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Applying Occupational health and safety in several occupational environment and aspect

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Title: Applying Occupational health and safety in several occupational environment and aspect


1
Applying Occupational health and safety in
several occupational environment and aspect
  • Public Health Department
  • Faculty of Medicine

2
  • To introduce applicable Occupational health and
    safety in several occupational environment and
    aspect

3
  • Danggur Kondarus, Keselamatan Kesehatan Kerja,
    Litbang Danggur Partners, 2006,page 71-92
  • Levy Wegman, Occupational Health, Recognizing
    and Preventing Work Related Disease. Third
    Edition. Little Broan and Company, Boston /
    NewYork/Toronto/London,2006. Chapter 32
  • Rosenstock, Textbook of Clinical Occupational and
    Environmental Medicine, Second Edition, Saunders,
    2005. Chapter 11,12

4
  • Applying Occupational health and safety in
  • Agriculture
  • Construction site sector
  • Transportation Sector (Land, Water and Air)
  • Petroleum, gas and mining sector
  • Industrial sector
  • Office environment

5
1. Agriculture
  • Worldwide, more people work in agriculture than
    in any other industry
  • Farm work remains one of the most labor intensive
    and lowest paid occupation

6
  • Contact with infected animals
  • Dermatitis among agricultural workers has been
    associated with exposure
  • - a variety of chemical agents including
    pesticides
  • - sensitivity to plant material
  • such as poison ivy and poison oak
  • - infectious agent

7
  • Agricultural work is one of the most common forms
    and the most dangerous form of child labor
  • Agriculture is considered one of the most
    hazardous industries for occupational injuries
    and death

8
Selected Hazards and Health effects in Agriculture
9
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10
2. Construction workers
  • Construction workers build, repair, renovate,
    modify and demolish structure houses, office
    building, temples, factories, hospitals, roads,
    bridges. Tunnels, stadium, airports etc.
  • Construction work is composed of many different
    task

11
Construction
  • often must be done in extreme heat or cold, in
    windy, rainy, snowy, or foggy weather, or at
    night
  • Intermittent and seasonal work
  • Episodic employment, frequent change employer
  • The most dangerous occupations

12
Constructions occupations
  • Boilermakers
  • Brick masons
  • Carpenters
  • Carpet installer
  • Cement masons
  • Construction laborer
  • Electricians
  • Insulation workers
  • Operating engineers
  • Painters
  • Paperhanger
  • Plumber
  • Roofers
  • Sheet metal worker
  • Stonemasons

13
Health hazards in construction
  • Lead
  • Noise
  • Musculoskeletal disorders
  • Respiratory diseases
  • Dermatitis
  • Cancer

14
  • Lead exposure and lead toxicity are particularly
    important problem in the construction industry
  • Excessive lead exposures are associated with
    several construction task

15
Noise
  • Construction workers generally have excessive
    noise exposure and high rates of noise induced
    hear loss
  • gt 500,000 construction workers are exposed to
    potentially hazardous levels of noise
  • Exp. Bulldozer, crane cabs, drill

16
Musculoskeletal Disorders
  • ?as work related injuries in construction
  • Construction workers have a high prevalence of
    chronic musculoskeletal complaints
  • such as pain, aches, discomfort
  • ? back pain due to repeated injury
  • hand discomfort, strain and sprain

17
Respiratory Diseases
  • Construction workers are exposed to a variety of
    respiratory hazards
  • ? asbestos, silica, synthetic vitreous fibers,
    cadmium, chromates, formaldehyde, cobalt, metal
    fumes, dust, pitch, sealers, solvents, wood dust,
    wood preservatives
  • Asbestosis, Silicosis, COPD and Asthma

18
Dermatitis
  • Construction workers are exposed to many chemical
    that cause irritant or allergic dermatitis
  • Eg. Cement

19
Cancer
  • Construction workers are exposed to many
    carcinogens
  • Lung Carcinogens in Construction
  • Asbestos
  • Chromium, Cadmium
  • Welding fume
  • Coal tar
  • Wood dust
  • Silica

20
3. Transportation Sector (Land, Water and Air)
  • Transportation sector has a big risk for injury
    and accident
  • ? economic and death
  • Government regulation for prevention of
    transportation accident and operational technique
  • Cause of transportation accident
  • Consistency in regulation controlling
  • Un disciplinary of operator in transportation
    sector
  • Ignore occupational health and safety program
  • No Punishment for un disciplinary people
  • Quality of Human resources
  • Development of transportation technology
  • Complexity in transportation problem

Consistency in application of transportation
regulation
21
  • Land transportation most frequently accident
  • Government regulation
  • UU No 13 tahun 1992 train regulation
  • UU No 14 tahun 1992 Traffic regulation
  • Cars,
  • Driver
  • Traffic sign

22
  • Effect of traffic accident
  • Fatality killed
  • Serious injury
  • Light injury
  • Cause of traffic accident
  • Pedestrian, condition of road
  • Driver (unskilled driver)

23
  • Cause of water accident
  • Ships condition
  • Number of passengers
  • Overload
  • Un disciplinary people who work at ships
  • Cause of air accident
  • Human error
  • Aircraft condition and maintenance

24
4. Petroleum, gas and mining sector
  • Government regulation
  • Regulation for
  • Worker
  • Hours of work
  • under ground not more than 8,5 hour/day
  • Temperature gt30oC not more than 6 hours/day
  • Lot of water not more than 6 hours/day
  • UU No 1 tahun 1970
  • PP No 19 tahun 1973

25
5. Industrial sector
  • Industrial sector has a big risk for occupational
    accident and occupational disease
  • Type of accident in industrial sector
  • Major explosion
  • Major fire
  • Hazardous explosive

26
6. Office environment
  • Sick building syndrome
  • Applying Occupational health and safety in office
    environment ? indoor and outdoor safety condition
  • Building construction
  • Quality of air
  • Quality of illumination
  • Electric and communication over voltage
  • Noise control
  • Display unit
  • Hygiene and sanitation
  • Using computer ? ergonomic ?low back pain

27
7. Travel
  • Travel associated infectious disease
  • Travel related disease
  • Travelers diarrhea (Salmonelle, Shigella,
    E.hystolitica, E coli, viral agents)
  • Hepatitis A, yellow fever, typhoid fever,
    cholera, malaria
  • Travel related infection
  • Water purification
  • Water sanitation
  • Food preparation
  • Vector control
  • Recreational activities
  • Personal hygiene

28
Prevention
  • Public health authorities ? recommended
    vaccination
  • Malaria prophylaxis
  • Antibiotic prophylaxis
  • General protective ? insect repellent
  • Personal medical kit
  • Health education
  • Use light and protective clothing, mosquito
    netting
  • Avoid outdoors between dusk
  • Not to eat or drink contaminated food or water
  • Avoid uncooked foods
  • Walking with protected feet

29
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31
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32
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33
Posters that can promote better posture at
workplace
34
Technique
35
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36
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37
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38
ANTRAX
39
Age of workers (18-40) Working duration
(gt20) Smoking Immune response Self Protection
Equipment
CHEMICAL HAZARDS cotton dust
WORKPLACE ventilation
Distribution and determinants of
diseasesresulting from biological or chemicals
40
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41
Thankyou
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