Use of Underground Dams in the Sustainable Developement and Management of Groundwater Resources - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Use of Underground Dams in the Sustainable Developement and Management of Groundwater Resources

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Title: Use of Underground Dams in the Sustainable Developement and Management of Groundwater Resources


1
Use of Underground Dams in the Sustainable
Developement and Management of Groundwater
Resources
  • Halil Önder
  • Department of Civil Engineering
  • METU
  • Ankara, Turkey

2
Outline
  • objective
  • sustainability of groundwater, goals, strategies
  • underground dams
  • use of underground dams
  • technical effectiveness and performance
    evaluation
  • discussion and conclusion

3
Objective
  • To discuss and demonstrate the use of underground
    dams in the sustainable developement and
    management of groundwater resources in rural
    areas for small communities
  • To draw a conclusion

4
Groundwater Sustainability and Goals
  • Definition
  • The groundwater sustainability is defined as
    development and use of ground water in a manner
    that can be maintained for an indefinite time to
    meet both current and future beneficial purposes
    without causing unacceptable environmental,
    economic, or social consequences
  • USGS (circular 1186)
  • Goals
  • sustainable long term yields from aquifers
  • effective and efficient use of stored water in
    aquifers
  • preservation of water quality
  • preservation of water dependent ecosystems
    -aquatic environments
  • maintenance of base flow
  • integration of groundwater and surface water into
    a comprehensive natural resource management
    system

5
Management strategies to ensure the
sustainability
  • Strategies
  • decrease discharge from groundwater system
  • increase recharge to groundwater system
  • change rates or spatial patterns of groundwater
    pumpage
  • change the volume of groundwater in storage at
    different time scales
  • USGS
  • Intelligent tools and innovative approaches to
    enhance the sustainability of groundwater
    resources
  • Groundwater Dam is an example
  • Definition
  • Any structure designed to contain underground
    flow from a natural aquifer or from an artificial
    one, built with an impermeable barrier
  • Types
  • Sub-Surface Dams
  • Sand-Storage Dams

6
Types of Sub-Surface Dams

a) Clay dike, b) Concrete dam, c) Stone masonry
dam, d) Reinforced concrete dam, e) Plastered
brick wall, f) Plastic or tarred-felt sheets, g)
Corrugated iron, steel, or PVC sheet, h)
Injection screen (Nilsson, 1988)
7
Types of Sand-Storage Dams

a) Concrete sand-storage dam, b) Stone masonry
sand-storage dam, c) Gabion sand-storage dam with
clay cover, d) Gabion sand-storage dam with clay
core, e) Stone-fill concrete sand-storage dam, f)
Stone sand-storage dam (Nilsson, 1988)
8
Examples
9
Characteristics and Attractiveness of Underground
Dams
  • low in capital cost
  • an appropriate technology for the poorer
    communities
  • requires essentially no external resources, use
    of local material is possible
  • needs little expertise to run and maintain, can
    be understood, controlled and maintained by local
    people
  • are relatively easy to make and very cheap to
    construct
  • contributes to the decentralization of water
    management
  • are able to store larger volume of water
  • small enough in scale to be afforded by a small
    group of people

10
Basic Utilizations of Underground Dams
  • basic water supply for
  • domestic use,
  • small-scale (manual) irrigation,
  • industrial use
  • livestock watering
  • to prevent salt water intrusion in coastal
    aquifers
  • combating or reversing the process of
    desertification
  • treated waste water may be stored behind
    underground dam for non-potable purposes
  • for artificial recharge
  • to construct artificial wetland
  • source of water for natural wetlands

11
Utilisation of Underground Dams-1
reducing the impact of saltwater intrusion by
construction or installation of an impermeable
subsurface barrier paralleling the coast
decreasing discharge from groundwater system
into the sea (subsurface dam is recomended near
the sea shore to prevent the subsurface flow from
the aquifer to the sea)
12
Utilisation of Underground Dams-2
  • combating or reversing the process of
    desertification

13
Utilisation of Underground Dams-3
  • treated waste water may be stored behind
    underground dam for non-potable purposes
  • an interesting method to achieve groundwater
    sustainability
  • augmenting and enhancing the available
    groundwater resources
  • treated waste water is
  • available for reuse at a relatively low cost
  • provides a dependable source of water even in
    dought years
  • eliminates the need for costly waste water
    disposal options

14
Management of the groundwater resources
  • management involves complete understanding of the
    cause and effect relationship that the human
    activities have on the groundwater resources and
    on the broader environment.
  • in this context groundwater modeling constitutes
    an important task.
  • performance evaluation is done by using numerical
    simulation
  • numerical technique finite difference method
  • computer code Visual MODFLOW

15
Conclusions
  • severe shortage of fresh water supply is being
    and will be experienced
  • scarcity of water will result in insufficient
    food supply and undesirable health problems
  • underground dams are
  • environment friendly technology
  • socially acceptable
  • economically efficient
  • hydro geologically sound
  • intelligent tool and innovative approache to
    enhance the sustainability of groundwater
    resources
  • positive impact on the wellfare of small
    communities

16
  • Thank You for your patience
  • Small is beautifula study of economics as if
    people mattered
  • E. F. Schumacher. 1973
  • Make everything as simple as possible, but not
    simpler.
  • Albert Einstein



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