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Prof. Sin-Min Lee

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Lecture 1 Prof. Sin-Min Lee Department of Computer Science San Jose State University Textbook Null and Lobur, The Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Prof. Sin-Min Lee


1
Lecture 1
CS147
  • Prof. Sin-Min Lee
  • Department of Computer Science
  • San Jose State University

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Tuesday Thursday 1030 1145 1200 1315
3
Your evaluation in this course is determined by
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Class Presentation 10 Presentation report
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Final Exam 30
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Midterm 1 ??? Midterm 2 ??? Midterm 3 ???
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Rare
Every Thursday
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Textbook
  • Null and Lobur, The Essentials of Computer
    Organization and Architecture, Second Edition
  • ISBN                978-0-7637-7956-6

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Reference Book Computer Systems Architecture A
Networking Approach Author Rob Williams Format
Paperback Publication Date November
2006 Publisher Prentice Hall
11
Good REFERENCEs
1. M. Murdocca and V. Heuring, Computer
Architecture and Organization, an integrated
approach,Wiley, 2007. 2. Linda Null and Julia
Lobur, The Essentials Of Computer Organization
and Architecture, 2nd edition, Jones and
Bartlett Publishers ,2006. ISBN
-10-7637-3769-0
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  The text covers such topics as digital logic,
data representation, machine-level language,
general organization, assembly language
programming, CPU organization, memory
organization, and input/output devices, as well
as a new chapter on Embedded Systems. 
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ENIAC - background
  • Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer
  • Eckert and Mauchly
  • University of Pennsylvania
  • Trajectory tables for weapons
  • Started 1943
  • Finished 1946
  • Too late for war effort
  • Used until 1955

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ENIAC - details
  • Decimal (not binary)
  • 20 accumulators of 10 digits
  • Programmed manually by switches
  • 18,000 vacuum tubes
  • 30 tons
  • 15,000 square feet
  • 140 kW power consumption
  • 5,000 additions per second

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Whats Computer Architecture?
  • The attributes of a computing system as seen by
    the programmer, i.e., the conceptual structure
    and functional behavior, as distinct from the
    organization of the data flows and controls the
    logic design, and the physical implementation.
  • Amdahl, Blaaw, and Brooks, 1964

SOFTWARE
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von Neumann/Turing
  • Stored Program concept
  • Main memory storing programs and data
  • ALU operating on binary data
  • Control unit interpreting instructions from
    memory and executing
  • Input and output equipment operated by control
    unit
  • Princeton Institute for Advanced Studies
  • IAS
  • Completed 1952

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Von Neumann Model
  • 1940s a new model for building computers.
  • Today we can still see the effect.
  • Radically different from what went before.
  • The memory of the computer was to store both the
    data to be worked on and the program doing the
    work.
  • The stored program computer concept.

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Von Neumann Architecture

CONTROL
INPUT
OUTPUT
MEMORY
Data
A.L.U
Control
Address
INPUT gt PROCESS gtOUTPUT
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Whats Computer Architecture?
  • 1950s to 1960s Computer Architecture Course
    Computer Arithmetic.
  • 1970s to mid 1980s Computer Architecture Course
    Instruction Set Design, especially ISA
    appropriate for compilers. (What well do in
    Chapter 2)
  • 1990s to 2000s Computer Architecture
    Course Design of CPU, memory system, I/O system,
    Multiprocessors. (All evolving at a tremendous
    rate!)

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Structure of von Neumann machine
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IAS - details
  • 1000 x 40 bit words
  • Binary number
  • 2 x 20 bit instructions
  • Set of registers (storage in CPU)
  • Memory Buffer Register
  • Memory Address Register
  • Instruction Register
  • Instruction Buffer Register
  • Program Counter
  • Accumulator
  • Multiplier Quotient

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Commercial Computers
  • 1947 - Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation
  • UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer)
  • US Bureau of Census 1950 calculations
  • Became part of Sperry-Rand Corporation
  • Late 1950s - UNIVAC II
  • Faster
  • More memory

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Gordon Moore (co-founder of Intel) predicted in
1965 that the transistor density of semiconductor
chips would double roughly every 18 months.
Moore's Law, formulated by Gordon Moore in 1965,
three years before he helped found chip maker
Intel Corp..
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Binary Digits (Bits)
Only 2 states possible
On
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Chapter 1. Number Base
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William George Horner Born 1786 in Bristol,
England Died 22 Sept 1837 in Bath,
England Horner's only significant contribution to
mathematics was Horner's method for solving
algebraic equations. It was submitted to the
Royal Society on 1 July 1819 and was published in
the same year in the Philosophical Transactions
of the Royal Society. Some years earlier Ruffini
had described a similar method which had won him
the gold medal offered by the Italian
Mathematical Society for Science who had asked
for improved methods for numerical solutions to
equations. However neither Ruffini nor Horner was
the first to discover this method as it was known
to Zhu Shijie 500 years earlier.
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  • Ch'in Chiu-Shao is a thirteenth century Chinese
    sage who around 1247 AD composed the nine
    sections of mathematics. He also developed a
    scheme for the solution of numerical equations.
  • The difference between Ch'in Chiu-Shao and
    Horner's is that Ch'in Chiu-Shao uses Horner's
    method of synthetic division in reverse order
  • No one noticed that the Chinese had this
    knowledge for a long time until Wang Ling and
    Joseph Needham's paper on
  • 1. "Horner's Method in Chinese Mathematics
  • F Cajori, Horner's Method of Approximation
    Anticipated by Ruffini, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 17
    (1911), 409-414.

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??? ?????(Horner's method)??
?????????????,?1819?,???????(1786-1837)?????
????????????????????????????,?????????
????????????????????????(1247)???????,??
???????????,????????????
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