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Energy Conclave - 2006


Energy Conclave - 2006 Frontiers in Technologies and Modernization Dr.R.R.Sonde Executive Director (Energy Technologies) NTPC Ltd N.Delhi 28th July 2006 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Energy Conclave - 2006

Energy Conclave - 2006
Frontiers in Technologies and Modernization
Dr.R.R.Sonde Executive Director (Energy
Technologies) NTPC Ltd
N.Delhi 28th July 2006
Frontier in Technologies Modernization
Electricity, the future form of energy
  • Electricity is going to be the main stay of
  • Transport sector could see a major change from
    natural liquid hydrocarbon to either Electricity,
    Hydrogen or Synthetic Liquid Fuel
  • Rural prosperity would see a major shift from the
    usage of non-commercial energy to electricity

Coal / Biomass and water would be physical form
of fuel outside fusion
Solar is going to be the riding source of
Frontier in Technologies Modernization
However, for this to happen, electricity has to
be affordable, available and clean
  • Cheap Power High Efficiency (from mine to
  • Abundant Power Plentiful so that it powers the
    countrys growth
  • Clean Power Environmentally Benign

Penalty for CCS (Carbon Capture Seq) would be
10 points over and above the indicated
efficiency figures
All the available technologies are based of
Rankine Cycle
It essentially uses Condenser which limits the
cycle efficiency to 50
We need to develop a cycle which is
fundamentally different.
Frontier in Technologies Modernization

Abundant Power
The country has plentiful energy sources marked
coal superabundance and weak hydrocarbons
Coal remains the most important fuel for power
Coal is likely to become the source of Synthetic
Fuel Electricity required for Transp. Sector
Coal is expected to become the fulcrum of
Hydrogen Economy
Development of Alternate Power Cycle has to be
based on Coal being supplemented by bio mass,
water and solar
Frontier in Technologies Modernization
Clean Power

Producing clean power with coal, even today, is a
The Challenge
Fuel extraction island
Power Island Turbine
Combustion Island Boiler
Distribution 80
Overall lt22!!!
I suggest two frontier technologies this country
can take up in MISSION mode. They are
Frontier in Technologies Modernization
The Solution The frontier technology - 1, India
Migrate from Rankine based power to a
fundamentally new one (Hybridise Rankine at back
end using ammonia cycle)
Char comb. island
Chemical Energy Coal
Electrical Energy Fuel Cell
Gasification Island Gasifier
Cycle Efficiency 65 - 80
Bubbling bed
MALAE Cycle, Low gr. Q
Frontier Technology Modernization
The Traditional Power Generation cycle
Mechanical Energy in Turbine
Thermal Energy in Boiler
Chemical Energy in Coal
Electrical Energy in Generator
Fuel cell (Gibbs FE)
Governed by 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Input Energy 100
Output energy 33
Carnot Engine (Energy)
How to Increase the Efficiency of this system ?
Frontier Technology Modernization
Why fuel cells?
  • Almost all conventional technologies use
    combustion and Carnot cycle
  • In this, the maximum theoretically achievable
    efficiency depends on heat source and sink
  • Though higher efficiency up to 83.7 is
    possible, actual achievable efficiency is limited
    by non-availability of suitable materials for
    such high temperature

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that
convert the chemical energy of a reaction
directly into electrical energy.
Frontier in Technologies Modernization
Frontier technology-2, Solar To Fuel And
Interfacing biology with physical sciences at
nano-scale will be what ultimately will provide
an abundant and perpetual source of fuel and
power perhaps at par with fusion. Fusion mimics
solar while this would mimic nature (photo
Frontier in Technologies Modernization
What is different than already known?
  • Low temperature water ( CO2) splitting to
    produce hydrogen or methanol
  • Low temperature conversion of cellulose (bio
    mass) into synthesis gas Substitute for high
    temperature gasification process

Elements in Solar to Fuel Electricity
Powered by sunlight, nano scale inorganic
materials embedded in organic base convert
water, CO2 to hydrogen, methanol
Polymers made from customised dendmimrimers mimic
Using technique of synthetic biology, yeast can
manufacture fuels from bio mass
Frontier in Technologies Modernization
Way forward
  • I suggest following
  • Set up a 25 Mw (equivalent) FT-1 Mission. About
    six top institutions and two RD savvy industry.
    Government to mentor the mission
  • Set up National Mission on Solar to Fuel Mission
    (FT-2). Would require interface with Nano,
    Synthetic biology and electrochemistry as
    backbone. Engg. Science to be introduced later

At a later stage FT-2 will be dovetailed with FT-1
Time frame, Budget, Institutional mechanisms ???
Frontier in Technologies Modernization
While I have suggested two frontier technologies,
the existing technologies seek intervention of
good number of technological solutions. Today we
have adequate tools (scientific), knowledge,
operating experience to develop the intervention
May I suggest we take up one more new development
of solar through heliostats? What is this ?
Frontier in Technologies Modernization
Solar Tower
Frontier in Technologies Modernization
  • Solar Tower
  • A field of flat mirrors concentrate light on
    central receivers
  • As flat mirrors can have two-axis solar tracking,
    high collection efficiency (gt80)
  • An HTF (molten salts) is heated up (550 Deg C)
  • Generate steam in a heat exchanger (535 Deg C)
  • Run a steam cycle Overall efficiency about 24

Cont. supply
When you really want something to happen, the
whole universe conspires to help you to achieve
your dreams .. The Alchemist by Paulo Coelho
Photo-Electrochemical Hydrogen
  • Combine Electrolysis an PV technology into a one
    step process
  • Problems Chemical photo-corrosion and high cost

Photochemical Hydrogen
  • Reactions occur at individual molecules suspended
    the solution
  • A Photo-Synthesizer works in conjunction with a
    relay compound to transfer energy and generate