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GCSE Food Technology exam revision Summer 2010


Research context: Chilling & freezing Design Theme: Fish based food products Revision List (based on Prep Sheet) There will be questions on other parts of the course ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GCSE Food Technology exam revision Summer 2010

GCSE Food Technology exam revision Summer 2010
  • Research context Chilling freezing
  • Design Theme Fish based food products

Revision List (based on Prep Sheet)
  • There will be questions on other parts of the
    course as well!
  • Fish based food products
  • The properties functions of ingredients used in
    fish products
  • Preparing, cooking and reheating of food products
  • How control checks are used in production systems
    to produce quality food products
  • Temperatures e.g. The Danger Zone
  • Packaging Materials (including environmental

Fish based food products
  • Battered fish (as in fish n chips, Butterflied
    King prawns)
  • Fish fingers / Fish goujons (strips)
  • Fish cakes
  • Paella / Kedgeree
  • Fish soup
  • Fish pie (mashed potato or pastry topping)
  • Fish curry
  • Pasta dishes containing fish (e.g. Salmon
  • Starter dishes e.g. Salmon mousse, trout pate
  • Salads e.g. Prawn, salmon, tuna
  • Sandwiches Tuna Mayo, Cream cheese Salmon,
    Tuna Melts
  • Savoury Flans Asparagus Salmon

Classification of fish
  • There are three main classifications of fish
  • White fish - The oil (fat) is stored in the
    liver only, thus leaving the flesh white and dry.
    The oil is used in vitamin capsules, cod liver
    oil, halibut liver oil.
  • e.g. Plaice, cod, sole, whiting, coley.
  • Oily fish - the oil is distributed throughout
    the flesh, making it darker in colour but giving
    a higher nutritive value. It is more difficult to
  • e.g. Salmon, herring, mackerel, eel
  • Shellfish - Shellfish supply protein and fat but
    are usually too expensive for everyday use. They
    must be cooked as soon as possible after leaving
    the water because they deteriorate rapidly.
  • Crustaceans crabs, lobsters, shrimps
  • Molluscs mussels, cockles etc.
  • Alternative classification
  • (a) Freshwater fish e.g. trout, salmon  
  • (b) Salt water fish-
  • Dermersal These fish live at the bottom of the
    sea and are caught by trawlers e.g. cod, haddock,
    hake, plaice, whiting, sole.
  • Pelagic This type swim near the surface
    of the sea and are caught by drifters, e.g.
    herring, mackerel, sprats, pilchards, mullet.

Fish Nutritional Information
  • Protein White fish (e.g. cod, plaice) is a
    valuable source of protein. Its lack of
    connective tissue makes it more easily digested.
  • Fat
  • White fish the oil is present only in the
    liver. There is usually less than 1.
  • Oily fish (e.g. Salmon, mackerel) the oil is
    distributed throughout the flesh. Oil is approx
  • Shellfish has approximately 4 fat.
  • Carbohydrate None in fish
  • Vitamins Most oily fish contain the fat soluble
    vitamins A D (Vitamin A is essential for
    vision, growth of bones teeth in children
    healthy mucous membranes. Vitamin D is essential
    for the formation of healthy bones). White fish
    only contain these vitamins in their oils (e.g.
    Cod liver oil).
  • Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) is present in most fish.
  • Vitamin C none in fish
  • Minerals Fish eaten with bones (e.g. Sardines,
    salmon) have good source of calcium.
  • Potassium and Iodine is found in all fish.
  • Iron is found in sardines and sprats

Buying Fish qualities to look for
  • It is essential to buy absolutely fresh fish as
    most types deteriorate very quickly. Especially
    oily fish and shellfish. Shellfish may develop
    food poisoning bacteria.
  • Qualities to look for in fresh fish
  • Pleasant fishy smell
  • Bright, prominent eyes
  • Bright red gills
  • Firm to the tough. Stiff tail (but this could be
  • Moist skin (could be wet)
  • Plentiful supply of scales on scaly fish (e.g.

Preservation of Fish
  • Frozen Fish
  • (a) Fish may be frozen at sea for transport in
    ice lumps. It will keep for a short rime.
  • (b) Prepared fish (e.g. Gutted filleted or
    made, for example, into fish fingers) is quick
    frozen to a temperature of -29o C. The ice
    crystals formed during quick freezing are very
    small and will not break up the fish. The fish
    will keep indefinitely in quick freeze
  • Advantages of frozen fish It may be a little
    more expensive but its convenient to buy
    store, there is no waste ,very little time is
    needed for preparation and it is very hygienic.

Preservation of Fish (continued)
  • Cured Fish (Smoked, Salted) -
  • Cold smoking where the temperature of the smoke
    doesnt rise above 30oC. This adds flavour but
    the fish isnt cooked.
  • Hot Smoking where the fish is cooked as well as
    cured. The smoke reaches temperatures of 120oC.
    E.g. Used for smoked mackerel, smoked salmon.
  • Salting e.g. Salt herrings
  • Rollmop herrings are filleted herrings
    marinated in brine and vinegar.

Fish Recipes from www.bbcgoodfood.com
  • Fish Pie
  • 400g skinless white fish fillet (e.g. Pollack,
  • 400g skinless smoked haddock fillet
  • 600ml full fat milk
  • 1 small onion, quartered
  • 4 cloves
  • 2 bay leaves
  • 4 hard boiled eggs
  • Small bunch of parsley, chopped
  • 100g butter
  • 50g plain flour
  • Pinch freshly grated nutmeg
  • 1kg floury potatoes, evenly cut into chunks
  • 50g grated Cheddar
  • Method
  • Poach the fish Put the fish into a pan and pour
    over 500ml of the milk. Stud each onion quarter
    with a clove, then add to the milk with the bay
  • Bring the milk just to the boil and then reduce
    the heat and simmer for 8 minutes. Lift the fish
    onto a plate and strain the milk into a jug.
    Flake the fish and put into an ovenproof dish.
  • Cut the eggs and add to the fish chunks. Scatter
    over the chopped parsley.
  • Make the sauce melt 50g of butter in a pan and
    then add 50g of flour (these form the roux part
    of the sauce). Cook for 2 minutes. Add the milk
    gradually and cook until the sauce thickens
    coats the back of a spoon. Season with salt,
    pepper the nutmeg. Pour sauce over the fish.
  • Boil and mash the potatoes. Pipe or fork them
    over the fish. Sprinkle with grated cheese and
    bake for 30 minutes at 200C until golden brown.

Fish product Recipeswww.bbcgoodfood.com
  • Smoked Mackerel, lemon herb pate
  • 250g smoked mackerel (skin bones removed)
  • 200g cream cheese
  • 1 lemon zest juice
  • 15 30g creamed horseradish to taste
  • 15g chopped parsley chives
  • Melba toast to serve
  • Method
  • Put the smoked mackerel, cream cheese, lemon
    juice zest in a food processor and whizz until
  • Stir in the herbs and horseradish. Chill until
    ready to serve.
  • Make melba toasts Toast sliced bread and then
    carefully slice down the centre. Toast the
    untoasted sides. Cut into triangles.
  • Salmon Burgers (Superhealthy!)
  • 500g boneless, skinless salmon fillets (cut into
  • 30g Thai red curry paste
  • 1cm fresh root ginger, grated
  • 5ml soy sauce
  • ½ bunch coriander, chopped
  • 5ml vegetable oil
  • Method
  • Put salmon, curry paste, ginger, soy sauce
    coriander into a food processor and pulse until
    roughly chopped.
  • Tip out the mix and shape into 4 burgers.
  • Heat the oil in a non-stick frying pan and then
    fry the burgers for 4 -5 minutes each side,
    turning until crisp and cooked through.
  • Serve with rice and salad (strips of carrot
    cucumber tossed in 20ml white wine vinegar 6g
    golden caster sugar.

Recipes (www.bbcgoodfood.com)
  • Golden battered fish
  • 50g plain flour
  • 50g cornflour
  • 5g baking powder
  • Pinch turmeric
  • 150ml sparkling water
  • 1 litre sunflower oil (for frying)
  • 400g fillet sustainable cod, hake or haddock cut
    in half
  • Method
  • Mix the flours, baking powder and turmeric in a
    bowl, season and then put 1 tablespoon of the mix
    to one side.
  • Gradually pour in the water and stir until you
    have a smooth, lump free batter. Leave to rest
    for 30 minutes.
  • Heat the oil in a large pan until a drop of
    batter sizzles and crisps straight away. Pat the
    fish dry and toss in the reserved flour. Shake
    off any excess then dip in the batter. Carefully
    lower each fillet into the hot oil and fry for 6
    8 minutes this depends on the thickness of the
    fish) until golden and crisp. Lift out the fish
    with a large slotted spoon and drain on kitchen
    paper , then sprinkle with salt. Serve with chips
    and homemade tomato sauce.
  • Spiced Sole Goujons with lemon mayo
  • 100g fresh breadcrumbs
  • 3g cayenne pepper
  • 4 skinless fillets of lemon sole cut into 1cm
    thick long strips
  • 50g plain flour
  • 2 eggs, beaten
  • 345g mayonnaise
  • A squeeze of lemon juice to taste
  • Salad leaves to serve
  • Method
  • Mix the breadcrumbs with the cayenne pepper.
    Season the fish then coat a few pieces at a time
    in the flour, then the beaten egg and finally the
  • Lightly oil a non-stick baking tray. Spread the
    goujons out on the tray and grill for 2 -3
    minutes each side, until crisp, golden and cooked
  • Mix the lemon juice into the mayonnaise, season
    and serve with the goujons and some salad leaves.

Standard Components
  • Standard components are pre-prepared ingredients
    used during the manufacture of food products.
    They are made at a different time, and often at a
    different place by another company. Common
    examples that could be used in fish products
  • Pre-shaped pastry (e.g. flan case /tart case for
    savoury flan / tartlet)
  • Ready mixes of ingredients (e.g. Cheese sauce
    (used in fish pie, pastry mixes, curry paste)
  • Breadcrumbs for fishfingers, fishcakes
  • Toppings
  • Pre-prepared fruit vegetables (for salads
    e.g. Prawn coleslaw, pasta prawn salad, quiche
    fillings, sandwiches)
  • Batter mixes (e.g. For butterflied prawns)
  • Advantages of standard components
  • Using standard components helps ensure a
    consistent final product because they are of a
    standard quality. For example
  • standard weight
  • standard size (e.g. Tart case, fishcake, salmon
  • standard shape (e.g. pastry case) standard
    intensity of flavour (e.g. stock cube)
  • and accurate in ratio (proportions) of
    ingredients (e.g. sauce mix / custard mix /
    sponge mix)
  • Standard components are often used to save time
    and money. They also help quality control by
    guaranteeing a consistent and reliable quality. A
    specialist supplier can often make them cheaply
    because they can be manufactured in very large
    numbers on a dedicated production line.

Advantages Disadvantages of Standard Components
How to write a Specification
  • Remember SATSUMAS?
  • Size
  • Appearance
  • Taste texture
  • Shape
  • Unit Cost / Use by (shelf life)
  • Materials (ingredients used) Mass (weight)
  • Age (Target group)
  • Storage (e.g. chilled / ambient) Suitability
    for manufacture
  • N.B.
  • Remember to carefully read the Design Criteria
    given in the question. DO NOT just repeat them in
    your answer this will lose you marks!

Quality Control Quality Assurance
  • Quality Control
  • Quality control means to check the standards of a
    food product as it
  • is being designed made. When the product is
    being designed, it
  • will be checked to see if it matches the design
    specification. (See Food Technology Lesley
    Woods, Heinemann,2005, p68 - 69)
  • Quality Assurance
  • This is a system used by food manufacturers to
  • guarantee the total standard of the food products
    they produce. It
  • means a guarantee of quality. Quality controls
    are part of quality
  • assurance. Other things covered by quality
    assurance are
  • Packaging
  • Distribution selling of the product
  • What ingredients are used
  • What the food product is like
  • How the product is made
  • How the workforce is trained
  • The hygiene procedures that are being followed.

Hazards in food preparation (HACCP)
  • What are Hazards?
  • Hazards are anything that can cause harm to the
    consumer. They can occur at any stage in the food
    production chain from the field to factory to
    shop to table.
  • Biological
  • e.g. salmonella in raw chicken , seafood or eggs,
    Campylobacter (gastroenteritis) found in seafood,
    meat, poultry milk Listeria in soft cheeses
    and pates, E-coli in cooked meats, Clostridium
    botulium found in canned fish, meat vegetables.
  • Chemical
  • e.g. cleaning chemicals, agricultural chemical,
    paint, oil
  • Physical e.g.
  • Glass from bottles, jars, light fixtures
  • Metal from machinery, equipment, packaging,
  • Wood from pallets, boxes
  • Insects from plants, open windows
  • Personal items e.g. jewellery, hair, fingernails,
  • Packaging faults e.g. bags not sealed
  • HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control
  • A critical control point (CCP) is a stage where a
    food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated
    or reduced to an acceptable level.
  • A control setting standards for a system and
    maintaining them.
  • HACCP involves
  • Identifying stages where hazards may occur
  • Assessing the degree of risk involved

The Danger Zone!
  • Important temperature zones
  • 0 4oC fridge temp.
  • 5oC 63oC Danger Zone
  • 72oC Temp at which food must reach for at least
    2 minutes to kill bacteria.
  • -18oC Freezer temp ( or 3oC)

Freezing Chilling
  • Freezing
  • Freezing turns liquids, such as water, into
    solids, such as ice. As micro-organisms need
    liquid as well as warmth to grow, this makes
    freezing a long term method of preservation.
    Bacteria are not destroyed by the freezing
    process they are dormant (this means that they
    dont multiply once frozen). it is important to
    remember that bacteria will be reactivated by the
    thawing process.
  • Quick freezing is best for food as it produces
    smaller ice crystals so there is less damage to
    cell walls.
  • Factories where food is frozen use three basic
  • Plate freezing flat products such as burgers and
    fish fingers, are frozen between two plates.
  • Blast freezing freezing air is blasted over
    irregular shaped foods such as vegetables and
  • Cryogenic or immersion freezing food is immersed
    or sprayed with liquid nitrogen. This is an
    expensive method and is usually only used for
    delicate foods such as raspberries.

Freezing Chilling (con)
  • Chilling
  • Chilling is a temporary or short term method of
    preservation. Chilled food is usually kept just
    above 0oC. Because the temperature is low, the
    rate of bacterial growth is reduced but not
    stopped. Chilled foods can be a single food or a
    food product such as a ready meal (e.g. Lasagne,
    Cottage Pie). These cook-chill foods are
    prepared, cooked and chilled rapidly. Once cooked
    they must be blast-chilled to a temperature below
    5oC within 90 minutes. They must then be stored
    at these temperatures until they are reheated for
    use. Cook-chill foods can only be stored for a
    few days, although if special packaging is used
    their shelf life can be extended to up to 14 day.
    The food should be reheated until the centre
    reaches at least 72oC and eaten within two hours.

Advantages Disadvantages of freezing and
Food Labelling
  • Compulsory
  • By law, all food manufacturers (people who make
    food products) must have the following on their
    food labels
  • Name of product
  • Description of product
  • Manufacturers name address
  • Weight or volume
  • Storage instructions
  • Cooking or preparation instructions (e.g. heating
    up ready meals)
  • List of ingredients (heaviest first)
  • Best before / Use by date
  • Optional Food Labelling
  • Food Manufacturers will often add one or more
    from the list below, although these are not
    required by law
  • Illustration (picture / photo)
  • Bar code or smart code they identify the price
    and are used by shops and manufacturers for stock
  • Special claim (e.g. low fat)
  • Symbol for average quantity (e)
  • Nutritional information of the product. If the
    special claim is about a nutrient, this
    information MUST be included.
  • Customer guarantee
  • Price although lots dont as they have smart
  • Allergy advice
  • Recycling logos and anti-litter symbols to
    encourage consumers to recycle.
  • Serving suggestions e.g. serve with custard or

The purpose of packaging
  • Protection - Packaging protects foods from
  • Physical damage during transportation and storage
  • The effects of temperature changes, insect or
    rodent attacks, mould growth etc. Packaging
    guarantees food safety and hygiene.
  • Containing Packaging contains the contents
  • so that they can be transported, stored and
    displayed easily.
  • Packaging can make awkwardly shaped products easy
    to handle.
  • Preserving
  • Packaging can be part of the preservation process
    such as tin cans and modified atmosphere
    packaging (MAP) (see below).
  • Identification
  • Packaging describes and identifies the contents.
  • Good packaging design gives a brand image and
    links other products in the range.
  • Orange, yellow and blue are popular packaging
  • Preventing Tampering
  • Packaging helps stop the tampering of goods. Its
    almost impossible to make packaging tamperproof,
    but it can be designed so that its obvious if
    the package has been opened.
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