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IAPSS ACGA 2009 Political science: a different perspective Jubljana May 49 A Future of Value for Pol

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Title: IAPSS ACGA 2009 Political science: a different perspective Jubljana May 49 A Future of Value for Pol


1
IAPSS AC-GA 2009 Political science a different
perspectiveJubljana May 4-9 A Future of Value
for Political Science? Reassessing the Political.
Facing Normativity and Pluralism.
  • Benoit Monange
  • Institute of Political Studies of Grenoble,
    France
  • benmonange_at_hotmail.com

2
Every saint has a past and every sinner has a
future.Oscar Wilde
3
  • 2 points of caution about the paper
  • A challenge for young students to reflect on
    their discipline
  • An exercise both indispensable and impractical
  • Indispensable because we will be responsible
    for the future direction of our discipline
  • Impractical because our limited experience as
    practitioners of the discipline constrains
    our capacity to understand completely its
    logic and dynamics
  • Political science as discipline is hard to grasp
    because its is
  • A very large discipline many sub-fields many
    paradigms
  • An international discipline with national or
    regional scientific traditions

4
  • 1. Political science a science without value?
  • 2. Moving away from false neutrality, towards a
    normative, value-explicit political science
  • 3. A plea for a political science
  • Conclusion Towards a critical, pluralist
    political science

5
A look at the development of the dominant form
of political science from the point of view of
its relation to value.
  • 1. Political science a science without value?

6
1. Political science a science without value?
1st Stage Institutionalisation of political
science through positivistic influence But
counterbalanced by a belief in progressivism
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
7
1. Political science a science without value?
1st stage Institutionalisation of political
science through positivistic influence. But
counterbalanced by a belief in
progressivism 2nd stage the behavioral
revolution
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
8
1. Political science a science without value?
the scientific method of the behavioralists
emphasizes the collection of observable data and
the use of statistical analysis based on many
recorded cases. Behavioral political science
claims to be value-neutral in the sense of
separating fact from value and describing
political phenomena without judging their
goodness or morality. Vassilev, Rossen (2008)
9
1. Political science a science without value?
Behavioralisms main methodological claim was
that uniformities in political behavior could be
discovered and expressed as generalizations, but
that such generalizations must be testable by
reference to observable political behaviors, such
as voting, public opinion, or decision making.
Most behavioralists equated observation with
quantification to a degree that went beyond what
Merriam, Key, or Laswell had considered
appropriate quantification. Finally, the
behavioralists proposed a pure science where
the theoretical explanation of political behavior
was to precede the solution of urgent practical
policy problems in society. Clyde Barrow (2008)
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
10
1. Political science a science without value?
1st stage Institutionalisation of political
science through positivistic influence. But
counterbalanced by a belief in
progressivism 2nd stage the behavioral
revolution 3rd stage domination of rational
choice theory models
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
11
1. Political science a science without value?
The behavioralists have evolved into
rational-choice specialists whose highly
abstracted model-building seems to be something
of an end in itself, valued for the elegance of
its mathematical configuration Michael Parenti
(2006)
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
12
1. Political science a science without value?
the obsession with becoming as quantitative and
as statistical as possible is in fact driving
us into a march of either false precision or of
precise irrelevancy Giovanni Sartori(2004)
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
13
1. Political science a science without value?
Homo politicus
Homo economicus
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
14
1. Political science a science without value?
Driving political science ever closer to an
apolitical econometric vision of the world, isnt
it denying its very own identity as the
discipline that deals with matters political?
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
15
1. Political science a science without value?
  • a highly sophisticated methodology that fails to
    produce substantively interesting new knowledge
  • 2) a paradoxically de-politicized political
    science that seems to lose its identity

Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
16
1. Political science a science without value?
  • accepting normativity and pluralism in our
    practice of political science
  • 2) reintroducing the political in our discipline.

Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
17
2. Moving away from false neutrality, towards a
normative, value explicit political science
There is no such thing as a value-free or
pure science.
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
18
2. Moving away from false neutrality, towards a
normative, value explicit political science
Even in the "pure" universe where the "purest"
science is produced and reproduced, that science
is in some respects a social field like all
others-with its relations of force, its powers,
its struggles and profits, its generic mechanisms
such as those that regulate the selection of
newcomers or the competition between the various
producers. Pierre Bourdieu (1991)
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
19
2. Moving away from false neutrality, towards a
normative, value explicit political science
the simplest and perhaps the oldest version of
the ideal of neutrality is that science may be
used for good or for evil. The problem with this
view, though, is that it ignores the fact that
science has both social origins and social
consequences. Who, one can ask, does science
serve, and how? Who has gained from miracle
wheat and who has lost? The power of which
countries is augmented by chemical weapons, the
power of which others is diminished? Who has been
excluded from science who has not? Whose
economies have benefited from the neoclassical
theory of the firm, whose have suffered? Science,
in other words, does not always serve the
collective we or the generic man but particular
men often those who control the means of its
production and application. Science is not
different from other aspects of culture in this
sense. Robert Proctor (1991)
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
20
2. Moving away from false neutrality, towards a
normative, value explicit political science
even the most disengaged technicians in the
ranks of the social sciences exhibit the
influence of the social world around them in
their choice of research terrains and
problems Lisa Anderson (2003)
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
21
2. Moving away from false neutrality, towards a
normative, value explicit political science
the adoption of any methodological posture -
whether right or wrong - is inescapably a form of
political action. Douglas Torgerson (1986)
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
22
2. Moving away from false neutrality, towards a
normative, value explicit political science
In the future, political scientists should avoid
a false neutrality stance that is more often than
not a value-entrenched position in disguise.
On the contrary the discipline would benefit
from works that explicitly presents the value
they are build upon and that do not dodge the
normative implications of its results. Our
own value-judgment here is that scientific
honesty is preferable to a scientific neutrality
stand that actually hides political motivations.
What should be encouraged is not value-neutrality
but rather scientific freedom and social
responsibility.
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
23
3. A plea for a political science
The product of a paradoxically de-politicized
political science with ever abstract formal
models of analysis Politikenstein the
monster of political science (watch out! He might
be wandering in your faculty)
24
3. A plea for a political science
The political scientist, in so far as he wishes
to remain a scientist, is limited to the study of
techniques. A good deal of what is called
political science, I must confess, seems, to me a
device, invented by academic persons, avoiding
that dangerous subject politics, without
achieving science Alfred Cobban (1960)
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
25
3. A plea for a political science
Political science journals abound in rational
choice models that are shrouded in jargon and
largely impenetrable to the uninitiated. Yet all
this technification didn't help political
scientists offer wisdom to constitutional
designers after the collapse of Communism. Nor
have they said anything important about more
conventional politics that was not previously
known. Typically rational choice theorists
either ignore or recycle conventional wisdom
through their models or they specify the models
so vaguely as to render them compatible with
every possible outcome. Often this vagueness is
obscured by intimidating mathematics, creating a
misleading appearance of rigor. Shapiro and
Green (2005)
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
26
3. A plea for a political science
Homo politicus
Homo economicus
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
27
3. A plea for a political science
Homo politicus
Homo economicus
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
28
3. A plea for a political science
Over the past two decades, political science has
been losing the struggle for the definition of
goals to a new hegemonic paradigm an economic
theory of democracy in which free enterprise
alone is sufficient to accomplish all the other
goals. The economic theory of democracy is not
science but ideology, which we should fear. It
gains its credibility from economic science and
from anecdotal evidence about how capitalism
vanquished authoritarianism, while ignoring
contrary and unsupportive anecdotes. The point is
that the free market does not make free all those
who enter it, nor does it emerge or prosper
without the substantial support of the state.
Yet, for the past two decades, there has been a
strong and dangerous tendency to denigrate the
stateand therefore the politicalas the primary
source of irrationality in the world.
Political science is the discipline which
studies most of the institutional phenomena that
economics assumes away. It is through examination
of these assumptions that we can gain the
capacity to put economics in its place. And that
should be our goal in this era of globalization
to advance an understanding of the institutions
of government and the practices of politics that
can actually improve the prospects for salvaging
more democracy from the tyrantwhether that
tyrant be repressive rule by malevolent political
elites or repressive rule by mechanisms that
recognize no law except the law of the market
place. Theodore Lowi (2001)
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
29
3. A plea for a political science
A political science which puts the question of
human dignity and liberation as an integral part
of intellectual work and practical action can be
the way of guaranteeing a future for humankind
and a more correct understanding of the past.
Knowledge workers or anyone need not
surrender the purpose of the knowledge project,
to produce human progress. But the current task
of humankind is to find ways of sustaining its
existence. This means that the approach one takes
to power, to description of the universe, to the
construction of institutions, to the process of
empathy and dignity, to the things that are made,
to the question of participation of one with
another and to the relationship of all these
questions to each other is the stuff of a new
political science. Knowledge workers will seek to
transform their disciplines once they realize
the limits of what can be known through them, but
see that knowledge can play a central role in
sustaining life and building a world
civilization. Raskin, Marcus Bernstein
Herbert (1987)
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
30
Conclusion Towards a critical, pluralist
political science
There is no single formula for carrying out good
social science. A single best design or a
superior method does not exist, as opposed to
what we often read. Some methods, e.g.
experiments, give the researcher better
opportunities for testing and drawing causal
inference than others, e.g. a single case study.
But our knowledge is not always at a level where
it is reasonable to propose and test causal
theories, let alone test them using experiments.
The question about analytical approach, research
design and method is determined by the research
question, which on the other hand is inspired and
bounded by the researchers conceptualization and
existing theoretical and empirical
knowledge Asbjorn Norgaard (2008)
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
31
Conclusion Towards a critical, pluralist
political science
1. The lesson that we can draw here is that a
valuable future for political science is one that
accepts plurality. It is only through discussion,
collaboration and mutualization, the use of
triangulation, mixed-method, cross-fertilization,
in a word in a form of an assumed critical
pluralist discipline that a future of value for
political science can be envisioned. 2. And
this critical pluralism is not only one that
should remain secluded to the methodological or
paradigmatic fields but also encompass a strong
cross-national effort. The better understanding
of our globalized world requires a globalized
political science discipline that does not remain
in the shadow of the scholarly traditions of one
or two influential nations a discipline whose
pluralism is also the result of cross-national
contributions coming from all continents.
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
32
Conclusion Towards a critical, pluralist
political science
I think that the intellectual, the writer, the
university scholar should never accept an
unconditional and complete enrollment. Because
their very social function is to reveal the flaws
inherent in any system, even the one that has
their personal preference. There is no such thing
as a perfect system. Even the best of governments
remains a structure of domination it naturally
tends to abuse its prerogatives. The intellectual
must, not only uncover the flaws of the systems
he opposes, but also the flaws in his own favored
system. The intellectual cannot enter completely
a system he approves, because he cannot
completely approve a system. He must never stand
entirely on the side of power but always stand
somehow on the side of the opposition. To state
that the intellectual ought to assume a critical
function is not meant to say that he has to
refuse to get involved or that he has to put
every doctrine at the same level. One cannot
refuse to ever get involved. The ones that
pretend that they do are in fact engaged on the
side of the established order. If they know it,
they are liars. If they do not, they are idiots.
No more than any other as the intellectual the
right to consider equally the oppressors and the
oppressed, the exploiters and the exploited, the
executioners and the victims. But he has to know
that this oversimplified dichotomy, even thought
true in its principle, never dries out the
complexity and the ambiguity of the real world.
The oppressed tend to quickly become the
oppressors once they have taken their position.
Every system has a dark side. As good as it may
be, every system tends to forget the others, to
neglect them, if not to destroy them. The
intellectual ought to show the dark side, ought
to remind of the existence of the others, even if
this goes again his own favored system. What am I
saying? Especially against his own favored
system. Maurice Duverger (1977)
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
Ben Monange - A Future of Value for Political
Science? - IAPSS AC-GA 2009
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