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Aviation Physiology

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The Notre Dame Pilot Initiative is a student led effort intended to bring aviation back to the University of Notre Dame. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aviation Physiology


1
Aviation Physiology
2
Roadmap
  • Vision
  • Night Flight
  • Visual Illusions
  • Landing Illusions
  • Spatial Disorientation
  • Hypoxia
  • ADM (Aeronautical Decision Making)

3
Quote of the Day
  • IM SAFE

4
Vision
  • Vision
  • result of light passing through the cornea and
    striking a lens.
  • Retina
  • Cones
  • Rods

5
Vision
  • Cones
  • perceive color and depth
  • concentrated in the fovea
  • Rods
  • concentrated outside the fovea
  • dim light and night receivers.
  • 10,000 time more sensitive to light than cones
  • Primary receptors to night vision and peripheral
    vision
  • Night Blind spot
  • Anatomical Blind spot

6
Dark Adaptation
  • Visual Purple (Rhodopsin)
  • Light absorbing protein in membrane of rods
  • Allows rods to detect images in the dark
  • Night flight
  • 30 minutes required for full adaptation to dark
  • Red lights
  • Rods least affected by red lights wavelength
  • Minimal contraction of iris

7
Night Flight Checklist
  • Get dark adapted prior to flight
  • Keep glasses and windscreen clean
  • Look off to side 15o while scanning
  • Close one eye if using bright light
  • Properly use oxygen
  • Quit Smoking
  • Vitamin A
  • Get adequate rest

8
Visual Illusions
  • False Horizons
  • Black Hole Approach
  • Landing Illusions

9
Visual Illusions
  • False Horizons
  • Natural horizon is obscured or not apparent
  • Attempting to realign yourself to false horizon
    can lead to a dangerous flight attitude
  • Black Hole Approach
  • Long, straight-in approach at night to a brightly
    lit runway over featureless and unlit terrain
  • Pilot attempts to maintain visual angle

10
Landing Illusions
  • Sloping runways
  • Runway width
  • Terrain
  • Weather conditions
  • Visibility

11
Illusions
12
Approach Illusions
13
Example Runway Width
14
Sloping Runway
15
Disorientation
  • The incorrect mental image of your position,
    attitude, or movement
  • Three sources of input
  • Kinesthetic Sense
  • Vision
  • Vestibular System

16
Kinesthetic and Vestibular
  • Awareness of position obtained from the nerves in
    your skin, joints, and muscles.
  • Fly by the seat of your pants
  • Rely upon kinesthetic and vestibular senses in
    low visibility
  • Problem UNRELIABLE
  • Factors such as fatigue, high workload, alcohol,
    and anxiety add to susceptibility to
    disorientation and visual illusions.

17
What Can I do?
  • Rely on the instruments
  • Regardless of how your body feels, maintaining
    orientation during flight at night or in marginal
    weather conditions is key.

18
Illusions Leading to Disorientation
  • Graveyard Spiral
  • Turn Tightens as Pilot tries to raise nose
  • Leans
  • Desire to turn opposite direction after rolling
    out of a turn
  • Inversion Illusion
  • Abrupt change from climb to straight and level

19
Hypoxia
  • Oxygen deficiency in the bloodstream
  • Symptoms
  • Headache, fatigue
  • Light headed or dizzy sensation, lethargic
  • Tingling or warming sensations, sweating
  • Sleepiness
  • Cyanosis (discoloration of fingernails and lips)
  • Euphoria
  • Effects
  • Lack of clear thinking
  • After time, unconsciousness

20
Hyperventilation
  • Too much Oxygen
  • Not enough Carbon Dioxide
  • Symptoms
  • Dizziness
  • Hot and cold sensations
  • Sleepiness
  • Tingling of hands, legs, and feet
  • Remedy
  • Breathe into brown paper bag
  • Talk Aloud

21
ADM
  • Systematic approach to the mental process used to
    determine best course of action
  • Dangerous Tendencies
  • Scud Running
  • Continuing Visual Flight into IMC
  • Neglect of Checklists

22
Hazardous Attitudes
  • Attitudes
  • Antiauthority
  • Impulsivity
  • Macho
  • Resignation
  • Antidotes
  • Follow the Rules
  • Think first
  • It could happen to me
  • Im not helpless

23
Any Questions?
  • Aviation in itself is not inherently dangerous.
    But to an even greater degree than the sea, it
    is unforgiving of any carelessness, incapacity,
    or neglect
  • -Anonymous
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