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COMPRESSOR BASICS

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Title: COMPRESSOR BASICS


1
COMPRESSOR BASICS
2
TYPES OF COMPRESSORS
  • POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR
  • CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

3
POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR
  • PD COMPRSSOR WORK BY TRAPPING A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF
    GAS AND FORCING IT INTO A SMALLER VOLUME
  • A COMMON TYPE OF PD COMPR. IS RECIPROCATING
    COMPRESSOR.
  • TWO OF THE MAIN PARTS OF RECIPROCATING COMP. ARE
    CYLINDER AND A PISTON

4
  • GAS ENTERS THE CYLINDER AND IS TRAPPED INSIDE THE
    CYLINDER. THE GAS IS THEN FORCED INTO A SMALLER
    SPACE BY THE ACTION OF THE PISTON.
  • FORCING THE GAS IN SMALLER SPACE INCREASES THE
    PRESSURE, THE COMPRESSED GAS IS THEN DISCHARGED.

5
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR
  • IT USES A DEVICE CALLED IMPELLER TO SPIN THE GAS
    AROUND
  • THE ACTION OF THE IMPELLER ACCELERATE OR
    INCREASES THE SPEED OF THE GAS FLOW. IT GIVES THE
    GAS ENERGY.
  • AS THE GAS FLOWS OUT IT SPEED OUT AND SLOW DOWN
    AND ITS ENERGY IS CONVERTED INTO PRESSURE

6
SHARING CHARACTERSTICS
  • COMPRSSORS ARE RATED FOR DISCHARGE PRESSUR AND
    FLOW RATE
  • ALL COMPRESSORS REQUIRE SOME FORM OF DRIVE
    MECHANISM
  • ELECTRIC MOTORS ARE COMMONLY USED DRIVES.

7
COMPRESSOR HAZARD
  • MOVING PARTS
  • HOT SURFACE
  • NOICY
  • LEAKS FROM THE GAS SYSTEM
  • FLAMMABLE EXPLOSIVE GASES (SPARK PRODUCING
    EQUIPMENT SHOULD NEVER BE USED)

8
ACCESSORIES
  • LUBRICATION
  • COOLING
  • FILTERING

9
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
  • MAIN FUNCTION IS TO REDUCE FRICTION BETWEEN THE
    MOVING PARTS
  • LUBRICATION HELPS COOLING THE COMPRESSOR MOVING
    PARTS AND HELP PREVENT THE LEAKING GAS OUT OF
    COMPRESSOR.

10
DESCRIPTION
  • OIL FROM THE COMPRESSOR FLOWS INTO THE OIL
    PUMP.THE OIL IS THEN PUMPED THROUGH FILTER WHICH
    REMOVES ANY SOLID PARTICLE FROM THE OIL.
  • OIL FLOWS THROUGH THE HEAT EXCHANGER WHERE IT IS
    COOLED
  • FROM HEAT EXCHANGER MOST OF THE OIL FLOWS
    DIRECTLY TO COMPRESSOR LUBRICATION.

11
  • REST OF THE OIL GOES TO OILER.
  • OILER SUPPLIES A SMALL AMOUNT OF OIL TO THE
    COMPRESSOR CYLINDER
  • THE OIL LUBRICTES THE PISTON RINGS AND HELPS SEAL
    THE SPACE BETWEEN THE CYLINDER WALL AND THE RING.

12
COOLING
  • WHEN A GAS IS COMPRESSED HEAT IS PRODUCED THIS
    HEAT CAN CAUSE TWO PROBLEM
  • 1. EXCESS HEAT CAN BREAK DOWN OIL
  • CAUSING IT TO BE LOOSE ITS
  • LUBRICATING CHARECTORSTIC
  • 2. GASED EXPAND WHEN THEY ARE
  • HEATED SINCE COMPRESSOR IS
  • DESINGED TO COMPRESS GASES THE
  • EFFECT CREATE ADDITIONAL FORCE
  • WHICH COMPRESSOR MUST OVERCOME.

13
HEAT REMOVAL
  • AIR COOLING AND WATER COOLING ARE TWO TECHNIQUES
  • 1. AN AIR COOLED COMPRESSOR
  • EASILY IDENTIFIED BY MEAL FINS
  • ON ITS CASING
  • THE FINS PROVIDE INCREASED
  • SURFACE AREA.

14
  • 2. ANOTHER WAY TO REMOVE THE
  • EXCESS HEAT IS TO COOL THE GAS
  • AFTER THE COMPRESSION IS
  • COMPLETE, THE DEVICE THAT
  • DOES THIS IS AN AFTERCOOLER OR
  • INTERCOOLER
  • DEPENDING UPON ITS LOCATION THESE EXCHANGERS ARE
    CLASSIFIED AS INTERCOOLER OF AFTER COOLER.

15
INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL
  • THE PROPER OPERATION OF COMP. DEPENDS UPON
    INSTRUMENTAITON AND CONTROL DEVICES
  • THESE DEVICES ALLOWS THE COMPRESSOR TO BE STARTED
    AND STOPPED.
  • THEY PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT THE COMPRESSOR
    OPERATING CONDITIONS

16
  • THEY MAINTAIN THE VALUES OF PROCESS VARIABLES
  • THEY KEEP THE COMPRESSOR OPERATION STABLE
  • THEY CAN SHUT DOWN THE COMPRESSOR IF UNSAFE
    CONDTITON OCCURED
  • CONTROL PANEL MAY HAVE CONTROL TO REGULATE THE
    SPEED

17
  • CONTROL PANEL ME ALSO CONTAIN ALARMS THAT LET THE
    PERSONNEL KNOW WHEN ABNORMAL AND POTENTIAL
    DAMAGING CONDITION EXISTS
  • PRESSURE CONTROLLER CONTROLS THE DISCHARGE
    PRESSUR AND IF IT DEVIATES CONTROLLER MANUPULATE
    THE INLET FLOW

18
SURGE CONTROL
  • FOR A GIVEN DISCHARGE PRESSURE A COMPRESSOR HAS A
    CERTAIN MINIMUM FLOW RATE. BELOW THIS FLOW RATE
    THE COMPRESSOR BECOME UNSTABLE. A DECREASE IN
    FLOW BELOW THE MINIMUM FLOW CAN CAUSE A SERIES OF
    MOMENTARY REVERSAL OF FLOW THROUGH THE
    COMPRESSOR. THIS SITUATIION IS CALLED SURGE

19
  • SURGING RESULTS IN VIOLENT FLUCTUATIONS IN
    DISCHARGE PRESSURE.
  • WHEN AN ELECTRIC MOTOR IS USED AS DRIVER SURGING
    CAN CAUSE EXTREME VARIANTION IN MOTOR CURRENT.
  • SYMPTOMS OF SURGING ARE LOW GAS FLOW, EXCESSIVE
    VIBRATION AND BANGING SOUND INSIDE COMPRESSOR

20
  • TO PREVENT THE SURGING THE FLOW RATE OF THE GAS
    THRU THE COMPRESSOR MUST BE KEPT ABOVE THE
    MINIMUM STABLE FLOW RATE OR SURGE POINT
  • WHEN THE DEMAND IS LOW FLOW RATE IS MAINTAINED BY
    RECIRCULATING THE PORTION FROM DISCHARGE TO BACK
    TO COMPRESSOR.

21
START UP
  • PREPARING THE COMPRESSOR FOR STARTUP
  • WARMING UP THE COMPRESSOR
  • STARTING THE GAS FLOW THRU COMPRESSOR

22
  • COMPRESSORS GAS SUPPLY IS AVAILABLE, CONTROLS ARE
    SET IN POSITIONS.
  • VALVE LINE UP MEANS ALL THE VALVE ARE PROPERLY
    SET.
  • START THE COMPRESSOR AUXILARIES AND MAKE SURE
    THEY ARE OPERATING PROPERLY.
  • OPERATOR MUST CHECK THE COMPRESSOR AND MAKE SURE
    THAT NO ABNORMAL CONDITION EXISTS.

23
  • IF THE COMPRESSOR HANDLES THE FLAMMABLE GAS IT
    MUST BE PURGE WITH AN INERT GAS LIKE NITORGEN.
  • ONCE PURGED IT CAN BE STARTED AND KEPT IN WARMING
    UP.
  • ONCE THE COMPRESSOR AND ITS PARTS RUNS FOR A
    WHILE AT A LOW SPEED THE COMPRSSOR CAN BE BROUGHT
    UP TO NORMAL SPEED.
  • THIS INVOLVES THE INCREASE OF SPEED AT CERTAIN
    RATE CALLED RAMP RATE

24
  • CRITICAL SPEED FOR CETRUFUGAL COMPRSSOR CERTAIN
    ROTATIONAL SPEED CAUSE SEVERE VIBRATION, IT IS
    CALLED CRITICAL SPEED.
  • IT IS DUE TO PHYSICAL CHARECTORSTIC OF MOVING
    PARTS OF COMPRESSOR.
  • WHEN A CRITICAL SPEED IS REACHED THE RAMP SPEED
    IS USUALLY INCREADED TO PASS THROUGH THE CRITICAL
    SPEED.

25
OPERATION
  • ONCE STARTED COMPRESSOR SHOULD BE CHECKED
    ROUTINELY.
  • WHILE CHECKING A COMPRSSOR OPERATOR MUST KEEP IN
    MIND THAT IT OPERATES AT VERY HIGH SPEED.
  • AN IMPORTANT PART OF CHECKING A COMPRSSOR IS TO
    LISTEN TO THE ABNORMAL SOUND.

26
  • IT IS IMPORTANT TO CHECK THE COMPRESSOR BEARING
    FOR EXCESSIVE VIBRATION AND OVERHEATING IT
    INDICATE PROBABLE BEARING FAILURE.
  • COMPRESSOR AUXILIARY CHECK IS IMPORTANT DURING
    OPERATION OF COMP. LIKE OIL LEVEL IS IN NORMAL
    RANGE,OIL IS CLEAR AND NOT MILKY.
  • OIL PRESSURE IS IMPORTANT PARAMETER TO CHECK,
    INIDCATE MALFUNCTION OF OIL PUMP OR OIL LEAK IN
    SYSTEM.

27
  • OIL PARAMETER IS CRITICAL PARAMETER, HIGHER THAN
    NORMAL OIL PRESSURE INDICATES THE CLOGGING OF
    SOME PART IN OIL LUBRICATION SYSTEM.
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