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1.01 C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety

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Title: 1.01 C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety


1
1.01 C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
2
Seven Types of Kitchen Accidents
  • Kitchen accidents lead to injuries that could be
    prevented by not taking shortcuts.
  • Kitchen hazards are conditions that lead to
    accidental injuries.
  • There a seven types of kitchen accidents.
  • Cuts
  • Burns and Fires
  • Falls
  • Electrical
  • Chemical Poisoning
  • Choking
  • Clothing / Hair

3
Cuts Guidelines for Prevention
  • KNIVES
  • Keeps knives sharp. Sharp knives make clean, safe
    cuts. A person is less likely to cut themselves
    with a sharp knife.
  • Wash knives separately.
  • Never cut toward yourself.
  • Never point a knife at someone.
  • Store knives in proper holders.

4
Cuts Guidelines for Prevention cont.
  • SMALL APPLIANCES
  • Never put fingers near blades of blenders
  • or food processors. Unplug when not in
  • use.
  • GLASS
  • Dispose of broken glass properly with a
  • broom. Blot up glass splinters with a wet
  • towel.

5
First aid for Cuts
  • Cover the wound and apply pressure until bleeding
    stops.
  • Wash with soap and water, then apply antiseptic,
    and a sterile bandage.
  • If cut is severe, continue to apply pressure and
    take the victim to the doctor or hospital.

1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
6
Burns and Fires Guidelines for Prevention
  • POTS, PANS, and LARGE APPLIANCES
  • Use potholders to handle hot utensils.
  • Open lids of pans and microwave containers away
    from you.
  • Turn handles of pans away from the edge of the
    range to avoid tipping.
  • Keep ranges and drip pans free from grease.
  • Do not put out grease fires with water. Water
    will spread the fire.

7
Burns and fires Guidelines for Prevention cont.
  • Keep towels away from heat sources.
  • Extinguish fires with a fire extinguisher
  • or baking soda. Use water if the fire is
  • not a grease fire and it is small fire.

8
First Aid for Burns and Fires
  • If clothing catches fire, smother the flames.
  • Stop, Drop, and Roll
  • Place burned area under cold running water. Do
    not apply ointment.
  • Do not break blisters.

9
Falls Guidelines for Prevention
  • Always use a stepstool or ladder to reach high
    places.
  • Secure loose area rugs.
  • Wipe up spills immediately.
  • Spray pan over the sink rather than over the
    floor to prevent slick floors.

10
First Aid for Falls
  • If someone has fallen, do not move the victim.
    Make the person comfortable and call for help.

11
Electrical Issues Guidelines for Prevention
  • Avoid working with water and electrical
    appliances at the same time.
  • Unplug appliances by the plug not the cord.
  • Replace frayed cords. If not possible, buy a
    new appliance.
  • Do not use damaged appliances.
  • Do not overload outlets.

1.01C The Pathway to Kitchen Safety
12
First Aid for Electrical Injuries
  • Do not touch someone who is experiencing an
    electrical shock.
  • Remove the source of the shock with a
    nonconductive material, such as wood or plastic.

13
Chemical Poisoning Guidelines for Prevention
  • CHEMICALS and MEDICINES
  • Keep all hazardous products and medications out
    of the reach of children.
  • Keep all chemicals in their original container
    clearly labeled.
  • Keep all chemicals away from food.

14
First Aid for Chemical Poisoning
  • Call Poison Control Center. Have the container of
    the poison with you so you can give the poison
    control center any information listed on the
    bottle to assist the operator in giving first aid
    information.

15
Choking Guidelines for Prevention
  • Chew food thoroughly before swallowing.
  • Do not give children small round pieces of
  • food such as hot dogs or carrots.
  • Avoid talking or laughing when you have
  • food in your mouth.

16
First Aid for Choking
  • The abdominal thrust is a
  • procedure used to save
  • choking victims.
  • The abdominal thrust can
  • injure a choking victim.
  • Make sure that the victim
  • sees a doctor as soon as
  • possible after the rescue.

17
Clothing and Hair Safety IssuesGuidelines for
Prevention
  • Do not wear jewelry.
  • Keep hair restrained.
  • Do not wear loose clothing.
  • Wear closed-toed shoes.

18
First Aid for Other Safety Issues
  • If jewelry gets caught in a small appliance
  • try to remove it to prevent cutting the
  • victim.
  • Try to release hair if caught in appliance.
  • Smother hair with a cloth if it catches fire.

19
1.01 N
MyPyramid Food Safety Guidelines
Used with permission
1.01N Foodborne Illness
20
Joyce Jensen, CFSP Lincoln-Lancaster County
Health Dept.
  • Alice Henneman, MS, RD
  • University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension in
    Lancaster County

Download this PowerPoint athttp//lancaster.unl.e
du/food/mypyramid-foodsafety.shtml
Updated slightly January 2007
1.01N Foodborne Illness
21
Acknowledgments
  • Slide set is based on information provided by
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • United States Department of Health Human
    Services
  • For more information, visit
  • http//www.mypyramid.gov
  • http//www.fsis.usda.gov
  • http//www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines

1.01N Foodborne Illness
22
Estimates of foodborne illnesses in the U.S.
each year
  • 76 million peoplebecome ill

5,000 people die
1.01N Foodborne Illness
23
Common Signs and Symptoms

Diarrhea
Fever
Upset stomach
Dehydration(sometimes severe)
Vomiting
1.01N Foodborne Illness
24
Possibly Severe Results
Paralysis
1.01N Foodborne Illness
25
Dont count on these to test for food safety!
Sight
Taste
Smell
1.01N Foodborne Illness
26
Even IF tasting would tell Why risk getting
sick?
  • A tiny taste may not protect you
  • as few as 10 bacteria could cause some foodborne
    illnesses!

1.01N Foodborne Illness
27
Why gamble with your health?
  • It takes about ½ hourto 6 weeks to become ill
    from unsafe foods.
  • You may become sick later even if you feel OK
    after eating.

1.01N Foodborne Illness
28
Why risk other peoples health?
Is the food safefor everyone at the table?
  • Some people have a greater risk for foodborne
    illnesses. A food you safelyeat might make
    others sick.

1.01N Foodborne Illness
29
Did You Know????
  • These foods could potentially carry the following
    foodborne illnesses
  • Food Foodborne Illness
  • Any raw meat Campylobacter
  • Ground Meats E-coli
  • Shellfish Norwalk virus
  • Raw vegatables
  • Feces/raw sewage
  • Contaminated water/ice
  • Chicken Salmonella
  • Seafood/Salads Hepatitis A
  • Canned foods Botulism

MOST COMMON
1.01N Foodborne Illness
30
People with a higher risk of foodborne illness
Young children andolder adults
Pregnantwomen
Infants
People with weakened immunesystems and
individuals withcertain chronic diseases
1.01N Foodborne Illness
31
Be a winner!
  • Increase your odds of preventing a foodborne
    illness in YOUR HOME!

1.01N Foodborne Illness
32
Key recommendationsfor food safety
  • The 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines give FOURKey
    Recommendations for food safety.

Source http//www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dg
a2005/recommendations.htm
1.01N Foodborne Illness
33
Recommendation 1 CLEAN
  • Wash hands and food-contact surfaces.

1.01N Foodborne Illness
34
Wash your hands!
Hand washing is the most effective way to stop
the spread of illness.
1.01N Foodborne Illness
35
How to wash hands
  • Wet hands with WARM water.
  • Soap and scrub for 10-15 seconds.
  • Rinse under clean, running water.
  • Dry completely using a clean cloth or paper towel.

1.01N Foodborne Illness
36
Wash hands after
1.01N Foodborne Illness
37
Clean during food preparation
  • Wash and sanitize cutting boards, knives,
    utensils and counter tops. Use hot soapy water
    and sanitizing solution after preparing each food
    and before going on to the next.

1.01N Foodborne Illness
38
Avoid spreading bacteria
  • Use paper towels or clean cloths to wipeup
    kitchen surfacesor spills.
  • Wash cloths often in the hot cycle of your
    washing machine and dry in a hot dryer.

1.01N Foodborne Illness
39
Dirty dishcloths spread bacteria
  • Wet or damp dishcloths are ideal environments for
    bacterial growth.
  • Have a good supplyof dishcloths to avoid reusing
    them before laundry day.

There are more germs in the average kitchen than
the bathroom. Sponges and dishcloths are worst
offenders. research by Dr. Charles Gerba
1.01N Foodborne Illness
40
Recommendation 2 SEPARATE
  • Separate raw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods
    while shopping, preparing or storing foods.

1.01N Foodborne Illness
41
Use different cutting boards
  • Use one cutting boardfor raw meat, poultry and
    seafood

1.01N Foodborne Illness
42
Separate foods while shopping and storing.
  • Never bag or store raw meats with ready to eat
    foods.
  • Raw meats should be stored on the bottom of the
    refrigerator to keep juices from leaking onto
    ready to eat foods.

1.01N Foodborne Illness
43
Use clean plates
  • NEVER serve foods on a plate that previously
    held raw meat, poultry or seafood unless the
    plate has first been washed in hot, soapy water.

1.01N Foodborne Illness
44
Recommendation 3 COOK
  • Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill
    microorganisms.

1.01N Foodborne Illness
45
Recommendation 3 COOK!
  • Cook chicken to a minimum
  • temperature of 170 for personal/home use and
    165 for food service for the prevention of
    salmonella.
  • Ground beef to a minimum temperature of 1600
    for personal/home use and 155 for food service
    the prevention of e-coli.

1.01N Foodborne Illness
45
46
Recommendation 4 CHILL
  • Chill (refrigerate) perishable foods promptly and
    defrost foods properly. 40 for personal/home use
    and 41F for or lower for food service

1.01N Foodborne Illness
47
DANGER ZONE
  • Bacteria multiplyrapidly between 40-140F
    personal/home
  • use 41 - 135F food service

1.01N Foodborne Illness
48
Remember
1.01N Foodborne Illness
49
1.01 T Food Sanitation
1.01T Food Sanitation
50
Hand Sanitation
  • Wet hands with WARM water.
  • Soap and scrub for 10-15 seconds.
  • Rinse under clean, running water.
  • Dry completely using a clean cloth or paper
    towel.

50
1.01T Food Sanitation
51
Kitchen Equipment
  • Kitchen equipment should be
  • Clean
  • Properly working

1.01T Food Sanitation
52
Cleaning
  • Dishes should be washed
  • in hot soapy water, rinsed
  • and air dried.
  • Dish cloths and sponges
  • should be changed
  • regularly.

1.01T Food Sanitation
53
Sanitizing
  • Equipment can be sanitized
  • with one teaspoon of
  • bleach in a gallon of water.
  • Surfaces should be
  • sanitized regularly.
  • Sanitation is to clean
  • equipment in a way that
  • kills germs and parasites.

1.01T Food Sanitation
54
Pests
  • Pests lead to the spread
  • of germs and bacteria to
  • food surfaces,
  • equipment and food.
  • Pest infestation lead to
  • the loss of food in labs.

1.01T Food Sanitation
55
Pest Control
  • Pests can be controled by
  • Cleaning up leftover foods.
  • Removing garbage
  • regularly.
  • Keeping doors
  • closed and windows shut.

1.01T Food Sanitation
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1.01 Y FOOD SAFETY VS. FOOD SANITATION
1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
62
Whats the difference?
1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
63
Food Safety
  • Food safety is how food is handled to prevent
    foodborne illness. This includes
  • Food preparation methods
  • Cooking
  • Chilling
  • Serving

1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
64
Food Preparation Methods
  • Raw foods must be kept separate from ready to
    eat
  • foods to PREVENT cross
  • contamination.
  • Food must be kept out of the temperature
    danger zone 40-140 for personal/home 41-135
    for food service and use to PREVENT foodborne
    illness.

1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
65
Cooking Food
  • Meats should be cooked to
  • the proper internal temperature
  • to prevent foodborne illness.
  • The temperatures for cooking
  • ground beef and chicken are
  • Ground Beef 160o home /
  • 155 for food service
  • Chicken 170o home /
  • 165 for food service

1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
66
Serving Food
  • Food should be served as
  • quickly as possible after
  • preparation and held at
  • 135 for food service
  • 140 personal/home use
  • Food should be kept
  • cold if serving from a food
  • bar and held at 40 for personal/home use
    and
  • 41for food service.

1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
67
Chilling Food
  • Foods must chilled to below 40o
  • home/personal use and 41 for food service
  • to prevent foodborne illness.
  • Foods should be cooled in small
  • containers to help speed the
  • cooling process.
  • Foods that are chilling should
  • be covered to prevent cross
  • contamination.

1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
68
Food Sanitation
  • Food sanitation is the cleanliness and
    maintenance of equipment and facilities.
  • It is important for the safety of lab members and
    the preparation of food.

1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
69
Food Sanitation cont.
  • The areas of food sanitation include
  • hands
  • pots and pans
  • appliances
  • kitchen utensils
  • food preparation areas
  • food storage areas

1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
70
Pots and Pans
  • For the safety of lab members and proper food
    preparation pots and pans
  • must be clean
  • have secure handles
  • should have flat bottoms
  • lids must have handles
  • made from food grade metal

1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
71
Appliances
  • Appliances that are not working
  • properly are a danger to anyone who
  • is operating them.
  • Appliances that have cracks and
  • crevices can harbor bacteria that can
  • cause a foodborne illness.

1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
72
Appliances cont.
  • It is important that appliances
  • be smooth and easy to clean
  • attachments should be used
  • properly

1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
73
Kitchen and Serving Utensils
  • Both kitchen and serving
  • utensils must be
  • easy to clean
  • made from food
  • grade metal
  • nonporous

1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
74
Food Preparation Areas
  • Food preparation areas have the potential for
    cross contamination of food. To PREVENT this
    food preparation areas
  • must be easy to clean
  • must be non-porous
  • be free from cracks and
  • crevices

1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
75
Food Storage Areas
  • Food storage areas protect
  • food from cross contamination
  • from bacteria and other hazards.
  • Food storage areas must be
  • kept clean
  • able to be covered
  • away from the wall and
  • off of the floor

1.01Y Food Sanitation vs. Food Safety
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1.02 C Work Plans
The secret for success!
1.02C Work Plans
80
Why use a work plan?
  • It is important to use a work plan to help meal
    preparation run smoothly.
  • To implement a work plan, follow these steps

Steps 1- 5
1.02C Work Plans
81
Steps for Pre-preparation1. Select, read, and
interpret the recipe
Step 1
Ingredients 2 cups vanilla low-fat yogurt 1
pkg.  (10 oz.) frozen strawberries in lite syrup,
thawed 1-1/4 qt. (5 cups) cold water, divided 1
pkt.  (makes 2 qt. drink) or 2 pkt. (makes 1 qt.
drink each) CRYSTAL LIGHT Lemonade Flavor Drink
Mix Directions PLACE yogurt, strawberries, 1
cup of the water and the drink mix in blender
cover. Blend on medium speed 1 min. or until
smooth. POUR into large plastic or glass
pitcher. Stir in remaining 1 qt. (4 cups) water.
SERVE over ice cubes, if desired. Store in
refrigerator. NOTE CRYSTAL LIGHT Packets come
in two sizes. Please note packet size before
preparing recipe.
  • Note the ingredients needed for the item.
  • Note the equipment that will be used in
    preparation.
  • Notice cooking time and temperature
  • Notice cooking terms

81
A1.02C Work Plans
82
Steps for Pre-preparation2. List preparation
tasks
Step 2
Ingredients 2 cups vanilla low-fat yogurt 1
pkg.  (10 oz.) frozen strawberries in lite syrup,
thawed 1-1/4 qt. (5 cups) cold water, divided 1
pkt.  (makes 2 qt. drink) or 2 pkt. (makes 1 qt.
drink each) CRYSTAL LIGHT Lemonade Flavor Drink
Mix Directions PLACE yogurt, strawberries, 1
cup of the water and the drink mix in blender
cover. Blend on medium speed 1 min. or until
smooth. POUR into large plastic or glass
pitcher. Stir in remaining 1 qt. (4 cups) water.
SERVE over ice cubes, if desired. Store in
refrigerator. NOTE CRYSTAL LIGHT Packets come
in two sizes. Please note packet size before
preparing recipe.
  • Note the step- by- step instructions and
    preparing/ mixing /cooking terms.

A1.02C Work Plans
83
Steps for Pre-preparation3. Prepare timetable
and market order
Step 3
Ingredients 2 cups vanilla low-fat yogurt 1
pkg.  (10 oz.) frozen strawberries in lite syrup,
thawed 1-1/4 qt. (5 cups) cold water, divided 1
pkt.  (makes 2 qt. drink) or 2 pkt. (makes 1 qt.
drink each) CRYSTAL LIGHT Lemonade Flavor Drink
Mix Directions PLACE yogurt, strawberries, 1
cup of the water and the drink mix in blender
cover. Blend on medium speed 1 min. or until
smooth. POUR into large plastic or glass
pitcher. Stir in remaining 1 qt. (4 cups) water.
SERVE over ice cubes, if desired. Store in
refrigerator. NOTE CRYSTAL LIGHT Packets come
in two sizes. Please note packet size before
preparing recipe.
  • List needed ingredients
  • List amount of ingredients
  • List on-hand ingredients
  • Calculate amount needed to purchase
  • List amount needed to purchase
  • Teacher or assigned student will compile market
    orders for labs and complete one master market
    order

.
A1.02C Work Plans
84
Steps for Pre-preparation4. Make and carry out
the work plan
Step 4
Ingredients 2 cups vanilla low-fat yogurt 1
pkg.  (10 oz.) frozen strawberries in lite syrup,
thawed 1-1/4 qt. (5 cups) cold water, divided 1
pkt.  (makes 2 qt. drink) or 2 pkt. (makes 1 qt.
drink each) CRYSTAL LIGHT Lemonade Flavor Drink
Mix Directions PLACE yogurt, strawberries, 1
cup of the water and the drink mix in blender
cover. Blend on medium speed 1 min. or until
smooth. POUR into large plastic or glass
pitcher. Stir in remaining 1 qt. (4 cups) water.
SERVE over ice cubes, if desired. Store in
refrigerator. NOTE CRYSTAL LIGHT Packets come
in two sizes. Please note packet size before
preparing recipe.
  • Note the equipment that will be used in
    preparation.
  • (look for underlined equipment)

1.02C Work Plans
85
Steps for Pre-preparation 5. Evaluate the work
plan.
Step 5
Ingredients 2 cups vanilla low-fat yogurt 1
pkg.  (10 oz.) frozen strawberries in lite syrup,
thawed 1-1/4 qt. (5 cups) cold water, divided 1
pkt.  (makes 2 qt. drink) or 2 pkt. (makes 1 qt.
drink each) CRYSTAL LIGHT Lemonade Flavor Drink
Mix Directions PLACE yogurt, strawberries, 1
cup of the water and the drink mix in blender
cover. Blend on medium speed 1 min. or until
smooth. POUR into large plastic or glass
pitcher. Stir in remaining 1 qt. (4 cups) water.
SERVE over ice cubes, if desired. Store in
refrigerator. NOTE CRYSTAL LIGHT Packets come
in two sizes. Please note packet size before
preparing recipe.
  • Note the ingredients needed for the item.

A1.02C Work Plans
86
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1.02 IPreparation Tasks List
1.02I Listing Preparation Tasks
92
Preparation Tasks
Listing of preparation Tasks 1-8
  • All recipes are different. Tasks may be more or
    less complex.
  • Dovetailing is accomplished during lab by
    multi-tasking. This means tasks can be done at
    the same time to save time and energy.
  • Wash hands
  • Set the table
  • Open all packages
  • Wash /rinse produce and other ingredients if
    necessary

1.02 I Listing Preparation Tasks
93
Preparation Tasks
Listing of Preparation
  • 5. Prep ingredients
  • Measuring ingredients.
  • Ingredients should be assembled before beginning
    measuring and preparation.
  • Prepare equipment
  • Clean as you go
  • Put the ingredients in blender

1.02I Listing Preparation Tasks
94
Listing of Preparation Tasks
  • Blend
  • Serve in paper cups
  • Final cleanup
  • Note All of these tasks may be completed at the
    same time by lab members.

1.02I Listing Preparation Tasks
95
Listing of Preparation Tasks
Lets Practice
  • Using the recipe on the following slide
    dovetail the Preparation Tasks.
  • Be sure to read the recipe BEFORE you start
    make the list of steps to dovetail.

A1.02I Listing Preparation Tasks
96
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The Recipe
Ingredients 2 cups vanilla low-fat yogurt 1
pkg.  (10 oz.) frozen strawberries in lite syrup,
thawed 1-1/4 qt. (5 cups) cold water, divided 1
pkt.  (makes 2 qt. drink) or 2 pkt. (makes 1 qt.
drink each) CRYSTAL LIGHT Lemonade Flavor Drink
Mix Directions PLACE yogurt, strawberries, 1
cup of the water and the drink mix in blender
cover. Blend on medium speed 1 min. or until
smooth. POUR into large plastic or glass
pitcher. Stir in remaining 1 qt. (4 cups) water.
SERVE over ice cubes, if desired. Store in
refrigerator. NOTE CRYSTAL LIGHT Packets come
in two sizes. Please note packet size before
preparing recipe.
1.02L Listing Preparation Tasks
98
Lets Practice
  • What are the preparation tasks that can be
    done before and during the preparation of the
    smoothie? Lets list them.
  • Remember proper attire and
  • and prepare yourself for lab
  • 2. Get out cups for sampling and setting table is
    not
  • necessary.
  • 3. Gather all ingredients

1.02I Listing Preparation Tasks
99
  • Take out blender
  • Open packages
  • Put ingredients in blender
  • Clean up as needed during entire lab

1.02I Listing Preparation Tasks
100
Now its your turn!
Listing of Preparation Tasks
  • Select a SIMPLE recipe from a cook book or
    the internet and apply a work plan with your
    group.

1.02I Listing Preparation Tasks
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1.02 M Timetables
1.02M Timetables
104
Why is a timetable important?
  • The timing of tasks is important to ensure the
    completion of recipes in food lab or at home.
  • A timetable is implemented by dividing a sheet
    into six categories

1.02M Timetables
105
1. List Tasks
  • 1. List tasks This should be your first column
  • List all tasks from pre-preparation to clean-up
  • For example, you would start with getting the
    ingredients, then getting equipment, and so on..
  • These tasks can all be Dovetailed
    (Multitasked)

1.02M Timetables
106
Pre-Preparation and Preparation Columns
  • 2. List Pre-preparation time List time needed
    to execute the pre-preparation steps.
  • 3. List Preparation time List the time that you
    think is going to take to execute each step, such
    as opening packages, mixing ingredients, or clean
    up. It is better to allow too much time than too
    little.

1.02M Timetables
107
List Cooking Time
  • 4. List Cooking time In the fourth column,
    always record the time that each dish needs to
    cook.

1.02M Timetables
108
  • Calculate Total time In the fifth column, you
    add of the pre-preparation, preparation and
    cooking times. If the pre-preparation is 3
    minutes, preparation time is 3 minutes and
    cooking time is 10 minutes then the total time is
    16 minutes for the dish.
  • Calculate Starting Time In the sixth column,
    you subtract the total time needed to prepare the
    recipe from the desired serving time. If the
    meal needs to served at 600. Subtract 16 minutes
    from 600, this means the dish needs to be
    started by 544 to be ready on time.

1.02M TimeTables
109
Lets make a timetable!
  • Lets make a timetable with a recipe of your
    choice
  • Pretend that class starts a 800 a.m. and ends at
    930 a.m.
  • Remember the steps? List each
  • List tasks
  • List pre-preparation time
  • List preparation time
  • List cooking time
  • Calculate total time
  • Calculate starting time

1.02M TimeTables
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115
1.02 R Work Plan Evaluation
1.02R Lab Evaluation
116
Work Plan Evaluation
  • A process where students and teacher reflect on
    the work plan experiences success. Work plan
    evaluation includes

1.02R Lab Evaluation
117
1. Evaluate Planning
  • Use of the recipe
  • Was the recipe followed correctly?
  • Division of tasks among lab members equitably
  • Did everyone do their share of work in lab?
  • Collection of all equipment / ingredients
  • Were all of the ingredients and equipment in the
    lab ready to go prior to the start of
    construction?

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2. Evaluate Preparation
  • Use of measuring techniques.
  • Did the group use proper measuring techniques?
  • Correct use of appliances/equipment.
  • Did you use the proper appliances and equipment?
  • Application of sanitation procedures.
  • Did you wash your hands and clean the lab?
  • Correct table appointments / tableware placed on
    the table.
  • Did you set the table and eat with your group?

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3. Evaluate Product
  • Final cooking result.
  • Did the recipe turn out like you thought?
  • Appearance
  • This should be an objective observation. Not
    your own feelings toward the result.
  • Does the product look like it should?
  • Overall appeal and taste of the product.
  • Does the product smell and taste appealing?

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4. Evaluate Clean-Up
  • Cleaning duties were shared by everyone!
  • Did everyone help clean the lab area?
  • Was teamwork evident?
  • All areas of the preparation area cleaned.
  • Cleaning work areas and equipment help to
    control
  • bacterial growth. This prevents foodborne
    illness
  • Was the lab area clean when the lab was
    finished?
  • Work surfaces
  • Dishes clean, dried and put away in the proper
  • place
  • Sinks washed and dried out
  • Dirty towels in the appropriate area

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5. Evaluate Team Skills
  • Overall collaboration of the entire team.
  • Labs run smoothly when everyone shares
    responsibilities.
  • Was everyone pleasant to work with?
  • Ability to stay on task and complete lab
    preparation by designated time.
  • Did everyone work consistently and finish on
    time?
  • Ability to keep noise levels to an acceptable
    level.
  • Did everyone in lab work quietly?

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1.03 B UNDERSTANDREDUCE, REUSE, RECYCLE
  • The best place to practice conserving resources
    is at home. Individuals can substantially
    REDUCE, REUSE, AND RECYCLE waste and conserving
    resources by practicing the following

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128
REDUCE To cut the amount of WASTE used
  • SOLID WASTE (consuming and conserving)
  • Packaging
  • Choose products with minimal packaging to reduce
  • Paper Products
  • Reduce the amount of paper products used
  • Other
  • Identify products and practices to reduce waste
    toxicity.
  • Consult http//www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/materials
    /pubs/hhw-con.pdf for options for using and
    disposing of household disposable waste safely

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129
REDUCE To cut the amount of ENERGY used
  • Lighting
  • Surface Units
  • Refrigerators / Freezers
  • Ovens
  • Examples
  • Solutions

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129
130
REDUCE To cut the amount of WATER used
  • Faucets
  • Dishwashing
  • Cooking Methods
  • Examples
  • Solutions

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131
REUSE Products that you can use again
  • Solutions
  • Consider reusable products
  • Maintain and repair durable products
  • Reuse bags, containers, and other items
  • Borrow, rent, or share items used infrequently
  • Sell or donate goods instead of throwing them
    out.
  • Be creative with leftovers and create new dishes.

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RECYCLE Products that can be reprocessed to
making something new
  • Solutions
  • Choose recyclable products
  • Select products made from recycled materials
  • Consult this website http//www.epa.gov/osw/partne
    rships/plugin/pdf/donate.pdf to find out details
    on e-cycle electronics and partners to assist
    with e-cycling
  • Compost yard clippings and some food scraps.
  • Find creative ways to recycle disposal packages
    and products.

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2.02 A KITCHEN EQUIPMENTAND PROCEDURES FOR
ITSUSES AND CARE
  • Measuring Equipment
  • Cutting/Preparing Equipment
  • Mixing Equipment
  • Cooking/Cleaning Equipment

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
134
Measuring Equipment
  • Volume
  • Measuring spoons
  • Dry measuring cups
  • Liquid measuring cups

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and care
135
Measuring Equipment, contd.
  • Volume, contd.
  • Sifter
  • Rubber spatula
  • Straight-edge spatula

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
136
Measuring Equipment, contd.
  • Weight
  • Scale

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and care
137
Measuring Equipment, contd.
  • Temperature
  • Thermometers
  • Deep-fry
  • Instant-read
  • Meat

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
138
Cutting/Preparing Equipment
  • Bread knife
  • Chefs/French knife
  • Paring knife
  • Slicing knife

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
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Cutting/Preparing Equipment, contd.
  • Straightening steel
  • Food chopper
  • Grater/shredder
  • Kitchen shears

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
140
Cutting/Preparing Equipment, contd.
  • Pastry blender
  • Vegetable peeler/parer
  • Cutting board
  • Can opener

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
141
Cutting/Preparing Equipment, contd.
  • Colander
  • Strainer
  • Rolling pin
  • Slotted spoon

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and care
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Cutting/Preparing Equipment, contd.
  • Appliances
  • Blender
  • Food processor

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and care
143
Mixing Equipment
  • Fork
  • Mixing bowls
  • Pastry blender
  • Rubber spatula

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
144
Mixing Equipment, contd.
  • Sifter
  • Wire whisk
  • Wooden spoon

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
145
Mixing Equipment, contd.
  • Appliances
  • Hand mixer
  • Stand mixer

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
146
Cooking/Cleaning Equipment
  • Bakeware
  • Baking sheet
  • Cookie sheet
  • Cake pan

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
147
Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
  • Bakeware, contd.
  • Loaf pan
  • Muffin pan
  • Pie pan

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
148
Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
  • Bakeware, contd.
  • Pizza pan
  • Roasting pan
  • Square/rectangular pan

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
149
Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
  • Bakeware, contd.
  • Casserole

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and care
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Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
  • Cookware
  • Double boiler
  • Dutch oven
  • Pots

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and care
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Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
  • Cookware, contd.
  • Saucepans
  • Sauté pan/skillet
  • Steamer

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
152
Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
  • Cookware, contd.
  • Wok
  • Cooling rack
  • Ladle

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
153
Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
  • Cookware, contd.
  • Pastry brush
  • Oven mitt/pot holder
  • Tongs

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
154
Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
  • Cookware, contd.
  • Turner

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and care
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Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
  • Small Appliances
  • Electric skillet / griddle
  • Slow cooker
  • Toaster
  • Toaster Oven

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
156
Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
  • Large Appliances, contd.
  • Microwave oven
  • Range/oven
  • Dishwasher

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
157
Cooking/Cleaning Equipment, contd.
  • Appliances, contd.
  • Refrigerator/Freezer

2.02A Kitchen equipment procedures for its uses
and care
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Cutting, Preparing and Cooking Terms
2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
164
Cutting Terms
2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
165
Chop
  • To cut food into small, uneven pieces
  • Equipment French or Chefs Knife

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Mince
  • To cut food into very fine, uneven
  • pieces.
  • Equipment French or Chefs knife.

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Cube
  • To cut food into small, equal size squares about
    ½ inch in size.

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Dice
  • To cut food into small, equal size squares about
    ¼ to 1/8 inch in size.
  • Equipment French or Chefs Knife, c. board

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Grate
  • To reduce food into small pieces by pressing and
    rubbing it against the teeth of a grater.
  • Equipment Grater

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Shred
  • To cut or break food into long, thin strips by
    using a knife, fork, or grater.

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Pare
  • To remove the stem and the very thin layer of
    peel of a fruit or vegetable with a paring knife
    or peeler.

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Peel
  • To remove the outer layer/skin, by stripping or
    pulling off with your finger or a knife

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Score
  • To make small, straight, shallow cuts with a
    slicing knife in the surface of a food often
    done to tenderize meat or to let sauces soak in.

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Slice
  • To cut food into large, thick or thin flat pieces
    with a slicing knife. Use a sawing motion while
    gently pressing the knife down.

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175
Preparation Terms
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176
Baste
  • To pour or spoon pan juices, melted fat, or
    sauces over the surface of a food during cooking,
    using a baster, cup, or spoon, to keep the food
    moist and add flavor.

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Freeze
  • To lower a foods temperature to freezing or
    below by placing it in a freezer.

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Defrost/Thaw
  • To expose to warmth in order to free from a
    frozen state.

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Dissolve
  • To cause a solid food to turn into or become part
    of a liquid.

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Drain
  • To remove liquid from a solid food by pouring off
    the liquid, putting the food through a colander,
    or drying with paper towels.

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Strain
  • To separate solid from liquid materials by
    pouring the mixture through a strainer or sieve.

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Dust
  • To lightly sprinkle the surface of a food with
    crumbs, flour, or sugar.

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Flour/Dredge/Coat
  • To sprinkle or coat a food with flour.
  • Equipment Flour, crumbs or seasoning.

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Grease
  • To rub fat on the surface of a food or a cooking
    utensil

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185
Marinate
  • To soak food in a cold, seasoned liquid, usually
    containing an acid, in order to add flavor to or
    tenderize the food.

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Tenderize
  • To make something easy to chew by applying a
    process or a substance that breaks down
    connective tissue or fiber.

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187
Melt
  • To change food from a solid to a liquid by
    applying heat.

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188
Soak
  • To immerse food in a liquid for the purpose of
    wetting, softening, dissolving, or cleaning.

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189
Season
  • To increase the flavor of a food by adding herbs,
    spices, or other ingredients to prepare a
    cooking utensil for cooking. (Ex. Cast iron
    skillet)

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Vent
  • To leave an opening in the covering of a food
    through which steam can escape.

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Mixing Terms
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192
Beat
  • To thoroughly mix ingredients and incorporate air
    using a spoon, wire whisk, mixer, or food
    processor with an up-and-down and circular motion

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193
Blend
  • To stir or mix ingredients until they are
    thoroughly combined and smooth

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194
Combine
  • To blend or mix two or more ingredients

2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
195
Cream
  • To beat solid fat and sugar with a wooden spoon
    or electric mixer until smooth, light, and creamy

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196
Cut in
  • To combine flour and solid fat by cutting the fat
    into tiny pieces using a pastry blender, two
    forks or knives, or the hands

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Fold in
  • To blend a delicate mixture into a heavier one,
    using a rubber spatula, spoon, or wire whisk in a
    gentle up, down, and over motion so that the
    mixture stays light
  • Equipment Bowl and spatula

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Knead
  • To work a ball of dough with the heels of the
    hands repeating press, fold, and turn motions
    until the dough is smooth and elastic
  • Equipment Hands

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199
Mix
  • To combine two or more ingredients into one mass
    by stirring or beating them

2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
200
Sift
  • To reduce dry ingredients to finer particles, add
    air to dry ingredients, or combine dry
    ingredients by putting them through a sieve

2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
201
Stir
  • To mix using a spoon or wire whisk with a
    circular motion

2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
202
Toss
  • To lightly mix ingredients by tumbling them with
    tongs or a large fork and spoon

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203
Whip
  • To beat quickly and vigorously by hand, wire
    whisk, or mixer to incorporate air and to make a
    mixture light and fluffy
  • Equipment Wire whisk or electric mixer

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204
Cooking Terms Dry Heat Methods
2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
205
Bake
  • To cook in an oven with dry, hot air

2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
206
Broil
  • To cook uncovered under a direct heat source

2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
207
Grill
  • To broil over hot coals or on a griddle

2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
208
Roast
  • To cook meat, fish, or poultry uncovered in an
    oven with dry, hot air

2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
209
Barbeque
  • To roast slowly on a rack or spit over hot coals
    or some other direct heat source and baste with a
    spicy sauce

2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
210
Cooking Terms Moist Heat Methods
2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
211
Boil
  • To cook food in hot liquid, 2120F, having bubbles
    that rise to and break on the surface of the
    liquid

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212
Braise
  • To cook large pieces of meat or poultry slowly
    over low heat in a small amount of hot liquid in
    a tightly covered pan

2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
213
Microwave
  • To cook food in a microwave oven using little or
    no liquid

2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
214
Simmer
  • To cook food in liquid that is just below the
    boiling point
  • Equipment Saucepan

2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
215
Steam
  • To cook food in a pan using vapor produced by a
    boiling liquid
  • Equipment Steamer or Double Boiler

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216
Cooking Terms Cooking in Fat Methods
2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
217
Deep-fry
  • To cook food by completely immersing in hot fat
    also know as French fry

2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
218
Fry
  • To cook food in a small amount of hot fat

2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
219
Sauté
  • To lightly brown or cook food in a small amount
    of hot fat over moderate heat Pieces of food
    are cut into small or thin pieces preserving
    texture, moisture, flavor.
  • Equipment Frying pan and butter/oil

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220
Stir-fry
  • To cook bite-sized small pieces of food quickly
    over high heat in a small amount of fat while
    stirring constantly.

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221
Miscellaneous
2.03I_1 Cutting, Preparing, and Cooking Terms
222
Preheat
  • To turn on an appliance or oven to a desired
    temperature about 5-10 minutes before food is to
    be placed in it

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223
Building the Convenience Sandwich
  • Convenience Foods
  • 2.04 B_1

224
Convenience Foods are Those that have been
completely or in-part commercially processed.
Processing Helps Keep perishable foods from
spoiling by destroying or by slowing down the
growth of harmful microorganisms.
Convenience Foods have been Canned, frozen,
cured, dried or freeze-dried
CONVENIENCE FOODS (PROCESSED FOODS)
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By following label directions 1. Enables the
inexperienced cook to quickly prepare tasty,
nutritious meals with confidence. 2. Does not
require special skills or equipment. 3. Gives
clues on eating a healthier, balanced plan.
Convenience Foods can be stored At room
temperature for longer periods of time than
fresh foods.
226
DISADVANTAGES 1. Higher cost. 2. Nutrient
loss during processing. 3. Higher amounts of
fat, sugar, sodium and calories. 4. May contain
preservatives 5. May lack appeal of homemade 6.
Packaging may not be good for environment.
ADVANTAGES 1. Saves time and energy 2.
Shorter time and ease lets families eat at home
more often. 3. Foods are sold year-round 4.
Inexpensive way to add variety and creativity.
5. Can adjust for healthier options.
227
Following label directions helps 1. Ensure
successful food preparation. 2. Avoid
frustration. 3. Avoid wasting ingredients and
money. 4. Allows one to combine convenience
with basic fresh ingredients for easier and
quicker meal preparation.
Classification of label information 1. Yield
2. Ingredients plus amounts 3. step-by-step
directions 4. Container size and type
5. Temperature and time
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2.04 C ADJUSTING RECIPES
  • Increasing or Decreasing
  • a Recipe Yield
  • Changing Ingredients

2.04C Adjusting Recipes
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Increasing or Decreasing a Recipe Yield
  • The YIELD of a recipe tells how many people you
    can serve and how much each person will get.
  • It may be necessary to increase or decrease a
    recipes yield in order to prepare the number of
    servings needed or to adjust the serving size.

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231
Increasing or Decreasing a Recipe Yield
  • If more, or larger, servings are needed than the
    recipe will yield, it is necessary to increase
    the amounts of ingredients used.
  • If less, or smaller, servings are needed, one can
    either decrease the amounts of ingredients used
    OR prepare the recipe as indicated and have
    leftovers.

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Increasing or Decreasing a Recipe Yield, contd.
  • When increasing or decreasing the yield and
    ingredients in recipes, it is usually necessary
    to make additional changes in
  • Equipment size
  • Equipment shape
  • Cooking temperature
  • Cooking time

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233
Increasing or Decreasing a Recipe Yield, contd.
  • The steps for changing a yield are
  • Divide the desired yield by the recipes
    original yield. The result is called the
    conversion factor.
  • Multiply all recipe ingredients by the conversion
    factor.
  • Convert the measurements into logical, manageable
    amounts.

2.04C Adjusting Recipes
234
Changing Ingredients
  • Recipe ingredients are often changed for reasons
    other than increasing or decreasing the yield.
    Reasons for changing ingredients are to
  • Adjust for high-altitude cooking
  • Adjust for microwave cooking
  • Substitute ingredients

2.04C Adjusting Recipes
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Changing Ingredients, contd.
  • Adjusting for high-altitude cooking
  • As altitude increases, air pressure decreases and
    liquids will boil at a temperature below 212 F.
  • When liquid boils below 212 F., foods simmering
    in the liquid take longer to cook. They require
    more liquid (to replace that which evaporates)
    and longer cooking times.

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Adjusting for high-altitude cooking
  • In baked goods, gas bubbles formed by the boiling
    liquid rise more quickly and cause the batter to
    rise before it sets. Without making
    adjustments to ingredients, the centers would
    collapse.
  • To prevent the centers of baked goods from
    collapsing, use less baking powder and sugar, and
    increase the oven temperature.

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Changing Ingredients, contd.
  • Adjusting for microwave cooking
  • Decrease the liquid by 1/3 the total amount
  • Eliminate fats (both solid and liquid) unless
    they are used for flavoring
  • Use ½ of the seasonings
  • Use HIGH power level unless food is delicate,
    then use MEDIUM-HIGH power level
  • Decrease cooking time look for a similar recipe
    in a cookbook designed for the microwave
  • Allow for standing time.

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Changing Ingredients, contd.
  • Adjusting for substitute ingredients
  • Ingredients in recipes are often substituted.
    Some reasons for changing recipe ingredients
    include
  • Unavailable ingredients
  • Cost of ingredients
  • Decreasing/increasing nutritional value
  • Creativity

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Changing Ingredients, contd.
  • Some recipes are easier to adjust than others.
    Those with NON-ESSENTIAL ingredients are easily
    adjusted. Recipes with ESSENTIAL ingredients are
    really difficult to change
  • NON-ESSENTIAL ingredients are those that act
    independently of each other.
  • ESSENTIAL ingredients are those that have
    specific functions in a recipe and are so
    sensitive to changes that the appearance, taste,
    or texture of the product are affected

2.04C Adjusting Recipes
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Changing Ingredients, contd.
  • Well-written cookbooks and the Internet are good
    sources for common ingredient substitutions.
    These ingredient substitutions can usually be
    made without any significant difference in the
    final product.
  • SEE CHART AT THE END OF ALL POWERPOINTS!

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2.04 D ADJUSTING RECIPES PPT NOTES
  • Increasing or Decreasing
  • a Recipe Yield
  • Changing Ingredients

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Increasing or Decreasing a Recipe Yield
  • The ____________ of a recipe tells how many
    people you can serve and how much each person
    will get.
  • It may be necessary to __________ or __________ a
    recipes yield in order to prepare the number of
    servings needed or to adjust the serving size.

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Increasing or Decreasing a Recipe Yield
  • If more, __________________, servings are needed
    than the recipe will yield, it is necessary to
    increase the amounts of ingredients used.
  • If less, _________________, servings are needed,
    one can either decrease the amounts of
    ingredients used OR prepare the recipe as
    indicated and have ______________.

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Increasing or Decreasing a Recipe Yield, contd.
  • When increasing or decreasing the yield and
    ingredients in recipes, it is usually necessary
    to make additional changes in
  • Equipment size
  • Cooking temperature

2.04D Adjusting Recipes
245
Increasing or Decreasing a Recipe Yield, contd.
  • The steps for changing a yield are
  • Divide the __________ yield by the recipes
    _____________ yield. The result is called the
    _________________________.
  • Multiply all recipe ingredients by the conversion
    factor.
  • Convert the measurements into logical, manageable
    amounts.

2.04D Adjusting Recipes
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Changing Ingredients
  • Recipe ingredients are often changed for reasons
    other than increasing or decreasing the yield.
    Reasons for changing ingredients are to
  • Adjust for high-altitude cooking
  • Substitute ingredients

2.0
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