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The Cultural Geography of Europe

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Title: The Cultural Geography of Europe


1
The Cultural Geography of Europe
  • Unit 4 Chapter 12

2
I. Section I
  • Population Patterns

3
A. Ethnic Diversity
  • Ethnic Groups
  • Europe is home to more than 160 separate ethnic
    groups
  • Ethnic Tensions
  • The Balkan Peninsula has had lots of turmoil
    because of these tensions
  • Yugoslavia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo
  • Ethnic Cleansing killing rival ethnic groups
  • As a result, many people become refugees people
    who flee to a foreign country
  • Sources of Unity
  • Europeans in recent years have been striving
    towards more unity

4
B. Population Characteristics
  • Population Density
  • Europes population density is greater than that
    of any other continent except Asia.
  • Population Distribution
  • Compare maps on pg. 262 pg. 260
  • Why do people choose to live where they do?

5
C. Urbanization
  • Urban Features
  • About 75 of the population lives in the cities
  • What does this cause?
  • Population Movements
  • During the 1800s early 1900s, many Europeans
    migrated to the Americas and other areas
  • Since the mid-1900s, not many people have left
    Europe but many foreign people moved in (often to
    fill open jobs)
  • Later, when the economy slowed down, this caused
    tension
  • Europes overall population is shrinking
  • Make sure you read pgs. 292-293

6
II. Section II
  • History Government

7
A. The Rise of Europe
  • Early Peoples
  • Fossils show that early people lived in Europe
    more than a million years ago!
  • Ancient Greece Rome
  • The 1st ancient civilization was the Greek
  • 400s 300s B.C.
  • The 2nd was the Romans
  • 27 B.C A.D. 180
  • City-States were originally formed during this
    time
  • A Christian Europe
  • In the late A.D. 300s, Christianity became the
    official religion of the Roman Empire, and later
    one of the worlds major religions
  • The Middle Ages
  • After the fall of Feudalism occurred during this
    timeRome, Europe entered the Middle Ages (A.D.
    500-1500)

8
B. Expansion of Europe
  • Crusades a series of brutal religious wars to
    win Palestine, the birthplace of Christianity,
    from Muslim rule
  • European Explorations
  • In the 1400s, Europe began exploring the rest of
    the world

9
Expansion of Europe (Cont.)
  • Renaissance during this period, many Europeans
    developed a higher interest in the Arts
  • The Reformation movement occurred during this
    time
  • Lessened the power of the Roman Catholic church
    and led to the beginnings of Protestantism

10
C. Changing Europe
  • Make sure you read this section (pg. 297-300)!
  • Revolutions
  • Enlightenment political economic revolutions
  • Industrial Capitalism an economic system in
    which business leaders used profits to expand
    their countries
  • Under this system, new classes emerged
  • Social problems led to the birth of communism
    society based on economic equality

11
C. (cont)
  • Conflict Division
  • WWI 1914-1918 caused by rivalries among
    European powers (for colonies and economic power)
  • Reparations payment for damages
  • WWII 1939-1945 because of unsolved problems
    from WWI and a worldwide depression, Mussolini
    and Hitler gained control of Italy and Germany
  • They expanded their countries control, which led
    to the war
  • Holocaust major horror of WWII mass killing
    of over 6 million Jews
  • WWII left Europe ruined and divided part was
    communist (controlled by the Soviet Union) and
    part was democratic
  • This division led to the Cold War

12
C. (cont Holocaust) Mass grave sites and mass
killing of Jews
13
C. (cont Holocaust) Jewish children that were
used for experiments
14
C. (cont)
  • The Cold War in Europe
  • Cold War a power struggle between the communist
    world (led by Soviet Union) and the noncommunist
    world (led by U.S.)
  • A divided Germany became the hot point of the
    Cold War
  • A New Era for Europe
  • From 1950s-1980s, revolts against communist rule
    swept E. Europe
  • The infamous Berlin Wall came down in 1990 and
    the two parts of Germany reunited
  • 3 years later, Czechoslovakia split into two
    separate countries
  • 1990s European Union (EU) was formed goal to
    unite countries now contains 25 countries
  • 1992 Maastricht Treaty signed common bank and
    currency
  • 1999 Euro common currency launched

15
III. Section III
  • Cultures Lifestyles

16
A. Expressions of Cultures
  • Languages
  • About 50 different languages
  • About 100 different dialects
  • Language Family
  • Mostly Indo-European
  • Slavic Polish, Czech, etc.
  • Baltic Latvian, etc.
  • Germanic German, Dutch, English, etc.
  • Romance Languages (comes from Latin) Italian,
    Spanish, Portuguese, French, Romanian
  • Others Greek, Albanian, Celtic

17
A. Expressions of Cultures(cont)
  • Religion
  • Primarily Christianity
  • Mostly Roman Catholics
  • Pope is the head of this church
  • Where is he located?
  • Religion has caused many wars here
  • Northern Ireland Catholics vs. Protestants
  • 1998 - the Good Friday Peace Agreement

18
A. Expressions of Cultures (cont)
  • Arts
  • Close relationship between religion and
    architecture
  • Romanticism arts focused on emotions
  • Realism arts depicting everyday life
  • Impressionism experiences of the natural world

19
B. Quality of Life
  • Differences
  • Western Europe more industrialized
  • Eastern Southern Europe more struggles
  • Education
  • Countries with more educated people more
    economic success
  • State-Sponsored Human Services
  • Welfare States offer complete social welfare to
    their citizens
  • Helps provide higher education, health care, and
    social security

20
C. Lifestyles
  • Home Life
  • Extended families family importance
  • Sports Recreation
  • Soccer is major sport
  • Rugby
  • Tennis
  • Skiing
  • Cycling
  • Celebrations
  • Europeans celebrate many of the same holidays as
    us but their holidays often include many
    traditions passed down through several generations
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