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Safety and Health Training


Chapter 12 Safety and Health Training Major Topics Education and training requirements Preparing safety and health instruction Presenting safety and health ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Safety and Health Training

Chapter 12
  • Safety and Health Training

Major Topics
  • Education and training requirements
  • Preparing safety and health instruction
  • Presenting safety and health instruction
  • Evaluating safety and health instruction
  • OSHA standards and training

Rationale for providing safety training
  • Workers who have not been trained to perform
    their job safely are more likely to have
  • Reasons why people fail to follow safety
  • 1. Not given specific instructions in the
  • 2. Misunderstood the instructions.
  • 3. Did not listen to the instructions.
  • 4. Considered the instructions either unimportant
    or unnecessary.
  • 5. Disregarded instructions.
  • Any of the above lapses can result in an
    accident. To prevent such an occurrence, it is
    essential that safety training work be conducted
  • A well trained employee is more likely to be a
    safe employee.

Legal framework for providing safety and health
  • OSH Act mandates that employers provide safety
    and health training
  • Education and training programs for employers.
  • Establishment and maintenance of proper working
    conditions and precautions.
  • Provision of information about all hazards to
    which employees will be exposed on the job.
  • Provision of information about the symptoms of
    exposure to toxic chemicals and other substances
    that may be present in the workplace.
  • Provision of information about emergency
    treatment procedures.
  • In addition, the OSH Act requires that employers
    make information available to workers concerning
    the results of medical or biological tests and
    that workers be given opportunities to observe
    when activities for monitoring regulated
    substances are undertaken.

Hazard communication regulation (29 CFR 1910)
requirement of employers
  • It is the responsibility of employers to have a
    hazard communication program to employees that
    include such components as warning labels,
    training, access to records, and the distribution
    of material safety data sheets MSDS.
  • OSHA makes grants available for companies to use
    for programs that will improve the understanding
    of MSDSs.

Besides the legal requirements, how does OSHA
promote safety and health training
  • OSHAs response to its training mandate was to
    develop and dispense educational material. Local
    companies can use these materials in the actual
    provision of training.
  • OSHA also provides monetary awards on a grant
    basis to companies, organizations, and
    educational institutions to finance the provision
    of safety and health training.

Mistrust that exists between labor and management
regarding safety and health training
  • Management usually claim that labor is not
    sufficiently sensitive to the bottom line, and
    labor claim that management is not sufficiently
    sensitive to the safety and health of workers.
  • Safety and health professionals have a very
    important task in convincing management and labor
    that providing a safe and healthy workplace is
    not only ethically right but also profitable in
    the long run.

Guide to OSHA training requirements
  • Training requirements in 29 CFR Parts 1910 and
  • Personal protection equipment PPE 29 CFR
    1910.132 f 2 requires that employees
    demonstrate that they know how to use PPE.
  • Confined Spaces 29 CFR 1910.146 g 1 requires
    that employees who work as entrants, attendants,
    or entry supervisors have the understanding,
    knowledge, and skills necessary for the safe
    performance of their assigned duties.
  • Respiratory protection 29 CFR 1910.147 k 1
    requires that each employee be able to
    demonstrate how to inspect, put on, remove, use,
    and check the seals of respirators.
  • Lockout/tagout 29 CFR 1910.147 C 7 i
    requires that employees have the knowledge and
    skill required for the safe application, use, and
    removal of energy controls.
  • Laboratory safety 29 CFR 1910.1450 f 4 i
    c requires that employees be trained in the
    specific procedures necessary to protect
    themselves from chemical hazards, including
    appropriate work practices, emergency procedures,
    and PPE to be used.
  • Ladder and stairways 29 CFR 1926.1060 a
    requires that employees be able to recognize
    hazards related to ladders and stairways.
  • In addition to required training, OSHA also
    requires retraining in certain areas
  • Hearing conservation, respiratory protection,
    bloodborne pathogens, and lead standards all
    require annual training.
  • The confined spaces, fall protection, and
    lockout/tagout standards require retraining
    whenever there is evidence that a trained
    employee no longer possesses the necessary
    knowledge and skills.

MSHA definition of expert miner
  • Paragraph 48.22 of Subpart B
  • A person currently employed as a miner or a
    person who received training acceptable to MSHA
    Mine Safety and Health Administration from an
    appropriate state agency within the preceding one
    month a person with 12 months experience working
    in surface operations during the preceding 3
    years or a person who received new miner
    training within the past 12 months.

MSHA training requirements for new or
inexperienced miners
  • Paragraph 48.25 Subpart B
  • A minimum of 24 hours of training is required.
    Typically this takes place before the miner
    begins work. However with prior approval of MSHA,
    up to 16 hours of training may be provided after
    the new miner begins work. This means that even
    with the waiver from MSHA, at least 8 hours of
    training must be provided before the miner begins
  • The first 8 hours of a new miners training must
    include the following an introduction to the
    work environment orientation recognition of
    workplace hazards and job-specific safety and
    health measures or concerns.
  • All required training beyond the original 8 hours
    must be completed within 60 days. The training
    program must include at least the following
    topics statutory rights of miners and their
    representatives authority and responsibility of
    supervisors line authority of supervisors and
    miners representatives mine rules hazard
    reporting procedures self-rescue and respiratory
    devices transportation controls and
    communication systems introduction to the work
    environment emergency evacuation and work
    procedures fire warning and firefighting
    procedures ground control personal health
    hazard recognition electrical hazards MSHA
    approved first aid explosives and job specific
    safety and health procedures.
  • Companies must have a training plan that
    specifies oral, written, or practical
    demonstration methods will be used to access
    whether training has been completed successfully.

MSHA training requirements for newly employed
experienced miners
  • Paragraph 48.26 of Subpart B of MSHA regulations
  • Introduction to the work environment
    orientation mandatory safety and health
    standards, both general and job specific
    authority and responsibility of supervisors and
    miners representatives emergency escape and
    evacuation procedures fire warning and fire
    fighting procedures ground controls and hazard
  • In addition to these specific training
    requirements, MSHA requires 8 hours per year of
    refresher training, comprehensive records of each
    miners training, and compensation to miners for
    training time.

Characteristics of Safety Trainer
  • Supervisors are more likely to provide job and
    task specific training.
  • Safety and health professionals are more likely
    to provide more generic training.
  • The trainer must be competent at developing,
    coordinating, and conducting the training.
  • The person conducting the training must have the
    following characteristics a thorough knowledge
    of the topics to be taught a desire to teach a
    positive, helpful, cooperative attitude strong
    leadership abilities a professional attitude and
    approach and exemplary behavior that sets a
    positive example.

Principles of Learning
  • 1. People learn best when they are ready to
    learn Time spent motivating employees so they
    want to learn about safety and health is time
    well spent.
  • 2. People learn more easily when what they are
    learning can be related to something they already
    know Begin each new learning activity with a
    brief review of the one that preceded it.
  • People learn best in a step by step manner
    Learning should be organized into logically
    sequenced steps, that proceed from the concrete
    to the abstract, from the simple to the complex,
    and from the known to the unknown.
  • People learn by doing Explanations can be part
    of the teaching process but are only useful if
    they are followed by application activities that
    require the learner to do something.
  • The more often people use what they are learning,
    the better they will remember and understand it
    Repetition and application should be built into
    the learning process.
  • Success in learning tends to stimulate additional
    learning Organize training in long enough
    segments to allow learners to see progress, but
    not so long that they become bored.
  • People need immediate and continual feedback to
    know if they have learned Trainers should
    concentrate on giving immediate and continual

Four Step Teaching Method
  • Preparation to get participants prepared to
    learn, trainers prepared to teach, and facilities
    prepared to accommodate the process.
  • Presentation Begin dramatically, be brief, be
    organized, use humor, keep it simple, take
    charge, be sincere, consider conditions and tell
  • Application simulation activities in which
    learners role play to actual hands on activities
    in which they use their new skills in a live
  • Evaluation Have employees demonstrate
    proficiency in performing tasks safely, and
    observe the results.

Essential components of a lesson plan
  • Lesson plans standardize instruction when more
    than one person may teach the same instruction to
    different groups (fig 12-4 page 255).
  • Lesson title and number Title should be as
    descriptive as possible. Number shows where it
    fits in the sequence of the course.
  • Statement of purpose Concise description of
    lessons contents.
  • Learning objectives What the participant should
    know or be able to do after completing the
    lesson. Written in terms that can be measured or
    easily observed.
  • Training aids list Include every tool, handout,
    piece of equipment, video, chart needed to
    conduct the instruction.
  • Instructional approach Methodology lecture,
    discussion, demonstration, etc. followed by major
    activities deliver lecture on safety
    regulations, distribute safety regulations
    handout, etc.
  • Application assignments Tasks that the learner
    will be required to complete, before they can
    apply what they learned.
  • Evaluation methodology Explains how learning
    will be evaluated test, performance observation,

Lecture-discussion method
  • Oldest, most familiar, most used, and most abused
    method of teaching. Use when
  • The material to be presented deals strictly with
    data, theory or information (no skills
  • Participants need to be motivated before
    beginning a particular lesson.
  • The material to be presented is not available in
  • Sharing insight or experience in a particular
    area will enhance learning.
  • Information must be communicated to a large group
    in one session.
  • Interaction among participants is desired.

Lecture-discussion method not appropriate
  • Do not use the lecture-discussion method when
  • The subject matter deals with skill development
    or how to information.
  • The participant group is small enough to allow
    individual learner and teacher interaction.
  • There is no need for interaction among

Three components of a lecture
  • Opening Greet the class, state the title of the
    lecture, explain the purpose of the lecture, list
    the objectives so that participants know exactly
    what they should be learning, explain how the
    current lecture-discussion session relates to
    past topics studied, list and define any new
    terms that will be used during the session,
    present a general overview of the content of the
    lecture-discussion session.
  • Body Present the information in the order listed
    in the participants outline. Initiate discussion
    by raising specific questions, calling on
    participants for comments, or soliciting
    questions from them. Make frequent reference to
    all visual aids and supportive materials.
  • Closing Restate the title, purpose and
    objectives. Briefly summarize major points. State
    your conclusions. Answer remaining questions.
    Make follow-up assignments to reinforce the
    lecture and discussion.

Demonstration Method
  • The demonstration method is the process in which
    the instructor shows participants how to perform
    certain skills or tasks.
  • 1. Decide exactly what the purpose of the
    demonstration is, why it will be given, what
    participants should learn from it, what will be
    demonstrated and in what order, and how long the
    demonstration will last.
  • 2. Gather all tools, equipment, and instructional
    aids. Make sure that everything is available and
    in working order.
  • 3. Set up the demonstration so that participants
    will easily be able to see what is going on and
    hear what you are saying.
  • 4. Arrange all materials to be used in the
    demonstration so that they correspond with the
    order in which the various steps of the
    demonstration will be presented.
  • 5. Practice the demonstration several times
    before giving it to work out any bugs.
  • It is vital to have hands-on activities after the

Conference Teaching Method
  • The conference teaching method is best used as a
    problem solving teaching method.
  • The steps according to the National Safety
  • State the problem.
  • Break the problem into segments to keep the
    discussion orderly.
  • Encourage free discussion.
  • Make sure that members have given adequate
    consideration to all of the significant points
  • Record any conclusions that are reached.
  • State the final conclusions in such a way that it
    truly represents the findings of the group.

Evaluating training
  • Checklist of questions when evaluating training
  • Does the program have specific behavioral
  • Is there a logical sequence for the program?
  • Is the training relevant for the trainee?
  • Does the program allow trainees to apply the
  • Does the program accommodate different levels of
  • Does the training include activities that appeal
    to a variety of learning styles?
  • Is the philosophy of the program consistent with
    the organization?
  • Is the trainer credible?
  • Does the program provide follow-up activities to
    maintain the training on the job?

Objectives of supervisor safety training
  • According to the National Safety Council, the
    objectives of the supervisor safety training are
  • Involve supervisors in the companys accident
    prevention program.
  • Establish the supervisor as the key person in
    preventing accidents.
  • Get supervisors to understand their safety
  • Provide supervisors with information on causes of
    accidents and occupational health hazards and
    methods of prevention.
  • Give supervisors and opportunity to consider
    current problems of accident prevention and
    develop solutions based on their own and others
  • Help supervisors gain skill in accident
    prevention activities.
  • Help supervisors keep their own departments safe.

Minimum content of good orientation program
  • A good orientation should teach the following at
    a minimum
  • Management is sincerely interested in preventing
  • Accidents may occur, but it is possible to
    prevent them.
  • Safeguarding the equipment and the workplace has
    been done, and management is willing to go
    further as needs and methods are discovered.
  • Each employee is expected to report to the
    supervisor any unsafe conditions encountered at
  • The supervisor will give job instructions. No
    employee is expected to undertake a job before
    learning how to do it and being authorized to do
    it by a supervisor.
  • The employee should contact the supervisor for
    guidance before undertaking a job that appears to
    be unsafe.
  • If an employee suffers an injury, even a slight
    one, it must be reported at once.
  • In addition to these points, any safety rules
    that are conditions of employment, such as
    wearing eye protection or safety hats, should be
    understood and enforced from the first day of

Job Safety Analysis (JSA)
  • Break Down the Job into Steps All of the various
    steps in a job are identified and listed in
    order. Changes in direction, activity, or
    movement typically signify the end of one step
    and the beginning of another.
  • Identify Potential Hazards Each step is then
    analyzed to identify any potential hazards
    associated with it, as the worker performs the
    job danger of back injury, burn, slip, being
    caught between objects, fall, muscle strain,
    danger of exposure to dust, radiation, toxic
    fumes, or chemicals.
  • Develop Accident Prevention Procedures The final
    step involves developing procedures for reducing
    the hazard potential associated with each
    respective step. Ask the question, How can this
    hazard be eliminated or reduced to the maximum
    extent possible? Will redesigning the job
    eliminate the hazard? Is PPE needed?

Using JSA as a Training Technique
  • Conducting a JSA can be a valuable learning
    experience for both new and experienced
  • Not only does it help them understand their own
    job better, it familiarizes them with potential
    hazards and involves them in developing accident
    prevention procedures.
  • Workers are more likely to follow procedures that
    they had a voice in planning.
  • Finally the JSA as a process causes employees to
    think about safety and how it relates to their

Accommodating training needs of workers with
limited English speaking ability
  • Traditional training methods videos, lectures,
    handouts, and other classroom oriented methods
    will not work well with employees who do not
    speak English as their principal language.
  • Hand on training that more doing and less
    listening, reading, and writing is the better
    approach with limited English speaking audience.
  • Instead of telling employees how to work safely,
    show them.
  • Set up demonstrations that replicate the actual
    situation in question and let employees see what
    they are supposed to do on the job rather than
    watching a video of someone else doing it.
  • Use bilingual training materials that address
    cultural issues, training material that
    recognizes the dignity of all employees
    regardless of their background, and training
    materials that minimize literacy requirements.

  • The rationale for safety and health training is
    that workers who know how to do their jobs
    properly are less likely to have accidents.
  • A trainer needs to have knowledge of the subject,
    and desire to teach.
  • Four steps in teaching are preparation,
    presentation, application, and evaluation.
  • Presentation methods include lecture-discussion,
    demonstration, simulation, videotapes/DVDs, and
    online training.
  • New employee orientation should include general
    orientation, job specific procedures and follow
  • Job safety analysis can be an excellent way to
    teach safety.
  • OSHA requires training in certain areas
    forklift training.

Home work
  • Answer questions 3, 4, 6, 8, 17, 19, 21, and 23
    on pages 273-274.
  • 3. What does the hazard communication regulation
    (29CFR 1910) require of employers?
  • 4. Beyond the legal requirements of the OSH Act,
    how does OSHA promote safety and health training?
  • 6. What document could you use as a guide to the
    OSHA training requirements?
  • 8. Summarize the MSHA training requirements for
    newly employed but experienced miners.
  • 18. Give an example when the demonstration method
    may be used.
  • 19. List 5 questions that should be asked when
    evaluating training.
  • 21. List the minimum content of a good
    orientation program.
  • 23. What is the safety training value of a job
    safety analysis?