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What is WIMAX ?


What is WIMAX ? WiMAX is an IP based, wireless broadband access technology that provides performance similar to 802.11/Wi-Fi networks with the coverage and QOS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is WIMAX ?

What is WIMAX ?
  • WiMAX is an IP based, wireless broadband access
    technology that provides performance similar to
    802.11/Wi-Fi networks with the coverage and QOS
    (quality of service) of cellular networks. WiMAX
    is also an acronym meaning "Worldwide
    Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX).

What is WIMAX ?
  • WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
    Access) is a telecommunications protocol that
    provides fixed and mobile Internet access. The
    current WiMAX revision provides up to 40 Mbit/s
    with the IEEE 802.16m update expected to offer up
    to 1 Gbit/s fixed speeds.

What is WIMAX ?
  • The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum,
    which was formed in June 2001 to promote
    conformity and interoperability of the standard.
    The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based
    technology enabling the delivery of last mile
    wireless broadband access as an alternative to
    cable and DSL".

What is last mile operation ?
  • The "last mile" or "last kilometer" is the final
    leg of delivering connectivity from a
    communications provider to a customer. The phrase
    is therefore often used by the telecommunications
    and cable television industries. The actual
    distance of this leg may be considerably more
    than a mile, especially in rural areas.

What is last mile operation ?
  • It is typically seen as an expensive challenge
    because "fanning out" wires and cables is a
    considerable physical undertaking. Because the
    last mile of a network to the user is also the
    first mile from the user to the world, the term
    "first mile" is sometimes used.

Last mile
  • To solve the problem of providing enhanced
    services over the last mile, some firms have been
    mixing networks for decades. One example is Fixed
    Wireless Access, where a wireless network is used
    instead of wires to connect a stationary terminal
    to the wireline network.

What is Wimax ?
  • WiMAX is a wireless digital communications
    system, also known as IEEE 802.16, that is
    intended for wireless "metropolitan area
    networks". WiMAX can provide broadband wireless
    access (BWA) up to 30 miles (50 km) for fixed
    stations, and 3 - 10 miles (5 - 15 km) for mobile
    stations. In contrast, the WiFi/802.11 wireless
    local area network standard is limited in most
    cases to only 100 - 300 feet (30 - 100m).

Integration with an IP-based network
Integration with an IP-based network
  • The WiMAX Forum has proposed an architecture that
    defines how a WiMAX network can be connected with
    an IP based core network, which is typically
    chosen by operators that serve as Internet
    Service Providers (ISP) Nevertheless the WiMAX
    BS provide seamless integration capabilities with
    other types of architectures as with packet
    switched Mobile Networks.

Integration with an IP-based network
  • The WiMAX forum proposal defines a number of
    components, plus some of the interconnections (or
    reference points) between these, labeled R1 to R5
    and R8
  • SS/MS the Subscriber Station/Mobile Station
  • ASN the Access Service Network19
  • BS Base station, part of the ASN
  • ASN-GW the ASN Gateway, part of the ASN
  • CSN the Connectivity Service Network
  • HA Home Agent, part of the CSN
  • AAA Authentication, Authorization and Accounting
    Server, part of the CSN
  • NAP a Network Access Provider
  • NSP a Network Service Provider

Integration with an IP-based network
  • It is important to note that the functional
    architecture can be designed into various
    hardware configurations rather than fixed
    configurations. For example, the architecture is
    flexible enough to allow remote/mobile stations
    of varying scale and functionality and Base
    Stations of varying size - e.g. femto, pico, and
    mini BS as well as macros.

WiMAX installation
  • There are numerous devices on the market that
    provide connectivity to a WiMAX network. These
    are known as the "subscriber unit" (SU).
  • There is an increasing focus on portable units.
    This includes handsets (similar to cellular
    smartphones) PC peripherals (PC Cards or USB
    dongles) and embedded devices in laptops, which
    are now available for Wi-Fi services.

WiMAX installation
  • In addition, there is much emphasis by operators
    on consumer electronics devices such as Gaming
    consoles, MP3 players and similar devices. It is
    notable that WiMAX is more similar to Wi-Fi than
    to 3G cellular technologies.

WiMAX installation
  • The WiMAX Forum website provides a list of
    certified devices. However, this is not a
    complete list of devices available as certified
    modules are embedded into laptops, MIDs (Mobile
    Internet devices), and other private labeled

WiMAX installation Gateways
  • WiMAX gateway devices are available as both
    indoor and outdoor versions from several
    manufacturers. Many of the WiMAX gateways that
    are offered by manufactures such as Airspan,
    ZyXEL, Huawei, Motorola, and Greenpacket are
    stand-alone self-install indoor units. Such
    devices typically sit near the customer's window
    with the best WiMAX signal, and provide

WiMAX installation Gateways
  • An integrated Wi-Fi access point to provide the
    WiMAX Internet connectivity to multiple devices
    throughout the home or business.
  • Ethernet ports should you wish to connect
    directly to your computer or DVR instead.
  • One or two PSTN telephone jacks to connect your
    land-line phone and take advantage of VoIP.

WiMAX installation Gateways
  • Indoor gateways are convenient, but radio losses
    mean that the subscriber may need to be
    significantly closer to the WiMAX base station
    than with professionally-installed external
  • Outdoor units are roughly the size of a laptop
    PC, and their installation is comparable to the
    installation of a residential satellite dish. A
    higher-gain directional outdoor unit will
    generally result in greatly increased range and
    throughput but with the obvious loss of practical
    mobility of the unit.

WiMAX installation Dongles
  • There are a variety of USB dongles on the market
    which provide connectivity to a WiMAX network.
    Generally these devices are connected to a
    notebook or netbook whilst on the go. Dongles
    typically have omnidirectional antennae which are
    of lower-gain compared to other devices, as such
    these devices are best used in areas of good

WiMAX installation Mobile phones
  • HTC announced the first WiMAX enabled mobile
    phone, the Max 4G, on Nov 12th 2008.12 The
    device was only available to certain markets in
    Russia on the Yota network.

WiMAX installation Mobile phones
  • HTC and Sprint Nextel released the second WiMAX
    enabled mobile phone, the EVO 4G, March 23, 2010
    at the CTIA conference in Las Vegas. The device,
    made available on June 4, 2010,13 is capable of
    both EV-DO(3G) and WiMAX(4G) as well as
    simultaneous data voice sessions. The device
    also has a front-facing camera enabling the use
    of video conversations.14 A number of WiMAX
    Mobiles are expected to hit the US market in 2011.

WiMAX installation MAC (data link) layer
  • The WiMAX MAC uses a scheduling algorithm for
    which the subscriber station needs to compete
    only once for initial entry into the network.
    After network entry is allowed, the subscriber
    station is allocated an access slot by the base
    station. The time slot can enlarge and contract,
    but remains assigned to the subscriber station,
    which means that other subscribers cannot use it.

WiMAX installation MAC (data link) layer
  • In addition to being stable under overload and
    over-subscription, the scheduling algorithm can
    also be more bandwidth efficient. The scheduling
    algorithm also allows the base station to control
    Quality of service (QoS) parameters by balancing
    the time-slot assignments among the application
    needs of the subscriber station.

WiMAX Performance
  • As a standard intended to satisfy needs of
    next-generation data networks (4G), WiMAX is
    distinguished by its dynamic burst algorithm
    modulation adaptive to the physical environment
    the RF signal travels through. Modulation is
    chosen to be more spectrally efficient (more bits
    per OFDM/SOFDMA symbol).

WiMAX Performance
  • That is, when the bursts have a high signal
    strength and a high carrier to noise plus
    interference ratio (CINR), they can be more
    easily decoded using digital signal processing

WiMAX Performance
  • In contrast, operating in less favorable
    environments for RF communication, the system
    automatically steps down to a more robust mode
    (burst profile) which means fewer bits per
    OFDM/SOFDMA symbol with the advantage that power
    per bit is higher and therefore simpler accurate
    signal processing can be performed.

  • The more recent Long Term Evolution (LTE)
    standard is a similar term describing a parallel
    technology to WiMAX that is being developed by
    vendors and carriers as a counterpoint to WiMAX.

An example of Wireless competition
  • Korea launched Wimax at 2nd quarter of 2006 and
    then launched HSPA one quarter after launched
    Wimax. At the end of 2008 there were 8.4 million
    HSPA subscribers and 350,000 Wimax subscribers in
    Korea. Almost all of HSPA subscribers come from
    2G and 3G users who have been tempted to upgrade
    to new devices by high subsidies, whereas Wimax
    subscribers almost all are newcomers.

An example of wireless competition
  • Deployment of Wimax is still limited (spotted),
    whereas there are well over 100 countries where
    HSPA networks are deployed, and even where there
    is no HSPA coverage there is backward
    compatibility (using HSPA devices) to
    pre-existing networks (GSM and WCDMA) with a
    roaming infrastructure already in place

WiMAX statistics
  • As of October 2010, the WiMAX Forum claims there
    are over 592 WiMAX (fixed and mobile) networks
    deployed in over 148 countries.
  • Yota is the largest WiMAX network operator in the
    world, but has announced that it will move new
    network deployments to LTE and, subsequently,
    change its existing networks as well.

What is HSPA ?
  • High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is an
    amalgamation of two mobile telephony protocols,
    High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and
    High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), that
    extends and improves the performance of existing
    WCDMA protocols. A further standard, Evolved HSPA
    (also known as HSPA), was released late in 2008
    with subsequent adoption worldwide beginning in

WiMAX competitors
  • Within the marketplace, WiMAX's main competition
    comes from existing, widely deployed wireless
    systems such as UMTS, CDMA2000, existing Wi-Fi
    and mesh networking.

WiMAX competitors
Speed vs. Mobility of wireless systems Wi-Fi,
The future of wireless networks
  • In the future, competition will be from the
    evolution of the major cellular standards to
    so-called 4G, high-bandwidth, low-latency, all-IP
    networks with voice services built on top. The
    worldwide move to 4G for GSM/UMTS and AMPS/TIA
    (including CDMA2000) is the 3GPP Long Term
    Evolution effort.
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