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Comparison of Adjectives Ch 26 & 27

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Comparison of Adjectives Ch 26 & 27 Comparison of Adjectives The adjectives we ve learned so far are used to describe a basic characteristic of the noun they modify. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Comparison of Adjectives Ch 26 & 27


1
Comparison of AdjectivesCh 26 27
2
Comparison of Adjectives
  • The adjectives weve learned so far are used to
    describe a basic characteristic of the noun they
    modify.
  • Eg clarus orator
  • a famous orator
  • This is called the positive degree of the
    adjective.

3
Comparison of Adjectives
  • Just like in English, Latin adjectives can be
    used to show that a person or thing has a greater
    degree of a certain characteristic than another
    person(s) or thing(s), or more than is usual or
    customary.

4
Comparison of Adjectives
  • The comparative degree is used to compare one
    person or thing with just one other.
  • The superlative degree is used to compare a
    person or thing with two or more others.
  • Positive a famous orator
  • Comparative a more famous orator
  • Superlative the most famous orator

5
Formation of Comparatives and Superlatives
  • The comparative and superlative are formed using
    the base of the adjective.
  • Comparative
  • base of positive -ior (M/F) or ius (N)
  • (gen -ioris)
  • Superlative
  • base of positive -issimus, a, um

6
Formation of Comparatives and Superlatives
  • Pos. carus, a, um felix, gen felicis
  • Comp. carior, -ius felicior, -ius
  • Super. carissimus,a,um felicissimus, a, um

7
Declension of Comparatives
  • Superlatives decline like 1st/2nd declension
    adjs.
  • Comparatives are 2-ending adjs (like,say, fortis,
    forte)BUT they follow the consonant declension!
  • They are an exception to the rule that adjs of
    the 3rd declension belong to the i-stem
    declension.

8
Declension of Comparatives
9
Usage and Translation Comparatives
  • Usually translated with more or with the suffix
    -er.
  • Eg more beautiful, happier
  • Sometimes has the force of rather (greater
    degree of quality than usual) or too (greater
    degree than desirable).
  • Eg rather beautiful, too happy

10
Usage and Translation Superlatives
  • Usually translated with most or with the suffix
    -est.
  • Eg most beautiful, happiest
  • Sometimes has the force of very (especially when
    compared to what is usual or ideal).
  • Eg very beautiful, very happy

11
Quam
  • Quam and the comparative
  • When quam follows a comparative, it functions as
    a coordinating conjuction meaning than and
    linking the things being compared.
  • The same case or construction that precedes quam
    follows it as well.
  • Eg
  • Hic vir est clarior quam ille.
  • This man is more famous than that man.

12
Quam
  • Quam and the superlative
  • When quam precedes a superlative, it acts
    adverbially and indicates that the thing modified
    has the greatest possible degree of a quality.
  • as ______ as possible
  • Eg Amicus erat vir quam sapientissimus.
  • The friend was the wisest man possible.
  • The friend was a man as wise as could be.

13
Ablative of Comparison
  • When the first element to be compared was in the
    nominative or accusative case, the second element
    was often used in the ablative case (no quam) to
    show the comparison.
  • Eg Filia eius bellior uxore erat.
  • His daughter was prettier than his wife.

14
Peculiar Superlatives
  • There are two groups of adjectives which,
    although regular in the comparatives, have
    peculiar forms of the superlative.

15
Peculiar Superlatives
  • Six adjectives ending in lis form the
    superlative by adding limus, a, um to the base.
  • Ex
  • facilis, e
  • facil- -limus facillimus, a, um

16
Peculiar Superlatives
  • The six adjectives are
  • facilis similis
  • difficilis dissimilis
  • gracilis humilis
  • Any other adjective that ends in lis (like
    fidelis or utilis) is regular (fidelissimus,
    utilissimus).

17
Peculiar Superlatives
  • 2) Any adjective with a masculine ending in er,
    though forming regularly in the comparative,
    forms the superlative by adding rimus directly
    to the masculine er, NOT to the base.
  • Ex
  • Positive pulcher, -chra, -chrum
  • Comparative pulchrior, -ius
  • Superlative pulcherrimus, -a, -um

18
Irregular Comparison
  • There are a handful of adjectives which are so
    irregular that their forms will just have to be
    memorized.
  • Luckily, we get a lot of English derivatives from
    these words!
  • These adjectives include (see p 180)

19
Irregular Comparison
20
Irregular Comparison
21
Irregular Comparison
22
Irregular Comparison
23
Irregular Comparison
24
Irregular Comparison
25
Irregular Comparison
26
Declension of Plus
  • In the plural, plus acts like an adjective with
    mixed i-stem and consonant-stem forms.
  • (-ium in genitive plural, but a NOT ia in the
    neuter nominative and accusative see page 181
    for declension chart)
  • In the singular, plus is a neuter noun which
    takes the partitive genitive/genitive of the
    whole.
  • Ex plus pecuniae more (of) money

27
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