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Chapter 2 Nutrition Tools – Standards and Guidelines

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Chapter 2 Nutrition Tools Standards and Guidelines Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney Checking Out Food Labels Requirements for food labels ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 2 Nutrition Tools – Standards and Guidelines


1
Chapter 2 Nutrition Tools Standards and
Guidelines
  • Nutrition Concepts Controversies, 12e
    Sizer/Whitney

2
Learning Objectives
  • Explain how RDA, AI, DV, and EAR serve different
    functions in describing nutrient values and
    discuss how each is used.
  • List the major categories of the Dietary
    Guidelines for Americans and explain their
    importance to the population.
  • Describe how foods are grouped in the USDA Food
    guide and MyPyramid.

3
Learning Objectives
  • Describe the concept of the discretionary calorie
    allowance, and explain how it can be used in diet
    planning.
  • Plan a days meals that follow the pattern of the
    USDA Food Guide within a given calorie budget.
  • Define the term functional foods, and discuss
    some potential effects of such foods on human
    health.

4
Nutrient Recommendations
  • Standards for healthy peoples energy and
    nutrient intakes
  • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)
  • Dietary components with set values
  • Values
  • EAR
  • RDA
  • AI
  • UL

5
Nutrient Recommendations
  • Goals of DRI committee
  • Setting recommended intake values RDA AI
  • Used by individuals for nutrient intake goals
  • RDA solid experimental evidence
  • AI scientific evidence and educated guesswork
  • Facilitating nutrition research policy EAR
  • Requirements for life stages and genders

6
Nutrient Recommendations
  • Goals of DRI committee
  • Establish safety guidelines UL
  • Identification of potentially toxic levels
  • Danger zones
  • Preventing chronic diseases
  • Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
    (AMDR) proportions

7
The Naïve View Versus the Accurate View of
Optimal Nutrient Intakes
8
Understanding the DRI Intake Recommendations
  • Differences between individuals
  • Adequate intake over time
  • Attempt to get 100 of DRI recommended intake
  • Put DRI recommended intakes into perspective
  • DRI are designed for healthy people

9
Establishing DRI Values An RDA Example
  • Balance study
  • Accounting for needs
  • Making a decision

10
Setting Energy Requirements
  • Estimated Energy Requirements (EER)
  • Not generous
  • Reflects a balancing act
  • Energy to support health and life
  • Energy derived from foods

11
Daily Values
  • Found on food labels
  • Apply to the average person
  • Eating 2,000 to 2,500 calories a day
  • Allow for comparisons among foods
  • Not nutrient intake goals
  • Have not changed in response to new research
  • DRI values have changed over the years

12
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • Science-based advice
  • Promote health
  • Reduce risk of major chronic disease
  • Apply to most people age 2 and older

13
Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  • Choose nutritious foods
  • Based on USDA Food Guide
  • Supplements
  • Limit potentially harmful dietary components
  • Fat, sugar, cholesterol, salt, and alcohol

14
Dietary Guidelines for Americans Key
Recommendations
15
Dietary Guidelines for Americans Key
Recommendations
16
Dietary Guidelines for Americans Key
Recommendations
17
U.S. Diet and Dietary Guidelines Compared
  • Healthy Eating Index (HEI)
  • Yields a score
  • Current American diet 58 out of 100
  • Americans need to choose less of these
  • Americans need to choose more of these
  • Many need to reduce calorie intake

18
Diet Planning with the USDA Food Guide
  • Food group plan
  • Help people achieve goals
  • Specifies portions
  • Foods are sorted by nutrient density
  • Seven groups
  • Variety
  • Among the food groups and within each group

19
USDA MyPyramid Food Guide
20
USDA MyPyramid Food Guide
21
USDA MyPyramid Food Guide
22
USDA MyPyramid Food Guide
23
How Does the U.S. Diet Stack Up?
24
Discretionary Calorie Concept
  • Discretionary calorie allowance
  • Weight maintenance vs. nutrient supplies
  • Sources
  • Nutrient-dense foods

25
Diet Planning Application
  • USDA Food Guide
  • Amounts needed from each food group
  • Healthful diet for given number of calories
  • Physical activity
  • Higher calorie need
  • Greater discretionary calorie allowance
  • Vegetable intakes
  • Week timeframe

26
MyPyramid Recommended Daily Intakes from Each
Food Group
27
Weekly Amounts from Vegetable Subgroups
28
Sample Diet Plan
29
MyPyramid Steps to a Healthier You
  • Online educational tool
  • www.MyPyramid.gov
  • Guides users through diet planning
  • Dietary changes
  • Small steps make substantial impacts
  • Flexibility of the USDA Food Guide
  • Mixed dishes
  • Vegetarians

30
MyPyramid Steps to a Healthier You
31
Portion Control
  • Portion sizes may be difficult to judge
  • U.S. trend
  • Larger portion sizes
  • More fat and sugar
  • Tips on weights and measures
  • Cups
  • Ounces
  • Tablespoons and teaspoons
  • Medium

32
U.S. Trend Toward Colossal Cuisine
33
A Note About Exchange Systems
  • Useful for almost everyone
  • Estimates values for whole groups of foods
  • Focus on energy-yielding nutrients

34
Checking Out Food Labels
  • Requirements for food labels
  • Common or usual name
  • Manufacturer, packer, or distributor contact
    information
  • Net contents
  • Nutrient contents (Nutrition Facts panel)
  • Ingredients
  • Descending order by weight

35
Nutrition Facts Panel
  • Serving size
  • Common measures allow for comparison
  • Servings per container
  • Calories/calories from fat
  • Nutrient amounts and percentages of DVs
  • Fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate,
    protein
  • Vitamins and minerals
  • Vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron

36
Whats on a Food Label?
37
More About Percentages of Daily Values
  • Daily Value is based on 2,000 calorie diet
  • Two types of Daily Values
  • Some are intake goals to strive for
  • Some constitute healthy daily maximums
  • Daily Values greatest use
  • Comparing foods

38
Claims on Food Labels
  • Nutrient claims
  • Food must meet specified criteria
  • Examples
  • Good source of a nutrient
  • High in a nutrient
  • Health claims
  • Standards
  • Qualified claims

39
Claims on Food Labels
  • Structure/function claims
  • Requires no prior approval
  • Notification of FDA is sufficient
  • Required label disclaimer
  • Examples

40
Are Some Foods Superfoods for Health?
  • Controversy 2

41
Phytochemicals
  • Nonnutrient components of plants
  • Flavonoids
  • Emerging as potential regulators of health
  • Antioxidants
  • Regulate protein synthesis
  • Mimic hormones
  • Alter blood chemistry

42
Phytochemicals
  • Blueberries
  • Antioxidants
  • Chocolate
  • Flavonoids and antioxidants
  • Flaxseed
  • Lignans and phytoestrogens
  • Garlic
  • Antioxidant organosulfur compounds

43
Phytochemicals
  • Soybeans and soy products
  • Chronic diseases
  • Downsides
  • Tomatoes
  • Antioxidant lycopene
  • Tea, wine, pomegranate, and whole grain
  • Yogurt
  • Supplements
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