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Procedures For Scientific Diving

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Title: Procedures For Scientific Diving


1
Procedures ForScientific Diving
2
Sources
  • American Academy of Underwater Sciences, Proc. of
    Scientific Diving Symposia, aaus.org.
  • Haddock, S.H.D., Heine J.N. 2005. Scientific
    Blue-Water Diving. California Sea Grant Publ. No.
    T-057.
  • Heine, J.N. 1999. Scientific Diving Techniques.
    Best Publishing Company, Flagstaff, AZ.
  • Joiner, J.T. (ed.). 2001. NOAA Diving Manual -
    Diving for Science and Technology, Fourth
    Edition. Best Publishing Company, Flagstaff, AZ.

3
Objectives
  • Upon completion of this module, the participant
    will be able to
  • Describe the general history of scientific diving
  • List ten environments in which scientific diving
    has been conducted
  • list the types and recommended design of diving
    slates
  • Describe three methods of locating a dive site
  • Describe methods to mark a site, both above and
    below the water
  • Describe ways for a diver to collect sediments
  • Describe ways for a diver to measure temperature,
    water motion, light and sound
  • Discuss mapping for archaeology studies,
    including horizontal and vertical offsets
  • Discuss the trilateration method of mapping
  • State how sediment is removed from archaeological
    sites

4
Objectives (cont)
  • Upon completion of this module, the participant
    will be able to
  • List the activities for biological research dives
  • List the major areas of biological research
  • Discuss quadrats and transect sampling
  • Describe the advantages of photography and
    videography in biological sampling
  • Describe the tools and methods used for assessing
    aquatic organisms

5
History of Scientific Diving
  • Modern scientific diving began in the US in 1949
    at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography
  • Scuba diving in support of science authorized at
    the University of California in 1953
  • The first research published using scuba
  • Aleem, Anwar Abdel. 1956. Quantitative underwater
    study of benthic communities inhabiting kelp beds
    off California. Science 123183.
  • NOAA established the first National Undersea
    Laboratory at the West Indies lab
  • The American Academy of Underwater Sciences was
    formed in 1977
  • Currently has more than 100 organizational members

6
Scientific diving has been conducted in a wide
variety of environments
  • Coral reefs
  • Mangroves
  • Kelp forests
  • Rocky shores
  • Soft bottom habitats
  • Polar environments
  • Open ocean/blue water environments
  • Offshore platforms
  • Estuaries
  • Hot springs
  • Hypersaline environments
  • Caves
  • Lakes
  • Rivers

7
and been used in many different sciences
  • Chemical
  • Geological
  • Biological
  • Paleontological
  • Archaeological

8
Chemistry
  • Diving has been used to support research such as
    determining the chemical ecology of invertebrates
    and collecting marine organisms for the
    extraction of chemical compounds

9
Geology
Divers may obtain core samples of rock and
sediment or dig holes to examine depositional
history
Scuba is very useful for visual identification of
sediments and for collecting representative and
relatively undisturbed samples
10
Biology
Divers may perform a wide variety of tasks such
as measuring various community structural
parameters like fish counts, algal counts,
macroinvertebrate counts, percent cover of
benthic algae and invertebrates, etc, or
measuring physiological responses of organisms in
natural environments
11
Paleontology
Divers recover fossils from the underwater realm
Dinosaur fossils from the waters off the Isle of
Wight
12
Archaeology
Diving is integral to the study of underwater
archaeology
Excavation of 4th 6th century AD harbor site
in Malta
Serçe Liman1 excavation - 11th Century Byzantine
Shipwreck - Diver hovers above grid used to mark
locations of artifacts
Serçe Limanl excavation Diver raises fragile
hull timber using a lifting box
13
Scientific Diving - General
  • The diversity of disciplines involved in
    scientific diving, and the varied environments
    where this diving is performed, has necessitated
    the development of a wide variety of techniques
    for observing and sampling underwater

14
Recording Information - Slates
  • Almost every scientific project requires that
    data be recorded underwater slates are a simple
    tool for doing this
  • The best material for a slate is a white
    polycarbonate or acrylic
  • This material is strong, waterproof, and
    negatively buoyant
  • It will not corrode when exposed to salt water,
    and is available in sheets, which can be easily
    cut to the desired size

15
Diver using slate to record organisms found in
artificial reef
16
Recording Information - Slates
  • Slate size and form may vary - large or small,
    single or multiple sheets, flat or curved to fit
    around the wrist

17
Recording Information - Slates
  • For archaeology, it is recommended that the
    minimum dimensions of a slate should measure
    approximately 10 in x 12 in x ¼ in, to 12 in x 14
    in x ¼ in
  • Much smaller and the diver has inadequate space
    for detailed recording
  • Larger slates are useful, but can be difficult to
    handle under certain conditions

18
Recording Information - Slates
  • A wooden or mechanical pencil is attached to the
    slate by a string, cord, or rubber tubing
  • Bic brand mechanical pencils have been found to
    work the best due to the hardness of the lead,
    but the mechanics of the pencil are not always
    reliable when repeatedly exposed to water
  • Regardless of the pencil chosen, always carry at
    least one spare
  • A pencil may be used to write directly on the
    plastic of a slate, or to write on material
    attached to a slate

19
Recording Information - Slates
  • Underwater paper is available for use on slates
    (e.g., Xerox Never-Tear)
  • Can be used in copiers and printers to duplicate
    data sheets
  • Sheets can be secured to slate with binder clips,
    surgical tubing, or a wing-nut bar

20
Locating, Relocating, and Marking Sites
  • Locating, relocating, and adequately marking a
    study site are critical
  • Many methods may be employed
  • Compass bearings
  • Use compass bearings towards readily identifiable
    objects on land
  • For greater accuracy, use shore lineups, where
    pairs of objects that are in a straight line can
    be used to triangulate a position
  • Disadvantage shore markers may not always be
    visible

21
Locating, Relocating, and Marking Sites
  • Global Positioning Units (GPS)
  • Relatively inexpensive, portable, and accurate
  • Can store multiple points (waypoints), give the
    heading, distance, time to each waypoint from
    your present position and store multiple routes
    with many legs on each route
  • Sonar (depth finders)
  • Tell water depth, or distance underwater to
    structures

22
Locating, Relocating, and Marking Sites
  • Buoys
  • Perhaps the best and easiest method for
    relocating a site from the surface
  • May be inexpensively made from plastic bottles
  • Torpedo shaped buoys minimize chances of
    entanglement with kelp
  • May be connected to the bottom with chain, cable,
    or lines
  • May be tied to structure on bottom length of
    garden hose may help to avoid chafing or
    weighted on bottom
  • In sandy or soft-bottom areas, sand, earth, or
    fence anchors can be screwed into the bottom
  • Disadvantages take time to install correctly,
    and are subject to loss from storms, theft,
    entanglement in boat propellers, or mauling by
    marine animals
  • May also require a permit from a management agency

23
Locating, Relocating, and Marking Sites
  • Underwater marking may be necessary once the
    surface location of a site is established
  • May also require a permit from a management
    agency
  • Variety of items may be driven into the substrate
  • Nails
  • Tent stakes
  • Rebar
  • Railroad spikes
  • Pitons
  • Marking tags may be placed on these
  • Cable ties
  • Vinyl roll flagging tape
  • Pieces of PVC

24
Locating, Relocating, and Marking Sites
  • To properly mark an area, it may be necessary to
    drill holes
  • Star Drill hammered in by hand
  • The drill is held with pliers and is rotated
    slightly with each blow of the hammer
  • Time consuming and tiring not practical if large
    number of holes must be drilled

25
Locating, Relocating, and Marking Sites
  • Pneumatic drill or hammer good for making
    numerous holes, especially in hard rock - or for
    more permanent fastening
  • May be fitted to work off a scuba tank
  • Disadvantages
  • May use a great deal of air
  • Very loud
  • Require considerable maintenance after use
  • Hydraulic systems
  • Advantages - Quieter and more efficient than
    pneumatic tools
  • Disadvantages More expensive requires a link
    with control station on surface

26
Locating, Relocating, and Marking Sites
  • Cement and epoxy may also be used to adhere items
    to the substrate
  • Generally work best on a clean substrate
  • May be packed into cracks, crevasses, or drilled
    holes
  • Marine putties or underwater patching compounds
    have been used
  • A mixture of four parts Type II Portland cement
    and one part molding plaster combined with
    seawater may be carried underwater in plastic
    bags
  • This mixture can be packed into holes before
    placement of eyebolts or stakes

27
Geological Measurements and Collections
  • Collection of sediments - Coring devices useful
    for stratigraphy determination or grain size
    analysis
  • A wide variety of corers are available
  • Coffee can with plastic lid
  • Remove bottom and replace with fine mesh screen
  • Insert corer into substrate and push lid under
    lip of corer to seal it before removing
  • Very inexpensive
  • Piston corer
  • May be constructed from PVC, designed to collect
    a complete and undisturbed sample

28
Geological Measurements and Collections
  • Small Ekman grabs and box corers

May be manually inserted and tripped by divers,
insuring proper and complete samples are collected
29
Geological Measurements and Collections
  • Box corers may be fitted with a slide hammer for
    driving into the sediment
  • Some corers also have sliding doors grooves
    along the open side of the corer guide the
    removable door down the open face once the corer
    is in place in the sediment
  • This eliminates the need to excavate and expose
    the lower surface of the corer to install a lower
    plate before removing a sample from the sediment

Sliding door
Slide hammer
Box corer filled with sediment
30
Geological Measurements and Collections
  • Vibrocoring (vibracoring) collecting cores of
    unconsolidated material by driving a tube with a
    vibrating device (vibrohead)
  • Three types of vibrators
  • Pneumatic
  • Hydraulic
  • Electric

31
Pneumatic vibrocorers can be made to work
underwater with very few adjustments and dont
involve the use of electrical current. They work
best in relatively shallow water because of
increased air consumption at depth. They also
require a cumbersome compressor, and the hose
becomes an impediment in swift or choppy waters.
Hydraulic vibrocorers Do not share depth
limitations with pneumatic corers, but do require
a hydraulic power plant and an umbilical hose.
Hydraulic corer
Electric vibracorers are more efficient (have a
better force/weight ratio) than other types, and
do not require umbilical hoses or large
compressors or power plants.
32
Geological Measurements and Collections
  • Heavy cores may be brought to the surface with
    lift bags

33
Measuring Temperature
  • Hand-held thermometer
  • Generally encased in stainless steel or plastic
  • Temperature data loggers
  • Long term
  • May be downloaded to computer after retrieval or
    in situ
  • Fouling organisms may be issue users often wrap
    download connection points with tape or encase
    thermometer in PVC

34
Multiparameter Instruments
  • Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth units (CTDs)
  • May measure other parameters such as salinity,
    fluorescence, pH, turbidity and oxygen and may
    take water samples from different depths
  • May be small enough for divers to swim with them
    underwater to collect discreet data from precise
    locations

35
Niskin Bottles for water sample collection
CTD instrument underneath
36
Measuring Water Motion
  • May be difficult and complex to measure
  • Plaster
  • Blocks of plaster are weighed, affixed to some
    sort of framework and deployed
  • The plaster dissolves in water faster or slower
    depending on water velocity
  • After recovery, the plaster is dried and weighed
    again differences in weight give a relative
    measure of water motion

Plaster attached to cards (referred to as Clod
cards). The one on the left has not been
deployed the other two have. Note the size
difference
37
Measuring Water Motion
  • Fluorescent dye
  • useful for determining current direction and
    velocity - may be released and visually tracked
    and timed, or recorded on a video camera with a
    timer

38
Measuring Water Motion
  • Current meters
  • Small hand-held flow meters
  • Different rotor size for different water velocity
    ranges

39
Measuring Water Motion
  • Current meters may also be attached
  • Taut- line mooring current meter is attached to
    a line that is weighted, anchored, or fixed to a
    sand anchor in soft sediment
  • Under a strong current, however, the meter will
    be deflected
  • Rigid mooring will prevent deflection of
    current meter
  • Inexpensive option concrete block with four
    out-riggers for stability, and a vertical pole
    with a swivel on top for the current meter

40
Rigidly moored current meter on tripod
41
Measuring Light
  • A variety of light meters are available
  • Divers may use hand held light meters for
    measuring light in precise locations
  • Light meters may also be deployed for long
    periods of time in specific locations

Light meter collector
42
Diver uses handheld light meter to determine
level of light reflected from coral
43
Sound
  • Measuring sound underwater often requires the
    deployment of transducers (for transmitting
    sound) and hydrophones (for listening to sound
    emitted from both biological and physical
    sources) these are sometimes quite large

44
Diver deploying transducer
Biologist using video and hydrophone to record
fish sounds
45
Chemical Measurements
  • May range from simply collecting water in a
    plastic container to using sophisticated
    collection techniques and analyzing devices

46
Van Dorn Bottle May be mounted on scuba
cylinders and tripped by diver at precise time
and location to collect discrete water sample for
analysis
Sediment oxygen demand chamber may be
positioned by divers at specific locations used
to measure sediment oxygen demand
47
Underwater Archaeology
  • Underwater archeologists locate, draw, excavate,
    and recover material objects in order to better
    understand history and culture
  • Divers are integral to this process

48
Archaeologyand Low Visibility
  • Because many sites of archeological interest are
    located in coastal environments, estuaries, or
    rivers, a great deal of underwater archaeology
    takes place in locations with poor water
    visibility

Dredging during 1992 Maple Leaf expedition
49
Low Visibility - Measuring
  • Clear ziplock plastic bags (Brody Bags) filled
    with water may be used to view measuring tapes in
    low visibility situations
  • The bag is placed on the tape and a flashlight is
    used for illumination
  • The bag may be made more secure by applying duct
    tape to the sealed portion of the bag
  • Before recording measurements, it is always a
    good idea to have a diver swim the tape to ensure
    it is not snagged somewhere

50
Archaeology Mapping
  • Mapping is the process of representing the
    arrangement of objects in two- or
    three-dimensional space - this is done by taking
    measurements
  • Site maps are two dimensional plan views looking
    down from above, using an X and Y coordinate
    system
  • The third dimension, or Z coordinate, provides
    depth or elevation data (profile views use the Z
    coordinate to record cross sections that show the
    vertical components of a site)

A 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional coordinate
system
51
Archaeology Mapping
  • Establish a number of fixed points (datums)
    across the site measurements are taken from
    these datums which are used as reference points
  • An intact wreck may have only two datums bow
    and stern
  • Datums
  • Must not move
  • Must be precisely located (if using more than one
    datum, and you usually are, they must be
    precisely located in reference to each other in
    order for your site map to be accurate)
  • Datums should be high enough not to be obstructed
    when taking measurements

52
Archaeology Mapping
  • Fix a baseline (usually a tape or line marked in
    regular increments) between datums
  • Baselines allow three things to be done
  • 1) Mapping of features that fall under the
    baseline
  • 2) Making measurements away from the baseline
  • 3) Creating a mapping grid over the site

2)
1)
3)
53
Archaeology Mapping Horizontal Offsets
  • Involves taking measurements at right angles to
    the baseline
  • This method is best suited to document objects
    located near the baseline
  • The accuracy of this method relies on judging
    right angles. A useful technique is to place the
    zero end of the tape on the point to be plotted
    and to move the other end along the datum line
    until the shortest distance is noted, thus giving
    a line perpendicular (i.e., 90 degrees) to the
    baseline
  • Offsets must be taken in the horizontal plane

54
Archaeology Mapping Horizontal Offsets
1) Taking an offset measurement from the baseline
to a target object 2) Establishing a 90-degree
right angle and 3) Plotting the offset
measurement on the site map
55
Archaeology Mapping Vertical Offsets
  • Vertical offsets are generally taken from a level
    baseline. The baseline can be made level using a
    simple and inexpensive masons line level. A tape
    positioned close to, and parallel to, the
    baseline proper provides a reference for vertical
    measurements. Vertical measurements are taken
    from the level baseline, not the reference tape.
    A tape can not be adequately leveled. Vertical
    measurements can be taken by using a plumb bob
    and scaling rod dropped from the baseline along
    the reference tape to take measurements down to
    the object to be documented.

56
Archaeology Mapping Vertical Offsets
Diver recording vertical offset measurements
from a horizontal baseline  
57
Archaeology Mapping - Trilateration
  • Trilateration (or triangulation) involves using
    the sides of a triangle to map

Distance measurements are taken from fixed datum
points 1 and 2 to the target to be surveyed a
third measurement is taken from datum point 3 for
precision accuracy
58
Archaeology Mapping - Trilateration
  • Distance measurements are taken from two datum
    points whose positions are known (Previous slide)
    to the target being mapped (for best results
    datum points should surround the object). When
    plotted by hand, the intersection of these two
    distance lines (arcs centered on the datum
    points) locates the target point. For precision
    surveying a measurement from a third known point
    should be taken, as this will provide an
    immediate check. If an error is made using two
    measurements, the two arcs drawn as described
    above will nonetheless still usually intersect,
    but with three arcs plotted they cannot intersect
    unless accurately measured and drawn.

59
Archaeology Mapping - Trilateration
  • Trilateration may also be done from the baseline

Distance Line
Distance measurements are taken from the baseline
to four points along the mast labeled A, B, C,
and D
60
Archaeology Mapping - Trilateration
  • The angle of intersection for the distance lines
    is generally best kept between 60 and 120 degrees
    not too obtuse or acute
  • Advantages of Trilateration
  • Accurate over greater lengths than other types of
    measurements
  • Disadvantages of Trilateration
  • All measurements should be taken in a horizontal
    plane (problematic given that most sites are
    uneven)
  • A commonly used method to deal with this is to
    establish a horizontal line using a masons line
    level, and stretch a tape along the line a plumb
    line can then be used to line up the object to be
    surveyed

61
Archaeology Combining Trilateration and
Vertical Offsets
  • Mapping objects usually requires the use of both
    trilateration and vertical offset techniques
  • Distance measurements are taken from two or three
    fixed datum points to the target to be surveyed
  • When plotted by hand, the intersection of these
    distance lines (arcs centered on the datum
    points) locates the target
  • The measurements should be taken horizontally to
    ensure that a true distance is recorded

62
Archaeology Combining Trilateration and
Vertical Offsets
  • To document the targets vertical position, a
    plumb bob (weighted tape measure or scaling rod)
    is dropped from the intersection of the datum
    measurements down to the surface of the target
    itself
  • It is imperative for an accurate vertical
    measurement that the horizontal datum measurement
    lines are kept as level as possible
  • Each target point measured should yield two (or
    three) distances from datum points and one
    vertical offset distance (see following slide)

63
Archaeology - Combining Trilateration and
Vertical Offsets
Horizontal Measurement Line
Baseline
Vertical Offset distance
Horizontal Measurement Line
Object
64
Archaeology Removing Sediment
  • Tools such as trowels, shovels, brushes, etc
    are impractical underwater
  • Hand fan - can move loose sediments but is slow

65
Archaeology Removing Sediment
  • Water induction dredge (see diagram on following
    slide) - good for moving large amounts of
    sediment
  • It consists of a long tube with a bend at one end
  • High-pressure water (from a water pump) is
    injected into the tube
  • The flow of water along this pipe causes an
    induced suction at the working end
  • A flexible tube may be added to the suction end
    to increase mobility of the dredge

66
Water Induction Dredge
67
Induction Dredging
68
Archaeology - Removing Sediment
  • Airlift (see diagram on following slide) - also
    good for moving large amounts of sediment.
    Pressurized air is introduced into the bottom of
    a tube. As the air rises up the tube, it expands
    and this expansion causes suction at the lower
    end of the tube. The greater the volume of air
    and the greater the vertical rise from one end of
    the pipe to the other, the greater the suction
    (shallow water requires greater volume). Because
    the airlift is buoyant when in operation, the
    lower end will have to be anchored or weighted
    down.

69
Airlift
Air compressor
Weighted induction tube
Valve allows diver to control airflow
70
Airlifts
71
Biological Research
  • Before the advent of scuba in the 1940s, marine
    biologists relied solely on technologies such as
    trawls, dredges, grabs, and plankton nets for
    research
  • Somewhat akin to putting your hand into a dark
    sack and pulling out an unknown sample
  • These techniques made it
  • Hard to sample specific areas
  • Hard to assess variability
  • Impossible to manipulate/ do controlled
    experiments
  • Scuba made possible what was heretofore difficult
    or impossible

72
Biological Research
  • Activities of biologically oriented divers
    include
  • Observation making raw or semi-processed
    recordings of biological phenomena (behavior,
    abundance, etc)
  • Counting, measuring, observing individuals etc
  • Collection obtaining specimens (dead or alive)
    for examination/experimentation
  • For observing behavior in lab, fecundity
    estimates, physiological experiments etc
  • Manipulation altering the marine environment
    for a controlled experiment
  • Territories, cages, outplants, etc

73
Biological Research
  • Major areas of underwater biological interest
  • Ecology the factors influencing the
    distribution and abundance of organisms
  • Behavior actions and responses of organisms to
    stimulation
  • Physiology internal functions of organisms and
    their responses to internal and external
    influences
  • Other fields biochemistry, pharmacology,
    evolution

74
Biological Research- Observation
  • Semi-processed observations The diver makes
    counts or size measurements while underwater
  • Sampling Schemes
  • Quadrats used to intensively analyze a fixed
    area
  • Transects rectangles/strips used for measuring
    abundance in a set area

75
Biological Research - Quadrats
  • Typically used for small, non-motile or slow
    moving organisms that are reasonably abundant
    within a manageable quadrat size
  • Size typically 0.1 m2, 0.25 m2 , or 0.5 m2
  • Construction aluminum, welded rebar, or PVC
    pipe
  • Typically 4 sided, but 3 sided are good if
    dealing with thick algal cover

Quadrats
76
Diver using 3 sided quadrat note transect line
Typical rectangular quadrats arrayed on a
transect line
77
Biological Research - Quadrats
  • Point contact quadrats ( cover)
  • Strung with lines creating squares
  • Where the lines cross record the species under
    that point
  • Circular quadrats
  • Use a weight attached to a line
  • to circumscribe an area
  • Effective in areas of high algal cover

78
Biological Research - Quadrats
  • Random point contact
  • A weighted bar with a string of knots tied to
    each end is dropped in a quadrat
  • Each species or group under the string, or above
    it to a specified height, is recorded

79
Biological Research -Transects
  • Typically used for larger, more mobile or less
    abundant organisms
  • Materials
  • Fiberglass transect tapes
  • Nylon line marked with tape, heat shrink tubing,
    lead sleeves
  • Permanent leaded core lines secured with anchors
  • Transects may be laid ahead of survey - or
    distance of transect may be assessed after
    completion

80
A diver moves along a transect
Diver counting lobsters found within 2 m of a 150
m transect
81
Biological Research -Transects
  • Determining the dimensions of a transect (length
    x width area) is done by measuring, using a
    stiff rod, or estimation
  • The length and width of the transect must be
    scaled according to the abundance and size of the
    organisms in question
  • Observations can be biased by organisms that
    avoid divers or are attracted to them
  • Timed observations
  • Record the number of target individuals passing
    by a specific point
  • Record the arrival of target species

82
Biological Research- Observation
  • Raw Observations Observations (e.g., counts,
    size) are recorded underwater and summary
    calculations (e.g., sums, means, densities) are
    done later
  • Photoquadrats
  • Application Most useful for documenting the
    abundance of non-motile or slow-moving organisms

83
Divers using photoquadrats note framers made of
PVC
Photoquadrat images
84
Biological Research Observation Photo Quadrats
  • Framers Underwater framers allow reliable,
    repeatable pictures. The framer usually supports
    the camera and flash and indicates the area being
    filmed
  • May be made from aluminum stock or even PVC pipe
  • Often have scale bars to allow absolute
    measurements to be made
  • Strategies for analysis
  • Analyze digital images with computer programs
    for
  • Counts
  • Random point intercept ( cover)
  • Measurements of area

85
Biological Research Observation Underwater
Video
  • Most often used for documenting the abundance of
    motile organisms
  • Methodology video may be shot along a fixed
    transect for a fixed amount of time
  • Concerns
  • Visibility must be measured
  • Some mobile organisms avoid divers, others are
    attracted
  • Analysis
  • Analyze digital video with computer programs

86
Divers recording video along transect lines
Still from video transect images may be
quantified
87
Assessing Aquatic Populations
  • Non-mobile organisms
  • Corers for soft sediments
  • Coffee can corers
  • Cut off both ends
  • Drive into sediment
  • Put one lid on the top
  • Dig out one side and slip another lid on the
    other opening
  • Good for large area samples
  • Suction corer
  • Use 1 2 inch internal diameter PVC tubing
  • Sharpen the edge
  • Drive into the sediment
  • Plug the exposed end with a rubber stopper
  • Pull the tube from the substrate, place into
    plastic bag

88
Assessing Aquatic Populations
  • Airlifts for hard-substrate organisms
  • Airlift design
  • Typically a long PVC tube (4-8 inch internal
    diameter) connected to a separate air tank via a
    first stage and a low pressure port
  • Air enters the tube near the opening and expands
    as it rises, creating suction at the opening
  • A sample bag is attached to the far end
  • This bag must be secured to the end, but be easy
    to release and seal
  • Procedure
  • Mark out area with a quadrat
  • Go over the area quickly to remove loose material
    and semi-mobile organisms
  • Scrape the surface with a wire brush

89
Assessing Aquatic Populations
  • Mobile organisms
  • Traps
  • Baited and unbaited traps can be laid out and
    then recovered after a set period of time
  • Slurp guns
  • Effective when capturing small fish or
    invertebrates

90
Assessing Aquatic Populations
  • Spear guns/pole spears
  • Spear guns are effective for larger fish, multi
    prong pole spears are more effective with smaller
    fish (easy to rearm if you miss)
  • Hand nets
  • Made from seine material rugged, but high drag
    and slow
  • Made from gill net mesh less rugged, but less
    resistance and faster

91
Assessing Aquatic Populations
  • Anesthetics/Poisons
  • Poisons include Rotenone (root of South American
    plant), pronox and chem fish
  • Anesthetics include
  • MS-222 dissolves in water
  • Quinaldine dilute to 10 with EtOH or acetone
    or isopropanol
  • Hard to get rid of smell
  • Benzocaine
  • 2-phenozyethanol
  • Mix a dye (flouroscene) so that the target area
    can be monitored
  • Application
  • Place in plastic bag puncture and squeeze
  • Place in several large syringes
  • Plastic squeeze bottle

92
Study Questions
  • Use the following study questions to review some
    of the information presented in this self study
    module. When you are finished you can print out
    your study questions results.

93
Self-study Questions
  • Which of these tools are good for distance
    measurement in direct surveys?
  • a. Ropes
  • b. Lines
  • c. Steel Tape
  • d. Vinyl measuring tape
  • e. All of the above

94
Self-study Questions
  • Which of these tools are good for distance
    measurement in direct surveys?
  • a. Ropes
  • b. Lines
  • c. Steel Tape
  • d. Vinyl measuring tape
  • e. All of the above

95
Self-study Questions
  • Which type of camera lens can permit detailed
    photography to cover large areas?
  • a. Wide-angle
  • b. Short-angle
  • c. Normal-angle
  • d. None of the above

96
Self-study Questions
  • Which type of camera lens can permit detailed
    photography to cover large areas?
  • a. Wide-angle
  • b. Short-angle
  • c. Normal-angle
  • d. None of the above

97
Self-study Questions
  • This method of underwater survey is the acoustic
    equivalent of direct trilateration.
  • a. Phase Measurement
  • b. Acoustic Grid
  • c. None of the above

98
Self-study Questions
  • This method of underwater survey is the acoustic
    equivalent of direct trilateration.
  • a. Phase Measurement
  • b. Acoustic Grid
  • c. None of the above

99
Self-study Questions
  • What is the simplest method for recording data
    under water?
  • a. Using a graphite pencil
  • b. Using a white-double sided plastic board
  • c. Using a lead pencil
  • d. A and B

100
Self-study Questions
  • What is the simplest method for recording data
    under water?
  • a. Using a graphite pencil
  • b. Using a white-double sided plastic board
  • c. Using a lead pencil
  • d. A and B

101
Self-study Questions
  • The best equipment configuration for
    communications is a full-face mask equipped with
    a microphone.
  • a. True
  • b. False

102
Self-study Questions
  • The best equipment configuration for
    communications is a full-face mask equipped with
    a microphone.
  • a. True
  • b. False

103
Self-study Questions
  • Baseline studies must be designed without
    monitoring them at prescribed intervals.
  • a. True
  • b. False

104
Self-study Questions
  • Baseline studies must be designed without
    monitoring them at prescribed intervals.
  • a. True
  • b. False

105
Self-study Questions
  • What can the diver use to capture larger, less
    motile zooplankton?
  • a. Plastic containers
  • b. Nets
  • c. Glass containers
  • d. A and C

106
Self-study Questions
  • What can the diver use to capture larger, less
    motile zooplankton?
  • a. Plastic containers
  • b. Nets
  • c. Glass containers
  • d. A and C

107
Self-study Questions
  • Can organism density and distribution be
    determined photographically without disturbing
    the aggregation?
  • a. Yes
  • b. No

108
Self-study Questions
  • Can organism density and distribution be
    determined photographically without disturbing
    the aggregation?
  • a. Yes
  • b. No

109
Self-study Questions
  • Direct in situ observation of lobsters is the
    most effective way to study lobster ecology and
    behavior.
  • a. True
  • b. False

110
Self-study Questions
  • Direct in situ observation of lobsters is the
    most effective way to study lobster ecology and
    behavior.
  • a. True
  • b. False

111
Self-study Questions
  • Which of these are basic tools that geologists
    should carry?
  • a. Compass
  • b. Depth gauge
  • c. Ruler
  • d. Noteboard
  • e. All of the above

112
Self-study Questions
  • Which of these are basic tools that geologists
    should carry?
  • a. Compass
  • b. Depth gauge
  • c. Ruler
  • d. Noteboard
  • e. All of the above

113
Self-study Questions
  • Which of these mapping methods can be used in
    water or on land, using plane tables?
  • a. Petersons Wheel-Meter Tape Method
  • b. Meter Tape Triangulation Method
  • c. Plane Table Triangulation Method
  • d. Dumas Measuring Frame Method

114
Self-study Questions
  • Which of these mapping methods can be used in
    water or on land, using plane tables?
  • a. Petersons Wheel-Meter Tape Method
  • b. Meter Tape Triangulation Method
  • c. Plane Table Triangulation Method
  • d. Dumas Measuring Frame Method

115
Self-study Questions
  • Does underwater surficial mapping require only
    identification of materials and features that
    compose the area?
  • a. Yes
  • b. No

116
Self-study Questions
  • Does underwater surficial mapping require only
    identification of materials and features that
    compose the area?
  • a. Yes
  • b. No

117
Self-study Questions
  • During experimentation, which processes are
    explored in their interrelationships?
  • a. Geological
  • b. Biological
  • c. Physical
  • d. Chemical
  • e. All of the above

118
Self-study Questions
  • During experimentation, which processes are
    explored in their interrelationships?
  • a. Geological
  • b. Biological
  • c. Physical
  • d. Chemical
  • e. All of the above

119
Self-study Questions
  • During which phase does the most important aspect
    of the relocation process of instruments occur?
  • a. Inspection
  • b. Deployment
  • c. Cleaning
  • d. Recovery

120
Self-study Questions
  • During which phase does the most important aspect
    of the relocation process of instruments occur?
  • a. Inspection
  • b. Deployment
  • c. Cleaning
  • d. Recovery

121
Self-study Questions
  • Bulk water samples can be obtained by swirling
    large plastic bags through water until filled.
  • a. True
  • b. False

122
Self-study Questions
  • Bulk water samples can be obtained by swirling
    large plastic bags through water until filled.
  • a. True
  • b. False

123
Self-study Questions
  • Which of these can be used for animal capture
    techniques?
  • a. Nets
  • b. Trawls
  • c. Seines
  • d. Grabs
  • e. Dredges
  • f. All of the above

124
Self-study Questions
  • Which of these can be used for animal capture
    techniques?
  • a. Nets
  • b. Trawls
  • c. Seines
  • d. Grabs
  • e. Dredges
  • f. All of the above

125
Self-study Questions
  • Where is most scientific diving carried out?
  • a. Deep waters
  • b. Shallow waters
  • c. Nearshore waters
  • d. None of the above 

126
Self-study Questions
  • Where is most scientific diving carried out?
  • a. Deep waters
  • b. Shallow waters
  • c. Nearshore waters
  • d. None of the above

127
Self-study Questions
  • Which of these is a method for tagging marine
    organisms?
  • a. In situ
  • b. Electroshocked
  • c. Captured and brought to the surface
  • d. A and C

128
Self-study Questions
  • Which of these is a method for tagging marine
    organisms?
  • a. In situ
  • b. Electroshocked
  • c. Captured and brought to the surface
  • d. A and C
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