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Title: APA Advanced: preparing for FSEHS Final Review (using APA 2007 Style Guide)


1
APA Advanced preparing for FSEHS Final Review
(using APA 2007 Style Guide)
1
APA Advanced Preparing for FSEHS Final
Review (Using APA 6th ed.)
2
Hot off the press in 2009!
  • Publication Manual of the American Psychological
    Association
  • 6th ed.

3
http//www.schoolofed.nova.edu/arc
4
Title
Students Name
Info on Applied Dissertation
Institution Year
5
Disable Auto-Formatting in Word
  • Before you type a word
  • Go to Format
  • Lines and Page Breaks
  • Uncheck first 4 boxes
  • It is OK to turn off Widow/Orphan control.

6
Table of Contents
  • Do NOT use a row of periods in the TOC!Need to
    use a dot leader.
  • How to Set Up Tabs and Dots for
    TOChttp//www.schoolofed.nova.edu/arc/word/toch
    owto.doc

7
Use ERIC Thesaurus to Identify ERIC Descriptors
for Abstract
Abstract
8
Free Version of ERIC Thesaurus
9
Pagination
  • Use roman numerals in first section for
    Acknowledgments, Abstract, and TOC at bottom in
    the middle of the page

10
Pagination in Body of Paper
  • Page numbers go inupper right-hand corner
  • Use a section break todivide the paper into
    sections to change from romannumerals at bottom
    to numbers in upper right

11
Pagination in Word 2007
  • Page numbers go inupper right-hand corner
  • Use a section break todivide the paper into
    sections to change from romannumerals at bottom
    to numbers in upper right

12
Margins
  • 1½ inch left margin for dissertation.
  • For the finaldissertation report, use a ruler
  • Tip Try setting bottom margin at 0.95 inches.
  • Tables and appendices MUSThave correct margins!

No running headers
12
See ARC document, Tips for Correct
Marginshttp//www.schoolofed.nova.edu/arc/word/ma
rgins.doc
13
Spacing
14
Formatting rules for the paper no bolding, no
underlining, not bullets, APA headings
APA Headings
  • Bolding used for headings mathematical
    symbols but not text.
  • No underlining
  • No Introduction section

72
Level 1
Chapter 3
Use double-spacing throughout the paper
including the title page, abstract, body of the
document, reference list, appendixes, tables,
and figure captions.  APA does permit single
spacing within references but double spacing
between references. (See p. 326 of the
Publication Manual.) Major headings
require specific formatting (a) The first word of
the heading is capitalized as well as all major
words (b) articles, short prepositions, and
coordinating conjunctions are not capitalized
and (c) the heading is not italicized.
Exceptions for dissertation. Other issues also
need to be
Level 2
Methodology
Level 3
Sample and Population.
15
Headings --APA (6th ed.) , p. 62
Use Level 1 Headings
Level 2 Flush Left, Bold, Upper andLower Case
Side Heading
Level 3 is indented, bold, uses
lowercase, and ends with a period.
16
Dont use Microsoft Word headings
Ahah!
Do not use Words headings toformat the
different levels of APAheadings.
17
Formatting definitions
Level 2
This is not numbered so do not use a colon.
  • Definition of Terms
  • For the purposes of this study, the
    following terms are defined.
  • Information literacy. This phrase refers to
    a set of standards approved by
  • Outcomes. For the purposes of this applied
    dissertation, outcome refers to .
  • Assessment. This term refers to

Level 3
Italicized -- APA, p. 91
Note bolding and period after word or phrase
being defined when using Level 3 format. Use
complete sentence(s) for the definition of the
term or phrase.
18
Formatting research questions
Numbered list for conclusions, steps in a
process, chronology,or priority.
Paragraph Seriation
  • Method
  • The methodology of this applied
    dissertation followed the following three steps
  • 1. The sample and participants were
    identified. .
  • 2. Assessment measures were selected.
  • 3. Implementation took place over a
    period of one school year.

The arabic numerals followed by a period.
Paragraph seriation Indented. The second line
wraps back to margin. APA manual, pp. 63-64
19
Seriation in paragraph
Seriation for items in a sentence or paragraph
APA, p. 64
A colon is not used when the list is not numbered
  • The ACRL Information Literacy
    Comprehensive Standards address the ability of
    students (a) to determine the nature and extent
    of the information need, (b) to access
    information efficiently and accurately, and (c)
    to evaluate information critically.

Items are not indented. Use lowercase letters in
parentheses. Do not italicize.
20
Seriation in paragraph
  • The ACRL Information Literacy
    Comprehensive Standards address the ability of
    students (a) to determine the nature and extent
    of the information need, (b) to access
    information efficiently and accurately, and (c)
    to evaluate information critically.

Use commas to separate 3 or more elements. If
there are no internal commas, use commas. If
there are internal commas, use semicolons.
21
Appendices
  • Must have correct margins andall pages in
    appendices must be numbered
  • Each appendix must have an individual cover page
  • Do not include any appendices that are not
    mentioned in the text
  • Do not include IRB information
  • If there is only one appendix, just use Appendix,
    not Appendix A

22
Slang vs Key or Linguistic Term
Use quotation marks for slang, coined, or ironic
terms. p. 91
  • The students felt slammed by the email.
  • The term school media specialist is defined in
    this study to include only librarians with MLS
    degrees and state certification.
  • The letter b was used to

Italicize linguistic examples and technical or
key terms. p. 91
23
Abbreviations and acronyms
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Use sparingly
  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
  • Nova Southeastern University (NSU)
  • Spell out first time
  • Must abbreviate thereafter

Parenthetical Nonparenthetical
(in the text) Use Latin Use
English (e.g., ) for
example, (i.e., )
that is, (, etc. ) ,
and so forth
APA, pp. 106-111
24
Statistical Abbreviations and Symbols
  • Use standard typeface for Greek letters,
    subscripts, superscripts, and abbreviations that
    function as identifiers, not variables.
  • sin, log, ß
  • Symbols for vectors and matrices are bolded.
  • V, ?

APA manual, p. 118
25
Statistical Abbreviations and Symbols
  • Italicize letters used as statistical symbols
  • f frequency
  • Mdn median n number in a subsample
    N number in a sample
  • p probability
  • P percentage, percentile
  • t computed value for t test

APA manual, pp. 119-121
26
Numbers See APA pp. 111-114
  • Use figures for numbers 10 and above
    343 students in 26
    classes
  • The numbers between one and nine should be
    spelled out
  • A total of six experiments went awry.

27
Numbers See APA pp. 111-114
  • Use figures for all times years, months, days,
    hours, minutes The teachers take 3 hours to
    complete the work. 3 months ago 2
    weeks later 1130 a.m.
  • Numbers representing dates, age, exact sums of
    money April 16, 2007 2-year-olds
    reimbursed 5
  • Exception --Use word when a number is the first
    word in the sentence. Two hours is more
    than enough time.

28
Numbers, cont.
More exceptions
  • Numbers denoting a specific place in a series,
    book, or table Table 5Session 3Grade 7
  • Percentages, fractions, ratios, percentiles,
    quartilesTwenty-four percent replied but 76 did
    not.

APA manual, pp. 111-114
29
  • In Grade 1, the students (APA, p. 125f)

30
  • In Grade 1, the students (APA, p. 125f)
  • In first grade, the students (APA, p. 125f)
    butIn 12th grade, the
    students

31
  • In Grade 1, the students (APA, p. 125f)
  • In first grade, the students (APA, p. 125f)
    butIn 12th grade, the
    students
  • (Note Do NOT use superscript --
    12th grade)

32
  • In Grade 1, the students (APA, p. 125f)
  • In first grade, the students (APA, p. 125f)
    butIn 12th grade, the
    students
  • (Note Do NOT use superscript --
    12th grade)
  • Twelfth grade presents.

33
  • In Grade 1, the students (APA, p. 125f)
  • In first grade, the students (APA, p. 125f)
    butIn 12th grade, the
    students
  • (Note Do NOT use superscript --
    12th grade)
  • Twelfth grade presents.
  • The first-grade students (hyphenated compound
    adjective APA, p. 91)
    but
  • The 12th-grade students (APA p. 128, 3.45)

34
  • Tenth-grade students ate in the cafeteria.
  • or
  • 2. 10th-grade students ate in the cafeteria.

?
  • The seventh grade went on a field trip.
  • or
  • 2. The 7th grade went on a field trip.

?
?
  • Students in Grades 4 and 5 took the test.
  • or
  • Students in grades 4 and 5 took the test.
  • or
  • 3. Students in grades four and five took the
    test.

35
Compound Adjectives
  • Role playing
  • High anxiety
  • Seventh grade
  • Role-playing technique
  • High-anxiety situations
  • Seventh-grade students
  • but
  • Type II error
  • Post hoc comparisons
  • randomly assigned participants

APA manual, pp. 98 - 100
36
Commas
Use commas
  • Between independent clauses
  • Jane went to school, but Dick stayed home.

APA (6th ed.), pp. 88-89
37
Commas
Use commas
  • Between independent clauses
  • Jane went to school, but Dick stayed home.
  • Series of three or more
  • Jane, Dick, and Harry argued about money.

APA (6th ed.), pp. 78-79
38
Commas
Use commas
  • Between independent clauses
  • Jane went to school, but Dick stayed home.
  • Series of three or more
  • Jane, Dick, and Harry argued about money.
  • Nonessential or nonrestictive clauses
  • Direct TV, which is available in south
    Florida, offers some nice features.

APA (6th ed.), pp. 78-79
39
Commas
Use commas
  • Between independent clauses
  • Jane went to school, but Dick stayed home.
  • Series of three or more
  • Jane, Dick, and Harry argued about money.
  • Nonessential or nonrestictive clauses
  • Direct TV, which is available in south
    Florida, offers some nice features.

But
  • Comma are not used to separate a compound
    predicate Jane baked a cake and worked
    on her homework.

APA (6th ed.), pp. 78-79
40
Rules for Capitalizing Titles
APA manual, p. 101
Capitalize first word after a hyphen in text
title but not in reference list.
  • Article title
  • In text The article entitled An Assessment of
    the Reading Skills of Inner-City Students
    settled the question about appropriate
    techniques.
  • In reference citation
  • Smith, D. (1999). An assessment of
    reading skills of inner-city
    students. The Reading Teacher, 14(3), 45-46.
  • Book title
  • In text The book, The Decline and Fall of the
    Roman Empire, is a modern classic.
  • In reference citation
  • Gibbon, E. (1963). The decline and fall
    of the Roman Empire. New York Dell.

Capitalize all words of four letters or more as
well as verbs in text but not reference list.
41
Capitalizing Proper Names of School/ University
Departments and Courses
  • Department of Education, Valparaiso University
  • Doctoral Studies Orientation 8000
  • Educational Assessment 101

Proper names
APA manual, pp. 96-97
42
Capitalizing Proper Names of School/ University
Departments and Courses
  • Department of Education, Valparaiso University
  • Doctoral Studies Orientation 8000
  • Educational Assessment 101
  • but
  • an education department
  • a doctoral orientation
  • an educational assessment course

Trade names
APA manual, p. 102
43
Other Proper Names
  • In the third week, the class will bebut
  • In Week 3, the class will be
  • In the second chapter, read the section but
  • In Chapter 2, read the section on .

44
quotes
Formatting for Direct Quotes
In midsentence
The principal stated, Instructors may or may not
want to require an abstract for class
assignments (Tunon, 2006, p. 34), but she
concluded that they always summarized the
essential content of the paper.
At end of a sentence
Tunon (2006) found that instructors may or may
not want to require an abstract for class
assignments (p. 34).
Use a colon if there is a complete introductory
phrase.
Block quote
Students at Nova Southeastern University
have faced challenges in learning how to use
APA formatting. When discussing the challenges,
Tunon (2006) found the following Use
quotes around an article title or book chapter,
but italicize the title of a book, journal,
or report when used in the body of the paper. 
Use a shot sic title in the parenthetical
citation or complete title if the title is short.
NOTE Non-periodical titles like books and
book titles have all the important words
capitalized in the text citations, but
these same book titles do not have all the
important words capitalized in the
reference list. (p. 342)
45
Citing direct quotes
When Citing Direct Quotes
victims of emotional abuse (OHiggins, 2004,
p. 237) . Vest (2008) reported that "empirical
research verified compliance" (p. 48). in a
definition (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate
Dictionary, 2001, p. 346).
See APA manual, pp. 92, 171-173.
46
Text Cites of Electronic Resources
In another case, Scanlon, Gallego, Duran, and
Reyes (2005) found that the results should be
based on assumptions that individuals are
capable of self-directed and self-initiated
learning (Methods section, para. 7). The
qualitative research methods discussed by Durango
were challenged by Bambang and Totonumu
(Pival,Falcao, Quinlan, 2009, Problems with
Qualitative Resarch, para. 5).
Use name of section.
Use shortened title in quotation marks.
See APA (6th ed.), p. 172
47
Paraphrasing
  • To avoid plagiarizing, express other peoples
    ideas, theories, and research in your own words.
  • You still must give credit to the author(s) by
    citing the source using author-date of
    publication method.
  • Self-plagiarism.

48
Paraphrasing
Direct quote
  • Signed into law in January 2002 by President
    George W. Bush, the No Child Let Behind (NCLB)
    Act signaled the nations most sweeping education
    reform of federal education policy in decades.
    NCLB laid the groundwork for education reforms
    and the presidents attempt to strengthen
    Americas education system (Smith, 2004, p. 212).

Paraphrased
When the No Child Let Behind (NCLB) Act was
signed into law in January of 2002 by President
Bush, the law provided the most sweeping
education reform in the United States in decades
and provided a foundation for strengthening
educational policy at the national level for
years to come (Smith, 2004).
APA manual, p. 349
49
46 of Paper Plagiarized Found UsingTurnitin
Words in blue were taken verbatim from one
source.
  • Researchers have noted adjustment problems during
    a rising ninth graders transition period. The
    rising ninth graders grade point averages and
    attendance tend to decrease. The upcoming
    freshman experience feelings of connectedness,
    and co-curricular participation. They also
    experience an increase in anxiety concerning
    school procedures and older students, social
    difficulties. So far, transition programs have
    varied widely within schools, and designs range
    from a one-day overview of a new school to a full
    school year of career-focused curriculum.
    Although the scope of research varies as much as
    the programs themselves, several important
    aspects have been emphasized, and it is apparent
    that longer-term comprehensive transition
    programming can be beneficial. Dropout There is a
    high school dropout epidemic in America. Each
    year, almost one-third of all public high school
    students and nearly one-half of all blacks,
    Hispanics and Native Americans fail to graduate
    from public high school (Bridgeland, Dilulio,
    Jr., and Morison, 2006). The most common reasons
    for dropping out of high school are attitude
    towards school, poor school performance, and poor
    relationship with teachers. Dropouts also had
    lower academic performance, decreased motivation,
    and an increased sense of alienation from the
    school environment (Lan Lanthier, 2003).
    Research also revealed that high school students
    often consider the social organizational changes
    and academic work as the most difficult part of
    transition (Akos, 2004).

Words in red were taken verbatim from a second
source.
The original idea was from Lan Lanthier, but
the source of this paraphrase was not cited.
(Lan Lanthier, 2003).
Only a few words were paraphrased.
50
Basic Citation Styles
Citations in text Quinlan, Jones, Byron, and
Montgomery (2008) stated Quinlan et al. (2008)
observed (et al. is used after first
use when there are three or more
authors)Parenthetical citations in
text (Quinlan, Jones, Byron, Montgomery, 2008)
(Quinlan et al., 2008) One work by six or more
authors Wienhorst et al. (2009) (Wienhorst et
al., 2009)
Always use et al. for six or more authors.
See APA manual, p. 177
51
Groups as Authors
American Psychological Association (APA) was
founded in
First citation in text American Psychological
Association (APA, 2009) statedSubsequent
citations in text APA (2009) observed
Parenthetical citations in text (American
Psychological Association APA, 2009) (APA,
2008) NOTE Always use abbreviation after it is
introduced in the text. Do not switch back and
forth between the full name and the abbreviation.
See APA manual, pp. 106-107 for abbreviations,
p. 177 for group authors
52
Groups as Authors
American Psychological Association (APA) was
founded in
First citation in text American Psychological
Association (APA, 2009) statedSubsequent
citations in text APA (2008) observed Parenthet
ical format, first and subsequent
citations (American Psychological Association
APA, 2009) (APA, 2008) NOTE Always use
abbreviation after it is introduced in the text.
Do not switch back and forth between the full
name and the abbreviation.
See APA manual, p. 177
53
Citing sevral resources
Citing Several Resources Within Same Parentheses
A couple of experiments (Jordan, 2004, 2007)
found. A couple experiments (Eifrig Gehring,
1976 Skinner, 1956) found.... Several studies
(Department of Defense, 2002, 2008, in press-a
Smith Jones, 2009a, 2009b)
See APA manual, pp. 176-178.
54
Secondary Sources
Text citation
  • Seidenberg and McClellands study (as cited in
    Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, Haller, 1993)
  • Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., Haller,
    M. (1993.) Models of reading aloud. Psychological
    Review, 100(5), 589-608.

List the primary source in the reference list
entry
55
Formatting Reference List Citations
56
Eight or More Authors in Reference List
  • Zapeta, L., Ramirez, L., Jones, K., Smith, R.
  • Bardeen, E., Stonebraker, M. B., Obata,
    H. (2007). The greening of America. Journal of
    Environmental Studies, 12(4), 43-47.


When you have eight or more authors, list the
first six authors names and then insert three
ellipses, followed by the last authors name.
See APA manual, pp. 184, 198
57
Spacing after PunctuationUse the find and
replace feature
  • Students
    scores
  • improved. The
    study
  • demonstrated
    that
  • Brown, J. D. (2003). Pitfalls of formatting.
    Reading Teacher, 24(3), 22-24.
  • Exception Hyphenated initials
  • Smith, E.-R. (2009).

58
Magazines, Newsletters, and Newspapers
Formatted Differently Than Journals
  • Kandel, E. R., Squire, L. R. (2000, November
    10). Neuroscience Breaking down scientific
    barriers. Science, 20, 1113-1120.
  • The new health-care lexicon. (1993, Spring). Copy
    Editor, 4, 1-2.
  • New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death
    from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The
    Washington Post, p. A12.

Newspaper
See APA manual, p. 200
59
Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)
60
How to find a DOI for an article?
  • Ingham, R. J., Warner, A., Byrd, A., Cotton, J.
    (2006). Speech effort measurement and
    stuttering Investigating the chorus reading
    effect. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing
    Research, 49(3), 660-670.

61
Coming soon! DOI lookup tool
62
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63
Reference with a DOI
  • Ingham, R. J., Warner, A., Byrd, A., Cotton, J.
    (2006). Speech effort measurement and
    stuttering Investigating the chorus reading
    effect. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing
    Research, 49(3), 660-670. doi10.1044/1092
  • -4388(2006/048)

64
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65
Article and Book with Assigned DOIs
  • Borman, W. C. (1993). Role of early supervisory
    experience in supervisor performance. Journal of
    Applied Psychology, 78(5), 443-449. doi10.1037
    /0002-9432.76.4.482
  • Schaeffer, A. (2009). Life in the fast lane.
    doi10.2312/ 2342113949
  • No URL is needed because the DOI functions as
    both a unique identifier of the content and a
    link to the content.
  • No location or publisher is included for an
    electronic version of a book.

66
When to Use Retrieval Statements
  • If there is no DOI, then ask
  • Was it obtained from an open access source orcan
    you provide URL?

67
Compare two formats
DOI available
Borman, W. C. (1993). Role of early supervisory
experience. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78,
43-49. doi10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.482
Exact URL for open access journal
Borman, W. C. (1993). Role of early supervisory
experience. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78,
43-49. Retrieved from http//ojs.swin.edu.au
/index.php/ejap/article/view/71/100
From a subscription database, no DOI (FSEHS
recommendation)
Borman, W. C. (1993). Role of early supervisory
experience. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78,
43-49.
68
In-Press Article and Advance Online Publication
Clark, K. F. (in press). What can I say besides
sound it out? Coaching word
recognition in beginning reading. The Reading
Teacher. Retrieved from http//rtprints.org/20
09/1/clark.pdf
Clark, K. F. (2009). What can I say besides
sound it out? Coaching word
recognition in beginning reading. The Reading
Teacher. Advance online publication.
doi10.2134/palgrave .jnro.231623
  • Use (in press) when the article is not yet
    officially published. Use Advance online
    publication when it has not been formatted for
    final production.
  • Use the exact URL when the article is informally
    published and available through a preprint
    archive .
  • Update the reference with the final version of
    the reference when finally published.

APA (6th ed.) pp. 199-200
69
Unpublished Dissertations(Such as NSU MARPs and
Practicums)
  • Batson-George, A. (2008). Evaluating the library
    training programs for graduate psychology
    students (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).
    Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale,
    FL.
  • Identify unpublished dissertation or theses in
    parentheses after title.

APA (6th ed.) pp. 207-208
70
DAI vol., issue , p. , etc
Dissertation from a Commercial Database ProQuest
Dissertations and Theses Database
  • If the dissertation is available through PDT,
    give the accession number in parentheses at
    the end of the reference.
  • Use (UMI No. 9934633) Do not put a period
    after the number.

APA (6th ed.) p. 208
71
Published dissertation citation 5th ed.
Dissertation Obtained from PDT
Clarke, D. C. (2001). Differences in
student dropout rate, attendance rate, and
grade point average after the implementation
of the North Carolina Dropout
Prevention/Drivers License Law (Doctoral
dissertation). Available from ProQuest
Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No.
45689011)
  • ProQuest Dissertations and Theses is a
    commercial database so include (Doctoral
    dissertation) in parentheses after the
    dissertation title.
  • Use Available from since the name of the
    database is provided where the document can
    be obtained.
  • Use (UMI No. XXXXXXXX) instead of (AAT XXXXXXXX).

APA manual, p. 208, 40
72
Online Newspaper CitationGive the URL of the
home page when the online version of the article
is available by search to avoid nonworking URLs
(APA, 2009, p. 201) .
Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting
their emotions, most people flunk out. The New
York Times. Retrieved http//www .nytimes.com/
Break URLs after slash or before period. (APA, p.
271) Before most punctuation (APA p. 192)
No period after Web addresses.
73
Electronic-Only Book
  • Peltier-Davis, C., Renwick, S. (Eds.) (2007).
    Caribbean libraries in the 21st century
  • Monograph. Retrieved from http//www
    .infotoday .com/1212.html
  • Include http// in the URL and remove hyperlink.
  • Do not use superscript for 21st
  • Use Monograph to clarify the type of resource.
  • Use Retrieved from instead of Available
    fromwhen the URL leads to information to the
    material itself rather than on how to obtain the
    cited material.

74
Archival Documents
  • Discontinued journals, monographs, dissertations,
    or papers not formally published.
  • If you cannot easily located through primary
    publishing channels, give the home or entry page
    URL for online archives such as ERIC and JSTOR.

APA (6th ed.), p. 192
75
ERIC Report
76
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77
ERIC Citation
Boone, Young, Associates. (1984). Minority
enrollment in graduate and professional
schools Recruitment, admissions, financial
assistance Handbook. Princeton, NJ
Educational Testing Service. Retrieved from
ERIC database. (ED396652)
78
Data Sets
  • U.S. Department of Education, Institution of
    Education Sciences, National Center for
    Educational Statistics. (2008). Profiles of
    undergraduates in U.S. postsecondary institutions
    Data file. Retrieved from http//nces.ed
    .gov/globallocator/col_info _popup.asp?ID136215
  • Italicize the title of a data set.
  • In brackets immediately after the title,
    identify the type of source Data file.

APA manual, pp. 210-211
79
Software
  • NVivo 8, SPSS, Excel -- proper name of standard
    software is only referenced in text.

Tunon, J. (2007). Citation analyzer Computer
software. Nova Southeastern University, Fort
Lauderdale, FL.
  • The name of the computer is not italicized.
  • Put Computer software in brackets.
  • If it is not published, then it needs to be
    cited in the reference list.

APA (6th ed.), pp. 210-211
80
Measurement Instrument
Unpublished instrument
Malkasian, C. (2007). Malkasian Information
Literacy Scale. Unpublished instrument. Available
from http//www.nova.edu/malkasian/
  • Do not italicize the names of software,
    programs, or languages.
  • Use Unpublished instrument.

Published instrument
Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J. (2002). Multifactor
Leadership Inventory. Published instrument.
Available from http//www.mindgarden.com/
APA (6th ed.), pp. 210-211
81
Ahah! What about using citation software?

References
Citation format?
82
EndNote X2
  • https//www.nova.edu/common-lib/ISI/
  • http//www.nova.edu/library/dils/tutorials/endnote
    /

83
No Short Cut for Learning the APA Rules
84
Still confused?
Still confused? You can call your North Miami
Beach Librarian at (800) 541-6682 ext. 28423 or
email lucio_at_nova.edu
85
RecommendationHire an Editor for Final Review
dissertation
86
Considerations for Selecting an Editor
  • The university does not assume responsibility for
    a student's contractual agreement with a private
    editor or typist or for the quality of the
    editor's or typist's work.
  • Fully communicate with editor about the services
    included, turn-around time, and costs.
  • Dont send your only copy of manuscript to the
    editor.

87
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