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Prof. Sin-Min Lee Department of Computer Science 30,000 BC Tally systems Africa & Europe 8,500 BC Prime system Africa 1000 BC Abacus China & Babylon History of abacus ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Prof. Sin-Min Lee

1
History of Computers
• Prof. Sin-Min Lee
• Department of Computer Science

2
30,000 BC Tally systems Africa Europe 8,500 BC
Prime system Africa 1000 BC Abacus China
Babylon History of abacus
The abacus' history started ca. 2600 years ago in
Madagaskar. There to count the amount of
soldiers, every soldier had to pass a narrow
passage. For each passing soldier a little stone
was put into a groove. When ten stones were in
that groove they were removed and one stone was
put into the next groove.
3
Counting soldiers
4
Mutation of grooves and stones
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6
Ancient Computing History

The Abacus Mechanical aid used for counting and
making quick calculations.
Still in use around the world.
Find out more about the Abacus in Resources.
7
The Abacus
• How did people keep track of numbers before pen
and paper were widely available?
• How does addition and subtraction work if you
don't have a handy written form for your
numbers?
• Say you can't read or write, but you can count -
how do you add, subtract, multiply, or divide
large numbers?
• The answer to all these questions is . . . the
abacus!
• www.fenris.net/lizyoung/abacus.html

8
Why does the abacus exist?
• It is difficult to imagine counting without
numbers, but there was a time when written
numbers did not exist.
• The earliest counting device was the human hand
and its fingers. Then, as larger quantities
(larger than ten human-fingers could represent)
were counted, various natural items like pebbles
and twigs were used to help count.
• Merchants who traded goods not only needed a way
to count goods they bought and sold, but also to
calculate the cost of those goods.
• Until numbers were invented, counting devices
were used to make everyday calculations.
• www.ee.ryerson.ca8080/elf/abacus/history.html

9
Russian Abacus
• The abacus is an ancient tool used for counting.
The simple design uses a set of framed rods and a
series of beads that are moved back and forth
across the rods to count.
• www.dotpoint.com/xnumber/pic_abacus3.htm

10
Development of soroban
In 607 the japanese regent Shotoku Taishi made a
cultural approach to China. The chinese suan-pan
comes to Japan and became optimized by Taishi by
removing one of the upper balls. Since 1940 the
new soroban with only four lower balls is used.
11
Roman abacus
12
Calculating on tables
This structure was found on tables, boards and on
kerchiefs.
13
Gelosia procedure of writing calculation
0
5
6
0
8
8
56008
123 456
14
Napier Bones
15
Calculating with Napier Bones
239 8
2
1
9
1
16
History of Computers
• Abacus---Approximately 3000 BC
• Calculators---1600s
• Punched Card Devices---1800s
• First Electronic Computers---1940s
• Mainframes---1950s
• Minicomputers---1960s
• Microcomputers---1970s
• Microcomputer Systems---1980s
• Internet---1990s

17
Early Computing History

Blaise Pascal
Invented the first mechanical calculator. The
Pascaline used cogs and gears to solve math
equations.
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Charles Babbage the "Father of Computing"
(1791-1871)
21
Charles Babbage - Father of the Computer
• 1822 - Designed the Difference Engine for the
purposes of computing the entries in
navigational and other tables (even received the
first government grant for computer research).
• 1833 - Designed the Analytical Engine that had
the basic components of a modern computer.
Unfortunately due to poor documentation most of
his ideas were lost.

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The Worlds First Programmer?
• 1842 - Ada Augusta King, Countess of Lovelace,
translates Menabrea's pamphlet on the Analytical
Engine, adding her own notes, and becomes the
world's first programmer.
• 1847 - 1849 - Babbage continues working on the
2nd version of the Difference Machine and draws
plans for it. In 1991 the Science Museum in
Kensington, England build the 2nd version (using
19th century technology).

24
Mechanical Calculators

Joseph Jacquard
• First programmable machine.
• Used punched cards (binary instructions) to
automate weaving loom.
• Punched cards were a staple of early and modern
computer programming.

25
Electronic Computer Systems
First Generation1943-1956
• Used vacuum tubes in electronic circuits.
• Used punch cards to input and externally store
data.
• Up to 4K of memory.
• Programming in machine language and assembly
language.
• Required a compiler.

26
A History of Computing
• 1500 Mechanical calculator Leonardo da Vinci
• 1621 Slide rule William Oughtred
• 1642 Arithmetic Machine Blaise Pascal
• 1822 Difference Engine Charles Babbage
• 1830 Analytical Engine Charles Babbage
• 1831 Computer program Lady Ada Lovelace
• 1936 Z1 Computer Konrad Zuse
• 1936 Turing Machine Alan Turing
• 1938 Boolean Circuits Claude Shannon

27
First Generation 1943-1956

Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator
(ENIAC)
Worlds first electronic digital computer. Used
to produce WWII ballistic firing tables for the
U.S. Defense Department.
Check out the ENIAC exhibit.
28
ENIAC - background
• Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer
• Eckert and Mauchly
• University of Pennsylvania
• Trajectory tables for weapons
• Started 1943
• Finished 1946
• Too late for war effort
• Used until 1955

29
ENIAC - details
• Decimal (not binary)
• 20 accumulators of 10 digits
• Programmed manually by switches
• 18,000 vacuum tubes
• 30 tons
• 15,000 square feet
• 140 kW power consumption
• 5,000 additions per second

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Computerized Warfare
• 1943 - The Colossus built in England by a team
led by Alan Turing, was a special purpose
computer used to break the German code ULTRA
encrypted using the ENIGMA machines. Breaking
the German code was one the the keys to the
success of the D-Day invasion.
• 1944 - The Harvard Mark I (and later II, III and
IV) were general purposed electromechanical
calculators (sponsored by the US Navy) to compute
artillery and navigation tables - the same
purpose as intended by Babbage for the Difference
Engine.

32
The von Neumann Computer
• 1944 - John von Neumann joined the ENIAC project.
The idea of storing programs as numbers was
proposed.
• 1945 - von Neumann wrote a memo proposing a
stored-program computer called EDVAC. Goldstine
distributed the memo, put von Neumanns name on
it and omitted Eckerts and Mauchlys names.
• Most computer historians agree the von Neumann
received far more credit than he deserved.
• The most prestigious award in the field of
Computer Architecture is the Eckert-Mauchly award.

33
A History of Computing
• 1943 COLOSSUS Alan Turing
• 1945 von Neumann Machine John von Neumann
• 1946 ENIAC J. Presper Eckert John W. Mauchly,
University of Pennsylvania
• 1947 Transistor William Shockley, John Bardeen
Walter Brattain, Bell Laboratories
• 1951 UNIVAC Remington Rand Corporation
• 1953 IBM 701 EDPM IBM Corporation
• 1954 FORTRAN John Backus
• 1958 Integrated Circuit Jack Kilby Robert
Noyce, Texas Instruments
• 1964 Mouse Graphical User Interface Douglas
Engelbart, Stanford University

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Second Generation 1957-1964

1956 IBM 350 RAMAC
• Used transistors, developed by Bell Labs.
• Up to 32K of memory.
• Programming in computer languages, such as
FORTRAN and COBOL.

Visit the Computing History Timeline in Resources.
36
Third Generation 1965-1971
• Used integrated circuits.
• Up to 3 million bytes of memory.
• Lower cost, smaller size, and increasing
processor speed.

37
Fourth Generation 1972-Now

Microcomputer Revolution Begins.
• 1971, Intel develops 4004, the first
microprocessor chip.
• Altair sold in 1975, the first personal computer.
It is a kit that must be assembled.
• Apple Computer is formed in 1976 and sells 50
Apple I.
• Advances increase memory size, storage space, and
processing speeds.

38
Fourth Generation 1972-Now
Microcomputers
• Personal computers or PCs.
• Usually cost about 2,000 or less.
• Process over 1 billion operations per second.
• Stand-alone or connected to other computers as
a network system.

TEA
39
The 1970s (2nd half)
• 1976 - Cray-1. First Super Computer announced.
• 1976 - Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak produced the
Apple II that was assembled and complete with its
own keyboard and monitor.

40
The IBM PC Introduced
• 1981 - IBM entered the field in with the IBM "PC"
and supported by the DOS operating system
developed under an agreement that gave Microsoft
all the profits in exchange for the development
costs having been borne by Microsoft. The PCs
microprocessor was the Intel 8086.
• 1982 - Computer chosen as Man of the Year by Time
magazine.

41
Crays Supercomputers
• From 1976 until it was purchased by SGI (Silicon
Graphics) in 1995, Seymour Cray and his company
were the leaders in the field of supercomputers.
Shown is the CRAY X-MP with 4 processors.

42
1990s Connecting the World
• Tim Berners-Lee
• Developed HTML and the World Wide Web (WWW) was
born.

43
1990s Connecting the World
• Marc Andreessen
• An original developer of Mosaic, the first
browser software able to read HTML.
• Co-founder of Netscape Communications.

44
The 21st Century
• Technologies of the Future
• Advanced robotics commonplace
• Smart houses
• Wearable computers
• Holodeck virtual reality
• Truly individualized education

Check out Dave Moursunds view of education in
the year 2015, one of the Resources.
45
The 21st Century
• Only recently focused on computers.
• Internet current primary trend.
• Communication with colleagues.
• Lesson plan preparation.
• Student resources.
• Access research and best practices for teaching.

0534.0
TEA
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49
Whats Computer Architecture?
• The attributes of a computing system as seen by
the programmer, i.e., the conceptual structure
and functional behavior, as distinct from the
organization of the data flows and controls the
logic design, and the physical implementation.
• Amdahl, Blaaw, and Brooks, 1964

SOFTWARE
50
von Neumann/Turing
• Stored Program concept
• Main memory storing programs and data
• ALU operating on binary data
• Control unit interpreting instructions from
memory and executing
• Input and output equipment operated by control
unit
• Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies
• IAS
• Completed 1952

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A History of Computing
• 1969 ARPAnet UCLA, Stanford, UC Santa Barbara
University of Utah
• 1969 UNIX Ken Thompson Dennis Ritchie, Bell
Laboratories
• 1971 Email Roy Tomlinson, BBN
• 1972 Telnet Jon Postel, BBN
• 1973 C Dennis Ritchie Brian Kernighan, Bell
Laboratories
• 1973 Ethernet Robert Metcalfe, Harvard
University/Xerox PARC
• 1973 FTP Alex McKenzie, BBN
• 1974 TCP Vint Cerf Robert Kahn
• 1975 Microsoft Corporation Bill Gates Paul
Allen
• 1976 Apple Computer Steve Wozniak Steve Jobs
• 1976 Apple I Apple Computer

53
1978 Usenet Tom Truscott, Jim Ellis Steve
Bellovin 1981 IBM PC IBM Corporation 1981 MS-DOS M
icrosoft Corporation 1982 TCP/IP ARPA 1983 Lisa Ap
ple Computer 1984 DNS Jon Postel 1984 Macintosh Ap
ple Computer 1985 Windows Microsoft
Corporation 1986 NeXT Computer Steve
Jobs 1987 Perl Larry Wall 1989 BSD
NR1 University of California at Berkeley
54
A History of Computing
• 1989 HTTP HTML Tim Breners-Lee, CERN
• 1991 Linux Linus Torvald
• 1991 Python Guido van Rossum
• 1993 Mosaic Marc Andreessen
• 1994 Netscape Corporation Marc Andreessen Jim
Clarke
• 1999 G4 Apple Computer
• 2001 OS X Apple Computer

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Chapter 1. Number Base
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63
William George Horner Born 1786 in Bristol,
England Died 22 Sept 1837 in Bath,
England Horner's only significant contribution to
mathematics was Horner's method for solving
algebraic equations. It was submitted to the
Royal Society on 1 July 1819 and was published in
the same year in the Philosophical Transactions
of the Royal Society. Some years earlier Ruffini
had described a similar method which had won him
the gold medal offered by the Italian
Mathematical Society for Science who had asked
for improved methods for numerical solutions to
equations. However neither Ruffini nor Horner was
the first to discover this method as it was known
to Zhu Shijie 500 years earlier.
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• Ch'in Chiu-Shao is a thirteenth century Chinese
sage who around 1247 AD composed the nine
sections of mathematics. He also developed a
scheme for the solution of numerical equations.
• The difference between Ch'in Chiu-Shao and
Horner's is that Ch'in Chiu-Shao uses Horner's
method of synthetic division in reverse order
• No one noticed that the Chinese had this
knowledge for a long time until Wang Ling and
Joseph Needham's paper on
• 1. "Horner's Method in Chinese Mathematics
• F Cajori, Horner's Method of Approximation
Anticipated by Ruffini, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 17
(1911), 409-414.

66
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