Early River Valley Civilizations - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Early River Valley Civilizations PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 3cde22-NGQzY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Early River Valley Civilizations

Description:

Early River Valley Civilizations 3500 BCE 450 BCE 2.1 City-States in Mesopotamia What does the Middle East consist of (climate zone) wise? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:824
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 55
Provided by: www2Boonv
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Early River Valley Civilizations


1
Early River Valley Civilizations
  • 3500 BCE 450 BCE

2
2.1 City-States in Mesopotamia
  • What does the Middle East consist of (climate
    zone) wise?
  • Desert. BUT
  • 2 rivers run through the desert
  • Rivers flood leaving behind mud
  • Area in-between is rich farm land
  • Fertile Crescent
  • Regions name
  • Mesopotamia Greek for land btw the rivers

3
(No Transcript)
4
Environmental Disadvantages and Solutions
  • Unpredictable flooding during periods of little
    rain
  • Dug irrigation ditches brought water to fields
  • No natural barriers for protection
  • Defense. Built walls around cities
  • Natural resources of Sumer where limited
    especially building materials
  • Trade!... Surplus food and produced goods for raw
    materials (i.e. stone, wood, metal)

5
Sumer and Sumerians Review
  • Ppl who settled in Mesopotamia
  • One of the 1st groups in history to form
    civilization
  • 4500 BCE ppl farming Mesopotamia
  • 3300 BCE Sumerians arrive
  • 3000 BCE Sumerians had built many cities

6
City-State
  • Def City and surrounding land.
  • Function like independent countries but typically
    share a common culture
  • Same culture different government
  • In Sumer
  • Government ruled by local priests
  • Ziggurat temple. HQ for govt
  • During war times the ppl elected a commander
  • Became a permanent position
  • In some cases the power was passed from father to
    son
  • Dynasty def series of rules from a single
    family
  • 2500 BCE many Sumerian city-states ruled by
    dynasties

7
Trade effects Culture
  • How do city-states become prosperous and grow?
  • Trade (Sumers case, surplus food)
  • Continue to expand trade further
  • Cultural Diffusion
  • Def process in which a new idea or a product
    spreads from one culture to another

8
Sumerian Religion
  • Polytheism Def belief in more than one g-d
  • G-ds are human-like
  • BUT immortal and very powerful
  • Humans were their servants
  • Souls of dead went to land of no return
  • Place with no joy
  • Note no dualism (i.e. good/bad, heaven/hell)

9
(No Transcript)
10
Social Strata (Levels)
  • KINGS, LANDHOLDERS, PREISTS
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ---------
  • WEALTHY MERCHANTS
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ---------
  • FIELD WORKERS, WORKSHOP WORKERS (majority of ppl)
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ---------
  • SLAVES (war captives)

11
Women?
  • Could work, own land, enter priesthood
  • More rights than most women had in other early
    civilizations

12
The 1st Empires
  • Sumerian city-states weakened themselves by
    constant war
  • Taken over by outsiders, conquerors
  • Akkad 2350 BCE
  • Worlds 1st Empire (North and South Mesopotamia)
  • Empire Def a political unit in which a number
    of ppls or countries are controlled by a single
    ruler
  • Babylonian Empire 2000BCE
  • Created capital _at_ Babylon (present day Baghdad)
  • Peaked during the reign of Hammurabi, 1792
    BCE-1750 BCE

13
(No Transcript)
14
Hammurabis Code
  • Single code of laws for everyone in the empire
  • Had code engraved in stone and copies places
    throughout the empire
  • 1st time laws were written down and available for
    all to see
  • 282 specific laws
  • What did they cover?
  • Property, protection of women and children
  • Social class equality in the laws?
  • Gave govt the responsibility for what happened in
    society

15
(No Transcript)
16
HOMEWORK
  • Read Chapter 2.2 Pyramids on the Nile
  • S.A. 1, 3, 7, 8

17
2.2 Pyramids on the Nile
18
Recall
  • Like Mesopotamia
  • Egypt is desert but a major river makes a small
    area of land very rich and farmable

19
(No Transcript)
20
Nile Flooding
  • Floods every July
  • Why?
  • Recedes every October, leaving silt
  • Nile floods like clockwork
  • What about flood levels though?
  • Lower than normal
  • Thousands starve
  • Higher than normal
  • Washed away settlements and seeds
  • Desert on either side of river acted as natural
    barrier
  • Isolated Egyptians. Little interaction with
    outsiders, more unified.
  • Little fighting with in
  • Differences from Mesopotamia?

21
Upper and Lower Egypt Geography
  • Cataract
  • Def river turns to rapids, impassable on boat
  • Upper Egypt
  • 1st Cataract to the delta
  • Lower Egypt
  • Nile River Delta (100 miles from Med. coast)
  • Delta def broad, marshy triangular area of
    land formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of
    the river
  • Travel btw Upper and Lower?
  • Yes via the river. Drift North with current,
    sail south with wind patterns

22
(No Transcript)
23
Egypt Timeline
  • 5000 BCE and earlier farming villages
  • 3200 BCE - two distinct kingdoms
  • Upper and Lower
  • 3000 BCE Egypt Unites
  • Scorpion or more likely Narmer
  • Crown is evidence
  • Capitol _at_ Memphis why?
  • Est. 1st Egyptian dynasty
  • 31 dynasties over 2,600 years

24
Government/Religion/Rule
  • Theocracy
  • Def government in which rule is based on
    religious authority
  • Pharaoh
  • Def king of Ancient Egypt, considered a g-d as
    well as a political and military leader
  • Has all responsibility for kingdom
  • Egyptians believed in ka (eternal life force)
  • So Pharaohs ruled in death ? need for tombs
  • Pyramids built during the Old Kingdom 2660-2180
  • Large supplies of stone nearby

25
(No Transcript)
26
Egyptian Religion
  • Confident and optimistic (more than in Fertile
    Crescent)
  • Polytheistic
  • Most important Re (sun g-d), Osiris (g-d of the
    dead), Isis (goddess of mother and wife)
  • 2,000 g-ds and goddesses
  • Afterlife
  • If your soul were pure live on in beautiful
    world. If soul is not pure ?
  • Burial, death planned for. Could take stuff with
    you.
  • Mummification def embalming and drying of the
    corpse to prevent decay (p. 38 Herodotus)
  • Book of the Dead

27
(No Transcript)
28
Egyptian Society
  • ROYAL FAMILY
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ---------
  • WEALTHY LANDOWNERS, GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS,
    PRIESTS, ARMY COMMANDERS
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ---------
  • MERCHANTS, ARTISANS
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ---------
  • PEASANT FARMERS AND LABORERS (majority)
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ---------
  • SLAVES
  • Ppl could change classes
  • Women mostly equal. (i.e. divorce, receive 1/3)

29
Egyptian Writing
  • Heiroglyphics
  • Greek words sacred carving
  • Def ancient Egyptian writing system used
    pictures to represent ideas and sounds
  • Stone carvings early then later
  • Papyrus
  • Reed which can be processed into a paper-like
    material

30
(No Transcript)
31
Technology
  • Calendar
  • Flood and planting
  • Solar. Followed a star
  • 365 days btw star being in same place in sky
  • 12 months, 30 days per month 5 days for holiday
  • Number system
  • Medicine
  • Even surgery

32
Egypt after the Old Kingdom
  • Power would decline and be regained during the
    Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 BCE).
  • New farmland
  • Canal connecting Nile and Red Sea
  • 1640 BCE a group called the Hyksos cross into
    Egypt and rule to 1523 BCE
  • New Kingdom
  • Egypt regains power and glory

33
HOMEWORK
  • READ 2.3 Planned Cities on the Indus
  • S.A. 1, 3, 5, 7

34
2.3 Planned Cities on the Indus
35
Why is less known about the Indus River
Civilization?
  • Language
  • Still not translated!
  • What we know is from archaeology
  • Indus River Valley Civilization did have a much
    larger region of influence than Egypt or
    Mesopotamia.

36
Geography
  • Subcontinent
  • Def landmass containing India, Pakistan, and
    Bangladesh
  • Mountains separate this region from the rest of
    Asia
  • Natural Barriers
  • Mountains to the north, desert to the east
  • Two rivers
  • Indus and Ganges

37
Monsoons
  • Def seasonal winds
  • October - February
  • NE ? W (dry air)
  • June October
  • SW ? E
  • Water from ocean, dumps over land
  • Agriculture dependent on the wet season
  • Recall Nile flood levels, same principle

38
Environmental Problems
  • River flooding is unpredictable
  • Monsoon season was unpredictable
  • Water/rain level
  • Rivers change course

39
Timeline
  • 7000 BCE ppl farming in highlands
  • Agriculture and domesticated animals
  • 3200 BCE farming along the Indus River
  • 2500 BCE 1st cities
  • Harappa
  • Largest city. Responsible for regions culture
  • Planned cities
  • GRID system
  • Plumbing, sewage (houses had bathrooms)
  • Citadel fortified part of city containing
    important buildings

40
Harappan Culture
  • Language written, impossible to decode
  • Social Levels divisions not great
  • Little evidence of warfare
  • Religion Theocracy
  • Temples?
  • Early Hindu
  • Trade ? HUGE DEAL
  • Reach as far as Mesopotamia
  • Sailed across Persian Gulf

41
Fall of Indus Civilization
  • 1750 signs of decline
  • Art, building quality, city size, architecture
  • WHY?
  • Last 40 years we found evidence of a shift in
    tectonic plates
  • Earthquakes, floods, rivers moving
  • Cities began to die without rivers or food supply.

42
HOMEWORK
  • Read 2.4 River Dynasties in China
  • S.A. 1, 4, 8
  • Begin Test Prep
  • Tues/Weds

43
2.4 River Dynasties in China
44
Geography
  • Isolation (what geographical features?)
  • Rivers
  • Yellow (Huang He) North
  • Why yellow?... Silt color
  • Yangtze Central
  • North China Plain
  • Region between the rivers arable land

45
Environmental Problems?
  • Yellow River floods can be disastrous
  • Location not apt to trade early
  • Natural barriers not complete protection

46
Early Chinese Timeline
  • Pre-modern humans 1.7 mill years ago
  • 2000 BCE 1st Chinese cities
  • 1st dynasty Xia Dynasty
  • Leader Yu (mathematician and engineer)
  • Flood control and irrigation he tamed the rivers
  • Shang 1700 BCE 1027 BCE
  • 1st to leave written records
  • Very elaborate city
  • Capital Anyang build mostly of wood (unique)
  • Protection huge walls (pyramid like projects)
  • Constant war

47
Chinese Culture
  • Family Central to society
  • Respect for parents!
  • Men-led/controlled family (Patriarch)
  • Women inferior
  • Social system
  • Nobel or peasant
  • SHARP DIVISION BTW THE TWO
  • Warrior-nobles controlled the govt
  • Religion
  • Family linked closely (spirits of ancestors had
    power)
  • Many g-ds
  • Communicated with them through oracle bones
  • Def animal bones/shells which priests wrote
    questions for g-ds then would crack them and
    interpret

48
Writing
  • One could read and not be able to speak
  • One written language many spoken dialects
  • 1,500 characters to be barely literate
  • 10,000 for scholars
  • Who learned? Peasants or nobles?

49
Zhou
  • 1027 took control from Shang family
  • Mandate of Heaven def a just ruler had divine
    approval
  • Dynastic Cycle def pattern of rise, decline,
    and replacement of dynasties
  • Chart p. 54
  • Zhou Government
  • Feudalism def political systems in which
    nobles, or lords, are granted the use of lands
    that legally belong to the king.
  • Nobles give loyalty and military service
  • As city lords grew more powerful, fighting ensued

50
Zhou Collapse
  • Tech and Trade
  • Roads and canals (infrastructure) (incr. trade)
  • Coined (incr. trade)
  • Cast Iron
  • 1027 BCE 256 BCE (Zhou)
  • 771 BCE ? warring states
  • Values Collapse
  • Love, order, harmony, respect for authority
  • ? chaos, arrogance, defiance

51
HOMEWORK
  • Notebooks in order!
  • Easy to recognize headings and content
  • Bring and questions for review

52
NOTEBOOKS(ORGANIZATION COUNTS)
  • Section Assessments
  • 1.1
  • 1.2
  • 1.3
  • 2.1
  • 2.2
  • 2.3
  • 2.4
  • Class Notes
  • 1.1
  • 1.2
  • 1.3
  • 2.1
  • 2.2
  • 2.3
  • 2.4
  • Other Items To Be in Notebook
  • 1st Day Handout
  • Grade Sheet
  • Geography Packet
  • Writing Prompt Any geography notes

53
TEST
  • Matching 10
  • 2 pts each
  • Map Questions - 5
  • 4 pts each
  • Using a Chart 5
  • 4 pts each
  • Multiple Choice 8
  • 4 pts each
  • Essay 2
  • 10 pts each

54
HOMEWORK
  • STUDY FOR TEST
  • NOTEBOOKS ORGANIZED AND COMPLETE
About PowerShow.com