The African American’s Struggles and Achievements in Agriculture University of Arkansas MLK Celebration Presented by Dr. Handy Williamson Vice Provost for International Programs and Strategic Initiatives University of Missouri-Columbia E-mail: willi$dG - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The African American’s Struggles and Achievements in Agriculture University of Arkansas MLK Celebration Presented by Dr. Handy Williamson Vice Provost for International Programs and Strategic Initiatives University of Missouri-Columbia E-mail: willi$dG

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Title: The African American’s Struggles and Achievements in Agriculture University of Arkansas MLK Celebration Presented by Dr. Handy Williamson Vice Provost for International Programs and Strategic Initiatives University of Missouri-Columbia E-mail: willi$dG


1

The African Americans Struggles and Achievements
in AgricultureUniversity of Arkansas MLK
Celebration January 19, 2007
Presented by Dr. Handy Williamson
2
Introduction
The Mayflower, Timbuktu, Nile and the Ice Age
3
Historical Trends
  • American Slavery Industry
  • Primarily for agricultural slave labor
  • Secondarily for domestic servants
  • Limited use in industry
  • Post Slavery 1890 Census
  • 60 of African Americans in US were farms
    workers
  • 65 of African Americans in the south were
    farmers
  • but also were
  • Scientists
  • Inventors
  • Educators

4
Beginnings of World Agriculture Earliest known
origin of Cereal Cultivation
  • Studies by Wendorf, B., Schild, R., and Close,
    E/1984, show African slaves brought a wealth of
    agricultural knowledge to America
  • Remnants of barley radiocarbon dated 17,00
    8,300 years ago
  • in the flood plains of the Nile, Africa (
    pre Egyptian).
  • Agricultural tools dated 14,500 (/- 490) also
    found nearby.
  • Findings while Europe was in the Ice Age,
    African
  • people were raising crops of
  • Wheat Capers
  • Chickpeas Lentils
  • Barley Dates

5
Before the Mayflower A History of the Negro in
America by Lerone Bennett, Jr.
When the human drama opened, Africans were
on the scene and acting.  For a long time, in
fact, the only people on the scene were
Africans.  For some 600,000 years Africa and
Africans led the world.  Were these people who
gave the world fire and tools and cultivated
grain--were they Negroes?  The ancient bones are
silent.  It is possible, indeed, probable that
they were dark skinned.
6
Agricultural Crops
Africa Africans Contributed Many Crops to the US
7
Crops of African Origin
Cotton Guerre or Cluster bean
Millet Peanut Gallia potatoes
Lupine Soybean Cowpea or Black eyes pea
Broad bean Sorghum Watermelon
Lettuce Coffee Eggplant
Cardoon Wheat Lima beans Radishes Artichoke
Red beet Leek Asparagus Tomato
Griolle Mushroom Apple Cantaloupe Cherry Ap
ricot Date
8
Crops of African Origin
  • Presently grown and consumed world wide
  • Trans-Atlantic vs. Trans-Pacific dispersal of
    crops
  • Proponents on Trans-Atlantic dispersal
    include
  • Edgar Anderson
  • Murdock
  • Albert F Hill
  • Black indentured servants may have brought
    African crops
  • and agricultural practices to America

9
American Agricultures Black Mechanical
Inventions and Inventors
Over 400 inventions credited to Blacks in early
years
10
Overview
  • African slaves brought knowledge of
    agricultural and practices with them to America
  • Patents could not be issued in a slaves name
  • Credit for many inventions claimed by owners
  • Section in the Confederacy constitution
    addressing the
  • owners right to control his slaves
    inventions.
  • Jo Andersons owner Cyrus McCormick is
    credited with
  • inventing the grain harvester. There are
    suspicions that
  • Anderson made substantial contributions and
    records do not
  • reflect the degree of his involvement.

11
Range of inventions
Horse shoes Dough kneader Rotary
engines Refrigerated boxcar Mechanical
lubrication devices Bottle caps and sealers
Biscuit cutter Cultivator Cotton planter
Potato digger Corn husker Automatic gear
shift Riding saddles Cotton gin Lawn
sprinkler system Lemon squeezers
12
Education and Science
The pathway to freedom and equality
13
Benjamin Banneker 1731 1805 Farmer, inventor,
mathematician almanac maker
Born in Ellicott, Maryland of free mother and
slave father Considered free Attended private
integrated school through 8th grade
  • Predicted the solar eclipse of 1789
  • Published the first scientific book by an African
    American an almanac
  • Tide tables
  • Data on future eclipses
  • Useful medicinal products and formulas
  • Helped lay out the blueprint for Washington DC

14
Henry Blair 1804 1860 Inventor
Resident of Maryland Evidently a free man Was
granted first patent to a black man (he was
identified as a colored man in patent registry
  • Granted a patent for the corn planter in 1834
  • Granted a patent for the cotton planted in
    1836

15
Frederick McKinley Jones 1731 1805 Technician
Born in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1892 Orphaned at age
9 Quit school after 6th grade to go to work
  • Invented first application of mechanical
    refrigeration to rail cars and
  • trucks
  • 61 Patents.
  • Other inventions include
  • Air conditioning for military field units
  • Refrigeration for military kitchens
  • A prototype x-ray machine

16
Norbert Rillieux 1806 1894 Inventor
Born in Louisiana to French father and African
American mother Educated in Catholic schools in
Louisiana Studied applied mechanics and taught at
LEcole Centrale in Paris
  • Invented vacuum evaporating pan which reduced
    labor and improved products in the sugar refining
    industry in 1845

17
Granville T. Woods 1856 1910 Inventor
Born Columbus Ohio Former education ended at age
10 Self taught in mechanics, blacksmith and
electronics
  • Person credited with modernizing the electric
    railway car
  • Developed Induction telegraph system (Railroad
    telegraph)
  • Many inventions for conducting electricity
  • 50 Patents

18
Circumstances in Africa prior to 1861
  • Brilliant cultural and educational heritage
    in West Africa
  • Timbuktu and Gao were prominent cultural
    center of the
  • Moslem world
  • Emperor Askia Mohammed Toure of Songhay
    established a
  • school system from 1493 to 1512
  • University of Sankore at Timbuktu considered
    a major
  • institution of higher learning

19
Circumstances in the United States prior to 1861
  • Education for African Americans was generally
    prohibited
  • Benevolent owners and churches promoted
    education to
  • increase labor efficiency and enhance the
    spread of Christianity
  • Quakers advocated education of African
    Americans in religion and
  • occupational training
  • Whites feared slaves would read abolitionist
    materials.
  • Attempts of integration of some private
    schools was met with
  • mob resistance

20
The Emergence of Black Education
  • Initial emphasis was placed on practical
    skills, farm related
  • training and separation of the cases
  • Vocation schools and normal agricultural (AM)
    colleges served
  • as training ground for prominent African
    American educators,
  • scientists and leaders.
  • Contributions of the earlier African American
    educators, scientists and leaders focused on
    the US agriculture sector.
  • W.E.B. Dubois advocated for higher order
    education and refinement
    for the talented tenth.

21
Agricultural College / Historically Black Land
Grant University
  • 16 colleges were founded in the 19th century
    as land grant
  • colleges or later given this status as
    legislated by the federal
  • government. Today there are 17 such
    institutions.
  • These institutions have been the primary
    training grounds for
  • African Americans who have pursued careers
    in agricultural
  • industry, the professions and government.
  • Institutions focus on
  • Teaching Extension
  • Agricultural research International
    development
  • Trend setters in providing assistance to low
    income farmers and
  • disadvantaged in rural society

22
Educators and Leaders
23
Booker T. Washington (1856 1915) Educator,
Leader
Born a slave in Hales Ford, Virginia Worked in
the coal mines as a young man Attended Hampton
Institute, an industrial agricultural school for
African Americans. from 1872-1875
  • Founding president of Tuskegee University
  • Presidential advisor on racial problems to
    Theodore Roosevelt and
  • William H Taft and influenced federal
    appointments
  • Author of Up from Slavery, a book on his
    emergence from poverty to
  • national prominence

24
Thomas Monroe Campbell (1883 1956) Educator,
Leader
Born on a farm near Bowman, Georgia Graduate of
Tuskegee Institute in 1906
  • Operated Tuskegees School on Wheels a
    demonstration wagon carrying improved farming
    implements to Negro farmers who were unable to
    attend school. This operation became known as
    the Movable School.
  • Appointed the first Negro Farm Demonstration
    Agent in the US in 1906.
  • First Negro Field Agent of the US Department
    of Agriculture with a territory of the seven
    lower southern states.
  • Author of, The Movable School Goes to the
    Negro Farm.

25
Richard David Morrison (1910 2003) Educator,
Born on a farm and reared in Mississippi Graduate
of Tuskegee Institute
  • Operated Tuskegees School on Wheels a
    demonstration wagon carrying improved farming
    implements to Negro farmers who were unable to
    attend school.
  • Was a teacher of Vocational Agriculture during
    early career.
  • Appointed as a Negro Farm Demonstration Agent.
  • Was President of Alabama A M University and a
    leader of the Facilities funding initiative.
  • Is highly respected for his leadership within the
    Land-Grant System.

26
Clifton R Wharton, Jr. Leader son of a Diplomat
BS in history from Harvard University MA in
international affairs Johns Hopkins University MS
and PhD in Economics from the University of
Chicago
  • Chairman and Executive Officer of Teachers
    Insurance and Annuity Association and College
    Retirement Equities Fund, the nationals largest
    pension fund.
  • Outstanding career as President of Michigan State
    U the SUNY System and as Deputy U.S. Secretary
    of State (under Warren Christopher).
  • A recognized authority on economic development
    in Southeast Asia and Latin America
  • First Chairman of the Board for International
    Food and Agricultural Development (AID), US
    Department of State.

27
Allie C. Felder, Jr. Leader, Educator
BS in agriculture from Hampton University MSC in
agricultural economics and rural sociology from
the University of Illinois PhD in agricultural
economics and rural sociology from Ohio State
University
  • Sr Vice Pres Emeritus of the National
    Cooperative Business Association
  • Contributed to the human and economic
    development of people in India and the US
  • Director of the Overseas Private Investment
    Corp. (OPIC)
  • Served as a member of the US delegation to
    the Foreign Agricultural Organization Conf, Rome,
    Italy 1977

28
Thomas T Williams Educator, Leader, Economist
BS in agricultural economics from No. Carolina
AT State MSA in economics from the University of
Illinois PhD in agricultural economics from the
Ohio State Univ Post Graduate work at Case
Institute of Technology
  • Southeast Regional Director of the US
    Department of Health and Human Services
  • Credited with establishing the Department of Ag
    Econ at Southern University of Louisiana
    where he served for 25 years
  • Also adjunct professor at Cornell and
    Louisiana State University
  • Served as Chairman of the Professional
    Agricultural Workers Conference, Tuskegee
    University
  • Editor of Unique Resources of the 1890
    Land-Grant Institutions.

29
Scientists
30
Pyramid Building and the Ancient Egyptian
Civilization
  • Development of pyramids and other great
    monuments is traced from the mud brick beginning
    of the great pyramids and temples in Africa.
  • Beatrice Lumpkin in her writings document the
    plans, level of mathematics and technology
    required for pyramid building. Possible methods
    of construction are considered.
  • In keeping with the tradition of African
    scientists, a number of African American
    scientists have made valuable contributions to US
    agriculture.

31
George Washington Carver 1864 1943
Scientist/Chemist
Born a slave in Diamond Grove, Missouri He and
his mother abducted by slave raiders. Mother was
sold but he was ransomed by his master in
exchange for a race horse Self supporting while
obtaining a high school education Received
Bachelor and Masters from Iowa State University
  • First African American on faculty at Iowa
    State University
  • Joined Book T Washington on faculty at
    Tuskegee University
  • Developed peanut butter and 82 other products
  • Research on the peanut and the soybean
    revolutionized the economy of the South by
    eliminating the dependence on cotton.
  • Developed a crop rotation system that
    revolutionized southern farming
  • Did not patent his discoveries. God gave
    them to me, how can I sell them to someone else.

32
Benjamin Banneker 1731 1805 Farmer, inventor,
mathematician almanac maker
Born in Ellicott, Maryland of free mother and
slave father Considered free Attended private
integrated school through 8th grade
  • Predicted the solar eclipse of 1789
  • Published the first scientific book by an African
    American an almanac
  • Tide tables
  • Data on future eclipses
  • Useful medicinal products and formulas
  • Helped lay out the blueprint for Washington DC

33
Frederick McKinley Jones 1731 1805 Technician
Born in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1892 Orphaned at age
9 Quit school after 6th grade to go to work
  • Invented first application of mechanical
    refrigeration to rail cars and
  • trucks
  • 61 Patents.
  • Other inventions include
  • Air conditioning for military field units
  • Refrigeration for military kitchens
  • A prototype x-ray machine

34
Percy Julian 1899 - 1975 Scientist, Chemist
Born in Birmingham, Alabama Bachelors degree
from DePauw University Masters degree from
Harvard University PhD in Vienna Austria
  • Director of research and manager of fine
    chemicals at Glidden Company
  • Extracted cortisone a sterol derivative from
    soybeans to more economically treat arthritis
  • Discovered a way to mass produce the drug
    physostigmine, used to treat glaucoma
  • Perfected the mass production of sex hormones
    which led the way to birth control pills

35
Program Concepts and Thrusts
36
Program Concepts and Thrusts
  • The beginning of Negro Farm and Home
    Demonstrations
  • Farmers Institutes
  • Community and County Fairs
  • Black fairs merging with White fairs
  • International Extension Program
  • Consulting in Togo, West Africa
  • Today Teaching, Research, Extension and Econ
    Devel.

37

Dr. Handy Williamson, Jr., Ph.D. Vice
Provost International Programs and Strategic
Initiatives Professor of Agricultural
Economics University of Missouri-Columbia E-mail
williamsonha_at_missouri.edu Website
http//bengal.missouri.edu/woc33/drwilliamson/ind
ex.html
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