE STRANGE AFFAIR OF UNCLE HARRY
(1945), THE KILLERS (1946), THE DARK MIRROR
(1946), and CRY OF THE CITY (1948)
44
Genre
Film Noir   Jacques Tourneur OUT OF THE PAST
(1947) Charles Vidor GILDA (1946) George
Cukor GASLIGHT (1944) Frank Tuttle THIS GUN FOR
HIRE (1942) Fritz Lang THE WOMAN IN THE WINDOW
(1944), SCARLET STREET (1945), and THE BIG HEAT
(1953)
45
Genre
Film Noir   John Brahm THE LODGER (1944) and
HANGOVER SQUARE (1945) Alfred Hitchcock SPELLBOUN
D (1945) Lewis Milestone THE STRANGE LOVE OF
MARTHA IVERS (1946) Edward Dmytryk MURDER, MY
SWEET (1944) and CORNERED (1945) André De
Toth DARK WATERS (1944) and PITFALL (1948)
46
Genre
Film Noir Stuart Heisler THE GLASS KEY
(1942) Jean Negulesco THE MASK OF DIMITRIOS
(1944), THREE STRANGERS (1946), NOBODY LIVES
FOREVER (1946), and ROAD HOUSE (1948) Anthony
Mann T-MEN (1947), RAW DEAL (1948), and SIDE
STREET (1949) Fred Zinnemann ACT OF VIOLENCE
(1949) Rudolph Maté THE DARK PAST (1948), D.O.A.
(1950), and UNION STATION (1950)
47
Genre
Film Noir   Henry Hathaway KISS OF DEATH (1947)
and CALL NORTHSIDE 777 (1948) Robert
Rossen JOHNNY O'CLOCK (1947) and BODY AND SOUL
(1947) Abraham Polonsky FORCE OF EVIL
(1948) John Cromwell DEAD RECKONING (1947) and
THE RACKET (1951) Robert Montgomery LADY IN THE
LAKE (1946) and RIDE THE PINK HORSE (1947)
48
Genre
Film Noir Delmer Daves DARK PASSAGE
(1947) Robert Wise THE SET-UP (1949) and THE
CAPTIVE CITY (1952) Jules Dassin BRUTE FORCE
(1947), THE NAKED CITY (1948), THIEVES' HIGHWAY
(1949), and NIGHT AND THE CITY (1950) John
Farrow THE BIG CLOCK (1948) and ALIAS NICK BEAL
(1949) Elia Kazan BOOMERANG! (1947) and PANIC IN
THE STREETS (1950)
49
Genre
Film Noir   Edgar G. Ulmer RUTHLESS
(1948) Joseph H. Lewis THE UNDERCOVER MAN (1949)
and GUN CRAZY (1949) Nicholas Ray THEY LIVE BY
NIGHT (1949), IN A LONELY PLACE (1950), and ON
DANGEROUS GROUND (1951) Phil Karlson SCANDAL
SHEET (1952), 99 RIVER STREET (1953), and TIGHT
SPOT (1955) Samuel Fuller PICKUP ON SOUTH STREET
(1953)
50
Genre
Film Noir   Robert Aldrich KISS ME DEADLY (1955).
51
Genre
  • Melodrama
  • Why has melodrama now become a genre of interest?
  • Todd Haynes, Far From Heaven (Douglas Sirk) to
    Mildred Pierce (Michael Curtiz)

52
Genre
  • The Musical
  • As mirror of society
  • As spectacle
  • Rock documentary

53
Genre
  • Science Fiction and Horror
  • Hard to distinguish?
  • SF
  • Sobchack contested space between the human
    community and an alien other
  • The iconography of SF
  • The sounds of science fiction
  • Telotte the issue of humanness
  • The robot and the cyborg
  • SF and wonder

54
Genre
  • Science Fiction and Horror
  • Horror
  • Slow to gain critical attention
  • Hammer films
  • The feminist complaint
  • Robin Wood
  • The horror film has consistently been one of the
    most popular and at the same times most
    disreputable of Hollywood genres. . . . It is
    restricted to aficionados and complemented by
    total rejection, people tend to go to horror
    films either obsessively or not at all.  (Robin
    Wood, The American Nightmare)

55
Genre
  • Science Fiction and Horror
  • Horror
  • Youth-oriented?
  • And the gothic
  • Reading horror psychoanalytically
  • The nightmarefilm and dream
  • Return of the repressed
  • the true subject of the horror genre is the
    struggle for recognition of all that our
    civilization represses or oppresses (Robin Wood,
    The American Nightmare)
  • Feminism and Horror See Clover quotes on p. 357
  • The final girl
  • Body Horror

56
Genre
  • Teenpicsa lame section
  • Adolescence as a problemVan Den Berg
  • The teenage audience
  • Rebel without a Cause
  • Reefer Madness
  • Teens in horror and SF
  • John Hughes/Brat Pack
  • American Graffiti and Back to the Future
  • What about teen raunch? Juno? Michael Sera?
    Kick-Ass?

57
Genre
  • The Western
  • Warshow and Bazin as pioneers
  • The West in American historyThe Turner
    Hypothesis
  • The Westerns universal appealthe Spaghetti
    Western the invention of America
  • Lovells four principal elements (377)
  • hero, villain, damsel in distress
  • action story violence, chases, crime
  • stories of migration and settlement
  • tales of revenge

58
Genre
  • The Western
  • Kitses the West was already myth when the
    Western film was born.
  • "This is the West, sir. When the legend becomes
    fact, print the legend.Ransom Stoddard (Jimmy
    Stewart) in The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance
    (John Ford, 1962)
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