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Recovery and Rebirth: The Age of the Renaissance

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Title: Recovery and Rebirth: The Age of the Renaissance


1
Recovery and Rebirth The Age of the Renaissance
  • Chapter 12

2
Introduction
  • Renaissance is French word meaning rebirth
  • Late 14th and early 15th centuries seen as both a
    continuation of Middle Ages and as beginning new
    era
  • Historians have debated for many decades
  • Most historians see a clear distinction between
    the two ages
  • One of our tasksto identify what they were

3
Meaning and Characteristics of the Italian
Renaissance
  • Rebirth

4
Renaissance Means Rebirth
  • Italians living 1350 to 1550 believed they were
    living rebirth of the Greco-roman civilizations
  • The 1000 years preceding was termed the Dark or
    Middle Ages due to lack of classical culture
  • Swiss historian/art critic Jacob Burckhardt
    created the modern concept in his book The
    Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy

5
Renaissance and the Italians
  • Burckhardt called the Italians the first born
    among the sons of modern Europe
  • Birth place of the modern world
  • He exaggerated the eras level of secularism and
    individualism
  • There was still a strong commitment to religion
  • He established framework for modern
    interpretations of the period
  • Identified Renaissance as a distinct period

6
Renaissance Italy
  • Renaissance Italy was largely an urban society
  • Commercial success and political advancements
  • Northern Italy made up of independent cities
  • City-states became centers for Italian political,
    economic, and social life
  • New wealth and independence fostered ideas of
    enjoyment of worldly things

7
Renaissance Also, an Age of Recovery and
Rediscovery
  • Recovery from the Black Death, political
    disorder, and economic recession
  • Rediscovery of Greco-Roman culture along the
    Mediterranean
  • Attempts to reconcile pagan philosophy with
    Christian thought and new ways of looking at
    human beings
  • A high regard for human dignity and
    worthrealization of individual potential
  • Concept of ideal person, well rounded, capable of
    many diverse talents

8
Italian Renaissance Limited to Wealthy
  • General features of Italian renaissance limited
    to upper classessmall percentage
  • Achievements were products of elite, not mass
    movement
  • Movement did have indirect impact on the masses
  • In the cities
  • Artistic impact

9
The Making of Renaissance Society
  • Trade and Manufacturing Increases fostering
    economic recovery

10
Economic Recovery An Overview
  • By the 14th century, Italian merchants were
    successfully trading with ports along the
    Mediterranean and up to England and the
    Netherlands
  • Hard hit by the plague, Italians lost their trade
    preeminence as the confronted the Hanseatic
    League

11
Economic Recovery Expansion of Trade and
Hanseatic League
  • North German coastal towns formed military/
    commercial association called Hanseatic league
  • Established settlements in Denmark, Norway, and
    Sweden
  • Developed 200-year monopoly on many products
  • The city of Bruges in Flanders was European
    economic crossroads
  • Silt-ridden Bruges caused Hanseatic trade to
    decline
  • Italians trade recovered dramatically in the 15th
    centurycity-states did well until the 16th
    century

12
Economic Recovery Industries Old and New
  • While the depression effected the woolen
    industry, 15th century Italian cities developed
    luxury items
  • New machinery, techniques, and technology
    fostered other industries--
  • Printing
  • Mining
  • Metallurgy
  • Mining produced copper, iron and silver
  • Metallurgy skills produced firearms

13
Economic Recovery Banking and the Medici
  • Florence regained banking prominence through
    Medici family
  • Medici family expanded from cloth into commerce,
    real estate, and banking
  • In 15the century, the House of Medici became the
    greatest bank in Europe
  • Primary bank for the papacy, fostering great
    influence in papal court
  • Bad loans and loans not collected led to collapse
    of bankFrench expelled bank in 1494

14
Social Changes in the Renaissance
  • Renaissance social structure inherited from
    Middle Ages Three Estates
  • First Estate The Clergy
  • People should be guided by spiritual ends
  • Second Estate The Nobility
  • Privileges based on nobles provided security and
    justice
  • Third Estate
  • Peasants and inhabitants of towns and villages

15
Social Changes The Nobility
  • A restructure of the nobility was underway by the
    1500s
  • Old and new nobility still dominated society
  • Consisted of 2 to 3 percent of population
  • Military officers, political posts, pursued
    education
  • Ideals became expected of nobility
  • Baldassare Castlione wrote The Book of the
    Courtier
  • Described the three basic aspects of the courtier

16
Social Changes The Nobility
  • Three attributes of the perfect courtier
  • Fundamental native endowments character,
    talents, noble birth, etc
  • Cultivate achievements bearing arms, knowledge
    of the arts, play an instrument, etc.
  • Follow standards of conduct while modest, show
    talents with grace
  • Primary duty of the courtierto serve his prince
    in an effective and honest way

17
Social Changes Peasants and Townspeople
  • Peasants and townspeople made up 85 to 90 percent
    of European populationthe exceptions Flanders
    and northern Italy
  • Two economic trends of significance
  • Decline of the manorial system
  • Continuing elimination of serfdom

18
Social Changes Peasants and Townspeople
  • Decline of the manorial system
  • Begun 12th century with introduction of money
  • Money could buy freedom and pay rents
  • Money eliminated need to be paid in kind or labor
  • Decline of serfdom
  • Black Death also caused contraction of peasant
    numbers
  • Lords found it better to deal with peasants by
    granting freedom or accepting rents

19
Social Changes Peasants and Townspeople
  • The remainder of the Third Estate centered around
    the bourgeoisie
  • Merchants and artisans
  • Patricians on the top, trade, industry, banking
  • Burghers shopkeeper, artisans, guild masters,
    etc
  • Propertyless workers
  • Lived in squalid conditions
  • 30-40 of city workers

20
Social Changes Slavery
  • For the most part, agricultural slavery in Europe
    was replaced by serfdom and had disappeared by
    the 11th century
  • Slavery reappeared in Spain through Christians
    and Muslims capturing prisoners during the
    Reconquista
  • Slavery was reintroduced in 14th century
    resulting from Black Death
  • In 1363, Florence authorized unlimited
    importation of foreign slaves

21
Social Changes Slavery
  • Italian slaves used as skilled workers and often
    held positions in the family household
  • Italian merchants found a lucrative market in
    transporting slaves
  • Between 1414 and 1423, ten thousand slaves were
    sold on the Venetian market
  • By the end of the 15th century, slavery had
    declined significantly humanitarian reasons,
    expense, and some found them dangerous

22
The Family in Renaissance Italy
  • The family played an important role
  • Household of immediate family
  • Extended household of grandparents, unmarried
    sisters, slaves, etc.
  • Old family names (e.g. Medici) conferred high
    status
  • A crime committed by one family member fell to
    the entire familybloody revenge falls to many
  • Importance explains the vendetta of the Italian
    Renaissance

23
The Family in Renaissance Italy Marriage
  • Prearranged marriages fostered business and
    family ties
  • The future wifes dowry was important factor
  • Dowry size could indicate a societal move
    upwardmarrying above her status if she had money
  • Marrying at lower status for bride produced
    smaller dowry the family status uplifted the
    spouses family

24
The Family in Renaissance Italy Marriage
  • The husband was the center of the family
  • Made all family decisions
  • Controlled the money
  • Fathers authority over children was absolute
    until death or he freed them before a judgeage
    didnt matter

25
The Family in Renaissance Italy Children
  • Women ran the household and, the wealthy, bore
    many children
  • Dangerous10 of mothers died at childbirth
  • Surviving mothers faced the death of their
    childrenin Florence, about 50 died by age 20
  • Due to survival rates, families tried to have
    many children to ensure a surviving male heir

26
The Family in the Renaissance Sexual Norms
  • Arranged marriages fostered infidelity
  • Norms for men and women were different
  • Males married much later large number of young
    males available
  • Encouraged extramarital activities and
    prostitution

27
The Italian States in the Renaissance
  • Milan, Venice, Florence, the Papal States, and
    Naples

28
The Five Major States and Renaissance Italy
  • In late 14th century, Italy was a land of five
    major states and numerous independent city-states
  • Prosperity and supportive intellectual climate
    created atmosphere for mid and upper classes to
    rediscover Greco-Roman culture

29
The Five Major States The Duchy of Milan
  • Francesco Sforza, one of the leading condottieri
    at the time (1447), conquered the city of Milan
    and became its new duke
  • Both Visconti and Sforza families created highly
    centralized state
  • Creative at devising taxes that brought great
    revenue for the state

30
The Five Major States The Republic of Venice
  • Maritime republic
  • Extremely stable oligarchy, governed by
    merchant-aristocrats
  • Commercial empire brought enormous revenuesgave
    Venice international power
  • Venice made efforts to expand its territory north
    to protect trade routes and food supply
  • Milan and Florence attempted to counter those
    efforts

31
The Five Major States The Republic of Florence
  • The Republic of Florence dominated the region of
    Tuscany
  • Dominated by a small merchant oligarchy by mid
    15th century
  • In 1434, Cosimo de Medici took control
  • Kept republic forms of government for appearance
  • Ran government behind the scenes
  • Cosimo, later Grandson, Lorenzo the Magnificent,
    dominated center of cultural Renaissance--Florence

32
The Five Major States Papal States
  • Papal states were located in central Italy
  • Somewhat under the political control of the
    popes, the papal residency in Avignon and the
    Great Schism enabled cities such as Urbino,
    Bologna, and Ferrara to become independent
  • Renaissance popes of the 15th century spent much
    time attempting to reestablish their control over
    the Papal States

33
The Five Major States Kingdom of Naples
  • Kingdom of Naples encompasses most of southern
    Italy and Sicily
  • Fought over by the French and Aragonese during
    the Renaissance
  • Mostly backward region with unruly nobles and
    poverty-stricken peasants
  • Very little cultural glories of the Renaissance

34
The Independent City-States
  • There independent city-states controlled by
    powerful ruling families
  • Urbino was the most significant and powerful
  • Most significant ruler was Federigo da
    Montefeltro
  • Ruled using his money to offset poverty
  • Hired themselves out as condottiere
  • Honest and reliable

35
The Role of Women
  • For the smaller Renaissance courts, women often
    took the place of men at court while the men were
    away
  • Many were honest and showed good judgment
  • Most famous was Isabella dEste
  • Called first lady of the world
  • One of finest libraries in all Italy

36
Warfare in Italy
  • Italian world was fragmented by territorial
    states
  • Fragmented states gave rise to strategy called
    balance of power
  • Designed to prevent aggrandizement of one state
    over anotherespecially evident after 1454
  • Initiated under the Peace of Lodi
  • Milan, Florence, and Naples vs Venice and papacy
  • Initiated 40 years of peace

37
Warfare in Italy
  • Growth of powerful monarchies in France and Spain
    caused trouble for Italians
  • The breakdown of balance of power in caused the
    wars
  • Also, the Duke of Milan invited the French to
    intervene in Italian politics
  • Charles VIII of France was eager to oblige and
    entered Italy with 30,000 men
  • Other Italian states turned to Spain for help and
    Philip of Aragon was eager to help
  • For 15 years, the French and Spanish fought it
    out in Italy

38
Warfare in Italy
  • Few Italian conceived of creating an alliance or
    confederation to stave off other nations
  • Italians remained fiercely loyal to their own
    petty states

39
The Birth of Modern Diplomacy
  • The modern diplomatic system was a product of the
    Italian Renaissance
  • The concept of an ambassador changed during the
    Renaissance from a person acting for everyone and
    for peace in general to agents representing
    specific states
  • Small states in particular wanted to exchange
    information for their own protection
  • Practices used today such as ambassador rights in
    host countries and certain protocols

40
Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
  • The prince (1513)
  • Niccolo Machiavelli
  • Machiavelli gave the best expression to political
    power sought during the Renaissance
  • He served as a secretary to the Florentine
    Council of Tena diplomatic post
  • Made numerous diplomatic missions
  • After the Spanish victory in Italy, republicans
    like Machiavelli were sent into exile

41
Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
  • Machiavelli was forced to give up politics
  • He turned his attention to political thought
  • He wrote The Prince
  • Based on his concerns for Italys political
    problems and his knowledge of ancient Rome
  • All about the acquisition and expansion of
    political power as a means to restore and
    maintain order in his time
  • Political activities should not be restricted by
    morality

42
Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
  • Machiavelli was one of the first to abandon
    morality for analysis of political activity
  • Machiavelli didnt believe the normal policy of
    taking political action only if it contributes to
    the common good of the people you serve
  • A princes use of power must be based on human
    naturewhich he believed to be self-centered
  • People were ungrateful, fickle, deceptive,
    deceiving, avoiders of danger, eager to gain,
    etc

43
Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
  • Political activity should not be restricted to
    moral considerations
  • A rulercannot conform to all those rules that
    men who are thought good are expected to
    respecthe is often obliged to break his word, to
    be uncharitable, inhumane, and irreligioushe
    should do what is right if he can but he must be
    prepared to do wrong if necessary
  • It is better to be feared than loved

44
The Intellectual Renaissance in Italy
  • Individualism and secularismtwo characteristics
    of the Italian Renaissance

45
Italian Renaissance Humanism
  • Based on the study of classical works of the
    Greeks and Romans
  • Humanists studied the liberal arts
  • Grammar, poetry, ethics, and history
  • Occupations of the secular humanists
  • Teachers
  • Professors of rhetoric
  • Secretaries in the chancelleries

46
The Emergence of Humanism
  • Petrarch has been called the father of the
    Italian Renaissance
  • Spent most of his time in Italy as guest of
    various princes and governments
  • Did more than anyone in 14th century to foster
    Renaissance humanism
  • First to characterize the Middle Ages as period
    of darkness

47
The Emergence of Humanism
  • Petrarchs interest in the classics led him to
    seek forgotten Latin manuscripts
  • His search led to a sacking of monastic libraries
  • He worried about his pursuits of secular content
  • He wanted to properly attend to his spiritual
    ideals
  • His allegory, The Ascent of Mount Ventoux,
    describes his struggle to achieve a higher
    spiritual state (see text)
  • He did, however, emphasize the humanist use of
    classical Latin Cicero, the model for prose
    Virgil for poetry

48
Humanism in Fifteenth-Century Italy
  • In Florence, the humanism movement gave rise to
    civic humanism
  • Civic Humanism was tied with civic pride,
    responsibility, and spirit
  • Petrarch had emphasized the intellectual life was
    one of solitudefamily and community life had
    been rejected
  • The classical Roman Cicero, statesman and
    intellectual, became their model

49
Humanism in Fifteenth-Century Italy
  • Leonardo Bruni (1370-1444), humanist, Florentine
    patriot, and chancellor of the city wrote a
    biography of Cicero titled The New Cicero
  • Enthusiasm for fusion of political action and
    literary creation
  • It was the duty of an intellectual to be active
    in ones state
  • Humanists believed their study of the humanities
    should be put to the service of the state

50
Humanism in Fifteenth Century Italy
  • The growing interest in classical Greek
    civilization was a major part of the humanist
    movement
  • Humanists studied the works of Plato and Greek
    poets, dramatists, historians, and orators like
    Thucydides, Euripides, and Sophocles
  • All were ignored in the High Middle Ages as
    irrelevant

51
Humanism in Fifteenth-Century Italy
  • A consciousness of being humanists developed
  • Lorenzo Valla (1407-1457) became a papal
    secretary and wrote The Elegances of the Latin
    Language
  • An effort to purify medieval Latin and restore
    Latin to its position of dominion over the
    vernacular

52
Humanism and Philosophy
  • Second half of 15th century saw upsurge in
    interest of the works of Plato
  • Florentine Platonic Academy was lead group
  • Cosimo de Medici, defacto ruler of Florence, was
    major patron
  • Exposition of the Platonic philosophy was called
    Neoplatonism

53
Humanism and Philosophy
  • Marsilio Facino dedicated his life to translation
    of Plato
  • Merged Christianity and Platonism into one system
  • Postulated the idea of hierarchy of substances
    from lowest form of physical matter to purest
    spirit, God
  • Humans were seen in middle positionhighest duty
    was to ascend to God

54
Renaissance Hermeticism
  • Hermeticism was another product of the Florentine
    intellectual environment of the late 15th
    century emphasized two kinds of writings
  • Occult sciences astrology, alchemy, and magic
  • Theological and philosophical beliefs
  • Pantheism seeing divinity in all aspects of
    nature and in heavenly bodies and in earthly
    objects

55
Renaissance Hermeticism
  • Giordano Bruno was prominent 16th century
    Hermeticists, stating, God as a whole is in all
    things
  • Hermetic revival offered new view of humankind
  • Humans had been created as divine beings with
    endowed with creative power
  • However, humans had chosen to enter the material
    world

56
Renaissance Hermeticism
  • Humans could recover their powers, but they had
    to go through a regenerative process
  • Regenerated, they became true sages or magi
  • Magi had knowledge of God and truth and could
    employ natures powers for good purposes
  • Ficino and friend/pupil Pico della Mirandola
    (1463-1494)
  • Pico produced one of the most famous writings of
    the Renaissance, Oration on the Dignity of Man

57
Renaissance Hermeticism
  • Oration
  • Drawn from nuggets of universal truth
  • Believed were part of Gods revelation to man
  • Believed in unlimited human potential
  • Pico To him it is granted to have whatever he
    chooses, to be whatever he wills
  • Pico At last the knowledge of all nature

58
Education in the Renaissance
  • Renaissance humanists believed that human beings
    could be dramatically changed by education
  • They wrote books on education and founded schools
  • Most famous of schools was founded at Mantua
  • Founded by Vittorino da Feltre
  • Ruler of small Italian state was Gian Francesco I
    Gonzaga

59
Education in the Renaissance
  • The core of academic training in Vittorinos
    school was liberal studies
  • Pietro paola Vergerio wrote, Concerning Character
  • The importance of liberal arts as the key to true
    freedom
  • Enabling humans to reach their full potential
  • We call those studies liberal which are worthy
    of a free man those studies by which we attain
    and practice virtue and wisdom that education
    that calls forth, trains, and develops those
    highest gifts of body and mind which ennoble men

60
Education in the Renaissance
  • Liberal studies included history, moral
    philosophy, eloquence (rhetoric), letters 9rammar
    and logic), poetry, mathematics, astronomy, and
    music
  • The purpose was to produce individuals who
    followed a path of virtue and wisdom and
    possessed the rhetorical skills with which to
    persuade others to do the same

61
Education in the Rennaissance
  • Following the Greek precept of sound mind in a
    sound body, the Mantua school stressed physical
    education as well
  • Humanist schools were primarily for the elite
  • Few females attended the schools
  • Those females who did attend were discouraged
    from mathematics and rhetoric
  • Religion and morals were thought to hold the
    first place in the education of a Christian lady

62
Education in the Rennaissance
  • Education was preparation for life
  • The aim of education was not create scholars, but
    to produce complete citizens who could
    participate in their communities
  • Vittorino all are destined to live in society
    and to practice virtue
  • The combination of the classics and Christianity
    was seen as the best education for Europes
    ruling classes

63
Humanism and History
  • Humanist historian chronicled history different
    from Middle Age historians
  • Humanists believed the classical period was
    followed by an age of barbarism (Middle Ages)
  • The Middle Ages were succeeded by their own age
  • They began thinking in terms of the passage of
    timethe past as the past
  • They began thinking of the periodization of
    history

64
Humanism and History
  • Humanists were also responsible for secularizing
    the writing of history
  • Reduced or eliminated role of miracles in
    historynot as anti-Christian, but as new
    approach
  • Emphasized documents and critical thinking
  • Attention was paid to political events
  • Emphasis moved to causation of history,
    deemphasizing divine intervention and looked to
    human motives

65
Humanism and History--Guicciardini
  • Francesco Guicciardini (1483-1540) achieved the
    high point of Renaissance historiography
  • His History of Italy and History of Florence
    represent the beginning of modern analytical
    historiography
  • Guicciardini the purpose of writing history was
    to teach lessons
  • Emphasized military and political history

66
The Impact of Printing
  • The Renaissance witnessed the invention of
    printing, one of the most important inventions of
    Western civilization
  • Its impact was immediate
  • Hand-carved wooden blocks had been done in the
    West since the 12th century and in China before
  • New to Europe in the 15th century was metal
    movable type--culminating between 1445-1450

67
The Impact of Printing
  • Johannes Gutenberg played important role in bring
    process to completion
  • Gutenbergs Bible (1455 or 1456) was the first
    true book in the West produced from movable type
  • The new printing spread rapidly throughout Europe
    in the second half of the 15th century
  • Especially well known as a printing center was
    Venice

68
The Impact of Printing
  • By 1500, there were over 1000 printers in Europe
  • Published almost 40,000 titles
  • Eight to ten million copies
  • Probably half of the books were religious
  • Next in importance were Greek and Latin classics
  • The printing of books encouraged the scholarly
    research and desire to attain knowledge

69
The Impact of Printing
  • More positive results of printing
  • Facilitated cooperation among scholars
  • Produced standardization and definitive texts
  • Expanding reading by all
  • Brought the new religious ideas of the
    Reformation
  • Fostered science

70
The Artistic Renaissance
  • Humans as the Focus of Attention

71
Art in the Early Renaissance
  • Leonardo da Vinci counseled that artists should
    use real subjects in nature, not copies of other
    artists
  • Renaissance artist pursued naturalism
  • A primary goal was to imitate nature
  • They tried to persuade onlookers of the reality
    of their creation
  • Ultimately, human beings became the cental focus
    of art

72
Art in the Early Renaissance
  • Most Italian artists maintain that Giotti of the
    14th century began the imitation of nature
  • Masaccio followed Giotti with a cycle of frescoes
    in the Brancacci Chapel, long considered the
    first masterpiece of the Early Renaissance
  • Masaccios massive three dimensional human
    figures provided a model for later Florentine
    artists

73
Art in the Early Renaissance
  • Masaccio emphasized a more realistic relationship
    between figures and landscape and more visual
    representation of laws of perspective
  • A new realistic style of painting was born
  • The ideals of the human being in natural
    surroundings prevailed

74
Art in the Early Renaissance
  • The new Renaissance style took other forms but
    basically headed in two directions Space and
    Movement
  • Space
  • Mathematical side of painting
  • Working out the laws of perspective
  • Organization of space

75
Art in the Early Renaissance
  • Movement
  • Included anatomical structure
  • Attempt to portray human body under stress
  • Realistic portrayal of human nude became a
    foremost preoccupation

76
Art in the Early Renaissance
  • Sandro Botticelli, with his interest in Greek and
    Roman mythology was well reflected in his work,
    Primavera
  • Well defined characters, yet they possess an
    otherworldly quality far removed from the realism
    that characterized early Renaissance

77
Art in the Early Renaissance
  • Advances by Florentine painters were matched by
    Florentine sculptures and architects
  • Donato di Donatellos statue of David
  • First known life-size freestanding bronze nude in
    European art since antiquity
  • Celebrated Florentine heroism
  • Radiated simplicity, strength, and the dignity of
    humanity

78
Art in the Early Renaissance
  • Filiippo Brunelleschi drew inspiration from Roman
    antiquity
  • He worked hard on the creation of a new
    architecture
  • First challenge was to complete the 140-foot
    opening of the Cathedral of Florence
  • He devised a dome of less weight and 24 ribs

79
Art in the Early Renaissance
  • Brunelleschi created a better example of his new
    architecture when he built the Church of San
    Lorenzo
  • Inspired by Roman models
  • Interior very different from medieval designs
  • Created amore human-centered space
  • Classical columns, rounded arches, and coffered
    ceiling
  • Didnt overwhelm the worshipper

80
Art in the Early Renaissance
  • The emphasis on human individuality in the
    Renaissance came out in an emphasis on
    portraiture
  • Prominent people had portraits on tombs and other
    places
  • Renderings depicted accurately the facial
    features plus the inner qualities of the
    individual

81
The Artistic High Renaissance
  • By the 15th century, Italian painters, sculptures
    and architects had mastered scientific
    applications and were now moving toward more
    personalized creative expressions
  • The High Renaissance was marked by increasing
    importance of Rome as the new cultural center of
    the Italian Renaissance

82
The Artistic High Renaissance
  • Dominated by three artistic giants Leonardo da
    Vinci (1452-1519), Raphael (1483-1520), and
    Michelangelo (1475-1564)
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • A transitional artist
  • Fifteenth century tradition of complete study of
    nature
  • Dissected bodies to ensure his anatomical
    portrayals were correct

83
The Artistic High Renaissance
  • Leonardo
  • Stressed the need to advance beyond realism
  • Emphasis was on moving to idealized form of
    nature
  • In Leonardos Last Supper, he hoped to reveal an
    individuals inner self through gestures and
    movement

84
The Artist High Renaissance
  • Leonardo attempts to move from a realistic to
    idealized portrayal of the human figure.
  • He attempted to depict a persons inner character
    through gesture and movement
  • In his fresco, he used an experimental technique
    which led to its physical deterioration

85
The Artistic High renaissance
  • Perhaps Leonardos most famous work, the
    painting, Mona Lisa

86
The Artistic High Renaissance
  • One of Leonardos many drawings, this one of a
    flying machine

87
The Artistic High Renaissance
  • Leonardos drawing and explanation of an embryo
    and

88
Two of Leonardos Works Painting and Design of
Water Power System
89
The Artistic High Renaissance
  • Raphael Sanzio was regarded as one of Italys
    best painters at age 25
  • Acclaimed for his numerous madonnas
  • Attempted ideal beauty, above human standards
  • Well known for his frescoes in the Vatican Palace
  • His School of Athens reveals a world of balance,
    harmony, and order

90
The Artistic High Renaissance
  • Raphael, School of Athens
  • This is one frescoe Raphael painted for Pope
    Julius II for the papal apartment in the Vatican
    Raphael created an imaginary gathering of ancient
    philosophers.
  • In the center stand Plato and Aristotle
  • At the left is Pythagoras, showing his system of
    proportions on a slate
  • At the right is Ptolemy, holding a celestial
    globe
  • Balance, harmony, and order

91
The Artistic High Renaissance
  • Michelangelo Buonarroti, an accomplished painter,
    sculptor, and architect, was another giant of the
    High Renaissance
  • Highly motivated to create, completed numerous
    projects
  • Influenced by Neoplatoism, especially depiction
    of figures on ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

92
The Artistic High Renaissance
  • In 1508, Pope Julius II called Michelangelo to
    Rome, commissioning him to decorate the Sistine
    Chapels ceiling
  • Project not completed until 1512
  • Nine scenes from the book of Genesis
  • In Creation of Man, Adam awaits the divine spark
  • Figures were fashioned ideally, with excellent
    proportions and beauty reflecting divine beauty
    the more beautiful, the more God-like

93
The Artistic High Renaissance
  • Michelangelos Creation of Adam
  • Adam awaits the divine spark
  • The more beautiful the body, the more God-like
    the figure

94
The Artistic High Renaissance
  • Michelangelos statue of David was commissioned
    by the Florentine government in 1501 and finished
    in 1504
  • Michelangelo I only take away the surplus, the
    statue is already there
  • The statue is 14 feet high.
  • David proudly proclaims the beauty of the human
    body and the glory of human beings

95
The Artistic High Renaissance
  • The Renaissance was well known for its
    architecture, particularly that Donato Bramante
    (1444-1514)
  • He captured the grandeur of ancient Rome through
    his design of the Tempietto (Little Temple) at
    the site of Saint Peters martydom
  • His design impressed who Pope Julius II
    commissioned him to design Saint Peters Basilica

96
The Artist and Social Status
  • By the end of the 15th century, a transformation
    in the status of artist occurred
  • Artists were no longer considered just artisans
    with certain skills
  • Gifted artists were considered artist geniuses
  • Artists were seen as heroes, e.g. Michelangelo
    was frequently referred to as II Divinothe
    Divine One

97
The Artist and Social Status
  • The artists of the High Renaissance were the
    first to embody the modern concept of artist
  • Artists profited both economically and in social
    status
  • By now mingling with upper classes and political
    elites, artists learned the new intellectual
    theories which they embodied in their art

98
The Northern Artistic Renaissance
  • Human form took the primary form of expression in
    the north
  • Emphasis was on stain glass windows and wooden
    paneled paintings for alter pieces
  • Flanders had most influential school of art
  • Oil painting, popular in the north, permitted
    artists to project staggering details in their
    precise portraits

99
The Northern Artistic Renaissance
  • Jan van Eyck was one of first to use oils
  • Painters painted more the outward appearance of
    things
  • Empirical observation of visual reality
  • The accurate portrayal of details

100
The Northern Artistic Renaissance
  • Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) from Nuremberg was
    effected by the Italians
  • Made trips to Italy
  • Captured laws of perspective and proportion
  • However, he did not reject minute details
    characteristic of northern artists
  • Integrated his artistry into a careful
    examination of the human form

101
Music in the Renaissance
  • The Dukes of Burgundy attracted some of the best
    artists and musicians of the time
  • Guillaume Dufay, most important composer
  • Lived in medieval France and early Renaissance
    Italy
  • Combined the best of both worlds
  • Changed composition of Massreplaced Gregorian
    chants with secular tunes to form the basis of
    Mass
  • Served as a reminder that music ceased to be just
    in the service of God

102
Music in the Renaissance
  • The Renaissance madrigal was a poem set to music
  • Origins 14th century Italian courts
  • Twelve-line poems written in vernacular
  • Theme was emotional or erotic love
  • Employed text painting with 5 or 6 voices
  • Melody would change with emphasis on certain
    words or phrases

103
The European State in the Renaissance
  • The New Monarchies attempt to impose their will
    as Europe takes shape. They try to improve their
    states from the early 15th to later 15th century,
    particularly in France, England, and Spain

104
The Growth of the French Monarchy
  • The Hundred Years War had left France prostrate
  • Depopulation, desolate farmlands, ruined
    commerce, unruly nobles, etc.
  • The war also engendered a sense of loyalty--the
    understanding of a common enemy
  • The war permitted strengthening the kings
    authority
  • Charles VII was able to secure permission for a
    royal army from the Estates-General

105
The Growth of the French Monarchy
  • King Charles VII
  • The Estates-General also permitted a taille,
    annual taxusually from land or other property
  • Ensured certain amount of power
  • King Louis XI (1461-1483), (known as the spider
    for his wily ways)
  • Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, was problem
  • Charles tried to create middle kingdom between
    France and Germany

106
The Growth of the French Monarchy
  • Charles the Bold
  • He died in battle and Louis took Burgundy for
    France
  • Louis added Anjou, Maine, Bar, and Provence, and
    was given credit for development of strong French
    monarchy

107
England Civil War and a New Monarchy
  • The Hundred Years War also hurt the English
  • Even more domestic turmoil broke out with the War
    of the Roses
  • The House of Lancaster (red rose) verses the
    House of York (white rose)
  • Many aristocratic families brought into conflict
  • Henry Tudor, Duke of Richmond, defeated the last
    Yorkish king, Richard III, and established the
    new Tudor dynasty

108
England Civil War and a New Monarchy
  • The first Tudor King, Henry VII reduced
    dissension and established strong monarchy
  • Abolished private armies of the aristocrats
  • Special commissions to trusted nobles raised
    armies for special campaigns then were disbanded
  • Established the Court of Star Chamber which did
    not use juries and permitted torture to extract
    confessions

109
England Civil War and a New Monarchy
  • Henry VII managed the monarchy well
  • Extracted resources from traditional sources
  • Use diplomacy to avoid wars
  • Kept taxes low
  • Henrys policies left England with stable,
    prosperous government and gained status for the
    monarchy itself

110
The Unification of Spain
  • After the conquest of the Iberian Penisnsula from
    the Muslims, the peninsula was divided into
    several smaller states, the largest which was
    Aragon and Castile
  • Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon were
    married in a dynastic (not political) union
  • The two states maintained their own parliaments

111
The Unification of Spain
  • Ferdinand and Isabella worked to build a strong
    central government for both states
  • They reorganized the military and created and
    built the best army in Europe by the 16th century
  • They achieved permission from the pope to select
    the most important church officials
  • They realized the importance of the Churchs
    power

112
The Unification of Spain
  • Ferdinand and Isabella received permission to
    institute the Inquisition in Spain
  • Converts were effected, but not Jews or Muslims
  • Thus, they expelled all Jew and Muslims
  • The two Most Catholic monarchs had achieved
    absolute religious orthodoxyto be Spanish was to
    be Catholic
  • Uniformity policy was enforced by the Inquisition

113
The Holy Roman Empire The Success of the
Habsburgs
  • The Holy Roman Empire failed to develop a strong
    monarchy
  • The Empire remained in the hands of the Habsburg
    dynasty
  • The Habsburgs instituted dynastic marriages
  • Through marriages, the Hapsburgs gained
    international power
  • Rulers of France feared they would be surrounded
    by the Hapsburgs

114
The Holy Roman Empire The Success of the
Habsburgs
  • Much was expected of Maximilian I
  • He had strong opposition from German princes
  • Through a series of marriages and untimely
    deaths, Charles, Maximilians grandson, became
    heir to the Habsburg, Burgundian, and Spanish
    lines, making him the leading monarch of his age

115
The Struggle for Strong Monarchy in Eastern Europe
  • The rulers of Eastern Europe had many obstacles
    in the way of control
  • Different ethnic and religious groups could not
    get along
  • Much of the problem with Poland until the later
    15th century revolved around disagreements
    between crown and the landed nobles
  • Hungary became one of the most significant
    countries in Europe under King Matthias Corvinus

116
The Struggle for Strong Monarchy in Eastern Europe
  • King Mathias
  • Broke the power of the wealthy lords
  • Patronized the humanist culture
  • Brought Italian scholars and artists to his
    capital
  • Since the 13th century, Russia had been under the
    domination of the Mongols
  • Ivan III (1462-1505) was able to take advantage
    of dissention within the Mongols to through off
    their yoke by 1480

117
The Ottoman Turks and the End of the Byzantine
Empire
  • Eastern Europe was increasingly threatened by the
    Ottoman Empire
  • The Byzantine Empire had served as a buffer
    between the Muslim Middle East and the Latin West
    for centuries
  • The Empire was weakened by the sack of
    Constantinople in 1204
  • The threat of the Ottomans finally doomed the
    Byzantine Empire

118
The Ottoman Turks and the End of the Byzantine
Empire
  • The Ottoman Turks moved quickly through the lands
    of the Seljuk Turks and the Byzantine Empire
  • Bypassing Constantinople, they moved through
    Bulgaria and into the lands of the Serbians
  • At the battle of Kosovo, Ottoman forces defeated
    the Serbs, both leaders dying in battle

119
The Ottoman Turks and the End of the Byzantine
Empire
  • Battle of Kosovo (1389) became a battlefield long
    remembered and revered by the Serbs
  • Not until 1480 were Bosnia, Albania, and the rest
    of Serbia added to the Ottoman Empire in the
    Balkans
  • The Ottoman Turks completed the demise of the
    Byzantine Empire by defeating the army at
    Constantinople

120
The Ottoman Turks and the End of the Byzantine
Empire
  • The Turks began to pressure the West
  • By the end of the 15th century, they were
    threatening Hungary, Austria, Bohemia, and Poland
  • The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, became their
    bitter enemy in the 16th century

121
The Church in the Renaissance
  • The Council of Constance ends the Great Schism,
    but finds the issues of heresy and reform more
    challenging

122
The Problems of Heresy and Reform
  • While inquisitions had dealt with heresy in the
    past, the Lollardy and Hussitism fostered
    difficulties
  • Wyclif and Lollardy
  • English Lollardy was a product of the Oxford
    Theologian John Wycliff
  • Disgust with clerical corruption led to attacks
    on Christian beliefs and practices

123
The Problems of Heresy and Reform
  • John Wycliff
  • Led attack on papal authority
  • Attacked Christian beliefs and values
  • Urged the Bible to be made available in the
    vernacular of all languages
  • Condemned pilgrimages, the veneration of saints,
    and rituals and rites developed in medieval
    church
  • His followers were called Lollards

124
The Problems of Heresy and Reform
  • Hus and the Hussites
  • Royal marriage between England and Bohemia
    enabled Lollard ideas to spread to Bohemia
  • John Hus, chancellor of the University of Prague
    urged the elimination worldliness and corruption
    in the clergy
  • Hus also attacked the excessive power of the
    papacy within the Catholic Church

125
The Problems of Heresy and Reform
  • John Hus
  • Strong support from German clergy and Czechs
  • The Council of Constance summoned Hus
  • Hus was granted safe passage by Emperor Sigismund
  • Hoped for free hearing but was arrested,
    condemned as heretic and burned at the stake
    (1415)

126
The Problems of Heresy and Reform
  • John Hus
  • His death started revolutionary upheaval in
    Bohemia resulting in the Hussite wars wracking
    the Holy Roman Empire until a truce in 1436
  • Reform in the Church
  • The Council of Constance passed two reform
    decrees Sacrosancta and Frequens

127
The Problems of Heresy and Reform
  • Sacrosancta
  • Stated a general council of the church got its
    authority from God
  • Every Christian, including the pope, was subject
    to its authority
  • Frequens
  • Provided for the holding of general councils to
    ensure that church reform could continue

128
The Problems of Heresy and Reform
  • Popes refused to cooperated with decrees that
    diminished their authority
  • Popes worked for 30 years to defeat the
    counciliar movement

129
The Problems of Heresy and Reform
  • Finally, Pope Pius Ii issued the papal bull
    Execrabilis , condemning appeals to a council
    over the head of a pope as heretical

130
The Renaissance Papacy
  • The line of popes from the end of the Great
    Schism to the beginnings of the Reformation in
    the early 16th century
  • While the primary function of the popes was
    spiritual, the manner popes pursued their
    political activities was shocking
  • The use of intrigue and bloodshed was not
    appropriate

131
The Renaissance Papacy
  • Julius II was known as the fiery pope because
    he led troops into battle
  • Popes could not build dynasties over generations
    of offspring, so they relied on nepotism to
    promote the families interests
  • Pope Sixtus made five nephews cardinals, for
    example

132
The Renaissance Papacy
  • Renaissance popes were great patrons of
    Renaissance culture
  • Julius II began construction on Saint Peters
    Basilica
  • Leo X commissioned Raphael to do paintings and
    sped up the construction of Saint Peters
  • Rome became literary and artistic center of the
    Renaissance

133
Summary
  • Renaissance was a period of transition
  • Economic, political, and social trends started
    in High Middle Ages
  • A new vision of humankind
  • Fundamental questions on the value of the
    individual
  • Renaissance ideas were mostly for the upper
    classesthe elite

134
Summary
  • New questions were raised about medieval
    traditions
  • Humanists raised fundamental questions about the
    Catholic Churcha powerful and important
    institution
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