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Remembering the Past – Shaping the Future

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Title: Remembering the Past – Shaping the Future


1
  • Remembering the Past Shaping the Future

2
Yad Vashem
  • Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes'
    Remembrance Authority, was established in 1953 by
    an act of the Israeli Knesset. Since its
    inception, Yad Vashem has been entrusted with
    documenting the history of the Jewish people
    during the Holocaust period, preserving the
    memory and story of each of the six million
    victims, and imparting the legacy of the
    Holocaust for generations to come through its
    archives, library, school, museums and
    recognition of the Righteous Among the
    Nations.Located on Har Hazikaron, the Mount of
    Remembrance, in Jerusalem, Yad Vashem is a vast,
    sprawling complex of tree-studded walkways
    leading to museums, exhibits, archives,
    monuments, sculptures, and memorials.

3
The Avenue of the Righteous Among the Nations
  •  In 1963, Yad Vashem embarked upon a worldwide
    project to grant the title of Righteous Among the
    Nations to non-Jews who risked their lives to
    save Jews during the Holocaust.  To this end, Yad
    Vashem set up a public committee headed by a
    retired Supreme Court justice, which is
    responsible for granting the title.  This project
    is the only one of its kind in the world that
    honors, using set criteria, the actions of those
    individuals who rescued Jews during the war.  The
    Righteous program and the trees planted on the
    Avenue of the Righteous Among the Nations have
    received world coverage, and the concept of
    Righteous Among the Nations coined in the Yad
    Vashem Law has become a universal concept and an
    important symbol.  As of January 2006, 21,310
    people have been recognized as Righteous Among
    the Nations. In addition, Yad Vashem has been
    developing a comprehensive encyclopedia - The
    Lexicon of the Righteous Among the Nations - that
    will eventually include the stories of all the
    Righteous Among the Nations.  The Garden of the
    Righteous Among the Nations, in which marble
    plaques have been engraved with the names of the
    rescuers according to country, was inaugurated in
    1996.  Ceremonies in which the title of Righteous
    Among the Nations is granted are held in the
    Garden.

4
Valley of the communities
  • The Valley of the Communities highlights the
    names of thousands of Jewish communities
    destroyed by Nazi Germany and its collaborators
    and the few that suffered but survived in the
    shadow of the Holocaust. The task of the
    architects was to create a monument to ruin, an
    act which required the "con"-struction of
    "de"-struction. Therefore nothing was built above
    the ground. The Valley of the Communities was
    excavated out of the earth. It resembles a
    concentration of huge open graves gaping in the
    ground. It is as if what had been built up on the
    surface of the earth over the course of a
    millennia - a thousand years of Jewish communal
    life - was suddenly swallowed up. It is as if a
    great catastrophe occurred and that rich world
    which was Jewish life before the Holocaust
    suddenly disappeared from sight, suddenly sunk
    out of existence.

5
The Childrens memorial
  • This unique memorial, hollowed out from an
    underground cavern, is a tribute to the
    approximately 1.5 million Jewish children who
    perished during the Holocaust. Memorial candles,
    a customary Jewish tradition to remember the
    dead, are reflected infinitely in a dark and
    somber space, creating the impression of millions
    of stars shining in the firmament. The names of
    murdered children, their ages and countries of
    origin can be heard in the background.

6
Dream
  • When I grow up and get to be twenty
  • Ill travel and see this world of plenty.
  • In a bird with an engine I will sit myself down,
  • Take off and fly into space, far above the
    ground.
  • Ill fly, Ill cruise and soar up high
  • Above a world so lovely, into the sky
  • And so, delighted by all the worlds charms,
  • Into the heavens I will take off and not have a
    bother,
  • The cloud is my sisters, the wind is my brother.


  • Avramek Kopelowicz,

  • Murdered in Auschwitz

  • at age 14

7
The Hall of Names
  • The Hall of Names at Yad Vashem is the Jewish
    Peoples memorial to each and every Jew who
    perished in the Holocaust a place where they
    may be commemorated for generations to come. The
    main circular hall houses the extensive
    collection of Pages of Testimony short
    biographies of each Holocaust victim. Over two
    million Pages are stored in the circular
    repository around the outer edge of the Hall,
    with room for six million in all. The ceiling of
    the Hall is composed of a ten-meter high cone
    reaching skywards, displaying 600 photographs and
    fragments of Pages of Testimony. This exhibit
    represents a fraction of the murdered six million
    men, women and children from the diverse Jewish
    world destroyed by the Nazis and their
    accomplices. The victims portraits are reflected
    in water at the base of an opposing cone carved
    out of the mountains bedrock. At the far end of
    the Hall is a glass screen onto which Pages of
    Testimony are projected. From here one may enter
    a computer center and search the Central Database
    of Shoah Victims Names, with the assistance of
    the Hall of Names staff. The Center also offers
    blank Pages of Testimony and survivor
    registration forms.

8
Remembrance days
  • For OSCE participating States

9
(No Transcript)
10
Remembrance days
  • France 27 January, 16 July
  • Italy 27 January, 16
    October
  • Liechtenstain 27 January
  • Poland 27 January
  • Romany 9 October
  • Slovakia 9 September

11
Italy
  • Holocaust memorial day
  • Day of Remembrance 27 January, 16 October
  • Historical Background On the morning of
    January 27, 1945, the Soviet Army entered
    Auschwitz III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz
    I later that afternoon. Only some 7650 prisoners
    survived to be liberated. Over the course of
    WWII, the Nazis murdered over one million Jews in
    the Auschwitz concentration and extermination
    camps. On October 16, 1943, under the German
    occupation government, a large-scale hunt for
    Romes Jews began. 1,015 Jews were arrested that
    morning, and within two months an additional
    7,345 Jews were found and deported from Northern
    Italy.

12
Liechtenstein
  • Holocaust Remembrance Day for the Prevention of
    Crimes against Humanity
  • Day of Remembrance 27 January
  • Historical Background On the morning of 27
    January, 1945, the Soviet Army entered Auschwitz
    III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz I later
    that afternoon. Altogether, they liberated some
    7650 prisoners. The Nazis murdered over one
    million Jews in the Auschwitz concentration and
    extermination camps.

13
Poland
  • Day of Remembrance for the Victims of the
    Holocaust and Prevention of Crimes against
    Humanity
  • Day of Remembrance 27 January
  • Historical Background On the morning of 27
    January, 1945, the Soviet Army entered Auschwitz
    III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz I later
    that afternoon. Altogether, they liberated some
    7650 prisoners. The Nazis murdered over one
    million Jews in the Auschwitz concentration and
    extermination camps.
  • On July 16-17, a major aktion (deportation)
    took place in France 12,000 Jews were rounded up
    in Paris and locked up in the Velodrome dHiver
    sports stadium for days without food, water, or
    toilets. Thousands of Jews were arrested and
    deported to concentration camps in the east.

14
Poland
  • Museums
  • Krakow - Old Synagogue
  • Krakow - Galicia Jewish Museum
  • Warszawa - Museum of the History of Polish Jews

15
Romania
  • Holocaust memorial day
  • Day of Remembrance 9 October
  • Historical Background On 9 October, 1941 the
    deportations of Jews from the Romanian regions of
    Bukovina and Bessarabia to Transnistria began.

16
France
  • Holocaust memorial day of the Nazi crimes
  • Days of Remembrance 27 January, 16 July
  • Historical Background On the morning of 27
    January, 1945, the Soviet Army entered Auschwitz
    III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz I later
    that afternoon. Altogether, they liberated some
    7650 prisoners. The Nazis murdered over one
    million Jews in the Auschwitz concentration and
    extermination camps. On 16-17 July 1942, a major
    aktion (deportation) took place in France 12,000
    Jews were rounded up in Paris and locked up in
    the Velodrome dHiver sports stadium for days
    without food, water, or toilets. Thousands of
    Jews were arrested and deported to concentration
    camps in the east.

17
France
  • Museums
  • Bouxwiller - Musee Judeo-Alsacien de
    Bouxwiller
  • Cavaillon - Synagogue and Jewish Museum of
    Comtadin Musee Juif Comtadin
  • Paris - Museum of Jewish Art and History Musee
    d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaisme

18
Slovak Republic
  • Day of Victims of the Holocaust and Racial
    Violence
  • Day of Remembrance 9 September
  • Historical Background On 9 September 1941, the
    fascist Slovak government approved the Jewish
    Codex," containing 270 amendments, which defined
    Jews on racial grounds and required them to wear
    the yellow Jewish Badge. This was the last step
    before the deportation of Slovak Jews to
    concentration camps.
  • Museums
  • Bratislava - Museum of Jewish Culture, Slovak
    Jewish Heritage

19
Austria
  • Day of Remembrance against Violence and Racism in
    Memory of the Victims of National Socialism
  • Day of Remembrance 5 May
  • Historical Background On 5 May 1945, the
    11th US Armored Division liberated the
    concentration camp at Mauthausen in Austria. More
    than 15,000 bodies were found and buried in mass
    graves in the next few days. In the following
    weeks 3,000 of the liberated prisoners died of
    malnutrition, disease or exhaustion.
  • Museums
  • Eisenstadt - Austrian Jewish Museum
  • Hohenems - Judisches Museum Hohenems
  • Vienna - Jewish Museum Vienna Judisches
    Museum der Stadt Wien

20
Belgium
  • National day of commemoration of the Holocaust
  • Day of Remembrance 8 May
  • Historical Background On 8 May 1945, Belgium
    was liberated from the Nazi occupation. May 8
    symbolizes les V-dagen (V day), which was Sir
    Winston Churchills victory sign. V is also the
    first letter of the Dutch words Vrede (peace) and
    Vrijheid (freedom) and Verdraamhei (tolerance).
  • Museums
  • Brussels - Jewish Museum of Belgium

21
Bulgaria
  • Day of the Holocaust and Saving of the Bulgarian
    Jews(Day of Holocaust Victims)
  • Day of Remembrance 10 March
  • Historical Background On the night of 10 March
    1943, the Commission for Jewish Affairs released
    the 20,000 Bulgarian Jews who had been arrested
    for deportation. A week later, Dimitar Peshev and
    the 43 members of the Parliament drew up the
    Declaration for the Defense of the Bulgarian
    Jews, with public support. King Boris III then
    persuaded the German authorities not to deport
    the countrys Jews.

22
Croatia
  • Day of Remebrance of the Holocaust and for the
    prevention of crimes against humanity
  • Day of Remembrance 27 January
  • Historical Background On the morning of 27
    January, 1945, the Soviet Army entered Auschwitz
    III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz I later
    that afternoon. Altogether, they liberated some
    7650 prisoners. During WWII, the Nazis murdered
    over one million Jews in the Auschwitz
    concentration and extermination camps.

23
Czech republic
  • Holocaust memorial day
  • Day of Remembrance 27 January
  • Historical Background On the morning of 27
    January, 1945, the Soviet Army entered Auschwitz
    III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz I later
    that afternoon. Altogether, they liberated some
    7650 prisoners. During WWII, the Nazis murdered
    over one million Jews in the Auschwitz
    concentration and extermination camps. 27
    January has been the official date of
    commemoration in the Czech Republic since 2003.
  • Museums
  • Boskovice - Greater Synagogue
  • Prague - Jewish Museum in Prague

24
Denmark
  • Auschwitz Day
  • Day of Remembrance 27 January
  • Historical Background On the morning of 27
    January, 1945, the Soviet Army entered Auschwitz
    III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz I later
    that afternoon. Altogether, they liberated some
    7650 prisoners. The Nazis murdered over one
    million Jews in the Auschwitz concentration and
    extermination camps
  • Museums
  • Copenhagen - Danish Jewish Museum Dansk Jodisk
    Museum

25
Estonia
  • Day of Remembrance for the victims of the
    Holocaust and crimes against humanity
  • Day of Remembrance 27 January
  • Historical Background On the morning of 27
    January, 1945, the Soviet Army entered Auschwitz
    III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz I later
    that afternoon. Altogether, they liberated some
    7650 prisoners. The Nazis murdered over one
    million Jews in the Auschwitz concentration and
    extermination camps.

26
Finland
  • Victim of Persecution Memorial Day
  • Day of Remembrance 27 January
  • Historical Background On the morning of 27
    January, 1945, the Soviet Army entered Auschwitz
    III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz I later
    that afternoon. Altogether, they liberated some
    7650 prisoners. During WWII, the Nazis murdered
    over one million Jews in the Auschwitz
    concentration and extermination camps.

27
Germany
  • Memorial Day for the Victims of the Nazi crimes
  • Days of Remembrance 27 January, 9 November
  • Historical Background On the morning of 27
    January, 1945, the Soviet Army entered Auschwitz
    III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz I later
    that afternoon. Altogether, they liberated some
    7650 prisoners. The Nazis murdered over one
    million Jews in the Auschwitz concentration and
    extermination camps. 9 November, 1938 is the
    date of Kristallnacht Night of Broken Glass
    in which anti-Jewish rioting broke out throughout
    Germany. The 'broken glass refers to the Jewish
    shop windows that were smashed by the rioters.
    Hundreds of synagogues and Jewish homes were
    burnt down. Some 30,000 Jews were deported to
    concentration camps, and 90 Jews were murdered
    that night.

28
Germany
  • Museums
  • Augsburg - Jüdisches Kulturmuseum
  • Berlin - Neue Synagoge Berlin - Centrum Judaicum
  • Berlin - Jewish Museum Berlin Judisches Museum
  • Buttenheim - Levi Strauss Museum
  • Creglingen - Creglingen Jewish Museum
  • Dorsten - Jewish Museum of Westphalia Judisches
    Museum Westfalen
  • Emmendingen - Judisches Museum Emmendingen
  • Frankfurt - Jewish Museum Frankfurt Judische
    Museum
  • Furth - Jewish Museum of Franconia
  • Goppingen - Jewish Museum in Jebenhausen
  • Munich - Judisches Museum Munchen
  • Munich - Association of European Jewish Museums

29
Greece
  • Holocaust memorial day
  • Day of Remembrance 27 January
  • Historical Background On the morning of 27
    January, 1945, the Soviet Army entered Auschwitz
    III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz I later
    that afternoon. Altogether, they liberated some
    7650 prisoners. The Nazis murdered over one
    million Jews in the Auschwitz concentration and
    extermination camps.
  • Museums
  • Athens - Jewish Museum of Greece
  • Crete - Etz Hayyim Synagogue, Hania
  • Thessaloniki - Jewish Museum of Thessaloniki

30
Hungary
  • Holocaust memorial day
  • Day of Remembrance 16 April
  • Historical Background On 16 April 1944, the
    first Jewish ghetto was established in Hungary,
    in the town of Munkacs (in eastern Hungary). Half
    a million Hungarian Jews were murdered in the
    Holocaust.
  • Museums
  • Budapest - Hungarian Jewish Museum and Archives

31
Israel
  • Day of Remembrance The day begins at sunset
    on the 27th of the Jewish month of Nisan and
    ending the following evening, according to the
    traditional Jewish custom of marking a day.
  • Historical Background The 27th of Nisan
    commemorates the beginning of the Warsaw Ghetto
    Uprising in April 1943. It is also important to
    note that on the Jewish calendar, Yom Hashoah,
    Holocaust Remembrance Day falls soon after the
    Passover holiday (in which Jews remember their
    bondage in Egypt) and a few days before Israel
    Independence Day.

32
Italy
  • Museums
  • Bologna - Jewish Museum of Bologna
  • Ferrara - Museo Ebraico di Ferrara
  • Florence - Jewish Museum of Florence

33
Latvia
  • Holocaust memorial day
  • Day of Remembrance 4 July
  • Historical Background On 4 July 1941, the
    Nazis burnt down the Riga Choral Synagogue, with
    many Jews trapped inside. July 4 is Latvia's
    national Holocaust Memorial Day. In this date,
    the people of Latvia remember and honor the
    victims of genocide against the Jews. On October
    3, 1990, the Latvian Parliament instituted this
    date as a national day of commemoration as part
    of the law detailing Holiday and Commemoration
    Days.
  • Museums
  • Vilnius - Vilna Gaon Jewish State Museum

34
Luxembourg
  • Day of National Commemoration
  • Day of Remembrance 10 October
  • Historical Background 10 October 1941 marked a
    symbolic victory for the people of Luxembourg.
    The occupying Nazis issued a population census
    that was skewed  to legitimize their annexation
    of Luxembourg. On the form, the Nazis asked three
    questions aimed at determining language,
    nationality and cultural origins. The Nazis
    forbade the people of Luxembourg from responding
    in Luxemburgish. The national resistance movement
    managed to convince most of the population to
    defiantly reply to these questions with the
    phrase Dreimol letzeburgesch (three times
    Luxembourgish). This was a psychological victory
    for the resistance and an independent Luxembourg.

35
Norway
  • Holocaust memorial day
  • Day of Remembrance 27 January
  • Historical Background On the morning of 27
    January, 1945, the Soviet Army entered Auschwitz
    III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz I later
    that afternoon. Altogether, they liberated some
    7650 prisoners. During WWII, the Nazis murdered
    over one million Jews in the Auschwitz
    concentration and extermination camps.
  • Museum
  • Trondheim - Jodiske Museum

36
Sweden
  • Holocaust memorial day
  • Day of Remembrance 27 January
  • Historical background On the morning of 27
    January, 1945, the Soviet Army entered Auschwitz
    III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz I later
    that afternoon. Altogether, they liberated some
    7650 prisoners. The Nazis murdered over one
    million Jews in the Auschwitz concentration and
    extermination camps.
  • Museums
  • Stockholm - Jewish Museum in Stockholm

37
Switzerland
  • Holocaust memorial day
  • Day of Remembrance 27 January
  • Historical Background On the morning of 27
    January, 1945, the Soviet Army entered Auschwitz
    III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz I later
    that afternoon. Altogether, they liberated some
    7650 prisoners. The Nazis murdered over one
    million Jews in the Auschwitz concentration and
    extermination camps.

38
The Netherlands
  • The national remebrance
  • Day of Remembrance 4-5 May
  • Historical Background May 4, 1945 is the day
    before the Bevrijdingsdag, May 5 1945 when the
    Second World War ended.
  • Museums
  • Amsterdam - Jewish Historical Museum Joods
    Historisch Museum

39
UK
  • Holocaust memorial day
  • Day of Remembrance 27 January
  • Historical Background On the morning of 27
    January, 1945, the Soviet Army entered Auschwitz
    III, followed by Birkenau and Auschwitz I later
    that afternoon. Altogether, they liberated some
    7650 prisoners. During WWII, the Nazis murdered
    over one million Jews in the Auschwitz
    concentration and extermination camps. The UK
    Holocaust Memorial Day was first held in January
    2001, and has been commemorated on 27 January
    every year since. The national event for
    Holocaust Memorial Day has been hosted in
    different locations around the UK it was held in
    London (2001), Manchester (2002), Edinburgh
    (2003) and Belfast (2004). In 2005 the national
    event will return to London.

40
UK
  • Every year there is a theme for the day these
    themes are intended to help mark Holocaust
    Memorial Day by providing a focus through which
    people can draw on wider materials and examine
    the continuing relevance of the Holocaust. This
    years theme paper states The sixtieth
    anniversary of the liberation of the
    concentration camps presents one of the greatest
    opportunities to show our respect for the
    survivors of Nazi persecution and mass murder,
    and to listen to what they can tell us about the
    best and the worst of human behavior. This year
    the focus is on survivors and their testimonies.
  • Museums
  • London - Ben Uri Gallery, Jewish Museum of Art
  • London - Jewish Museum
  • Manchester - Manchester Jewish Museum

41
Righteous among the nations (per country and
ethnic origin)
  • Romania 
     52
  • Switzerland
    38
  • Bosnia
    34
  • Norway
    26
  • Denmark
    21
  • Bulgaria
    17
  • Great Britain(incl.Scotland) 13
  • Sweden
    10
  • Macedonia
    10
  • Armenia
    10
  • Slovenia
    6
  • Spain
    3
  • Estonia
    3
  • China
    2
  • USA
    2
  • Brazil 
    2
  • Chile
    1
  • Japan
    1
  • Luxembourg
    1
  • Poland   5,941
  • Netherlands 4,726
  • France 2,646
  • Ukraine 2,139
  • Belgium 1,414
  • Hungary 671
  • Lithuania 630
  • Belarus 564
  • Slovakia 460
  • Germany 427
  • Italy 391
  • Greece 265
  • Yugoslavia(Serbia) 121
  • Russia 120
  • Czech Republic 115
  • Croatia 105
  • Latvia 100
  • Austria 85
  • Moldova 71

42
Righteous among the nations in Slovakia
  • Antol Vladimir Anka
  • Balala Stefan Rosa Daughters Ludmila Hanka
    Mariska
  • Balat Frantisek Maria Son Francko
  • Bandzakova-Kuchar Anna
  • Bartakova Anna
  • Bem Ernst Magdalena
  • Blaha Mararetha
  • Boharczyk Pawel
  • Bresky Frantisek
  • Brno Jan Wife
  • Capos Jan
  • Cmerickova Maria
  • Cernak Jan Anna Son Jan
  • Cernakova-Noskova Luba Parents
  • Chomowa Maria Daughter Olga Sramkova
  • Civanova Anna Children Maria Ludevit
  • Csiky Juraj
  • Daubner Anna
  • Dobrovodsky Martin Betti
  • Hronec Pavel Paulina
  • Hrubesova Katerina
  • Hucko Jan Eva
  • Jaksy Joseph
  • Jamborova Anna
  • Jancik Michal Maria
  • Kacir Lujdevit Margita
  • Kaminski Karol
  • Kleinova Eva Son Vladimir
  • Kleinova Eva Son Vladimir
  • Knap Michal
  • Knosko Michael Wilma
  • Koch Karl
  • Kochol Gustav Wife Children Victor, Ludevit,
    Vlado Milan
  • Kocun Stefan
  • Kolik Jozef Anna Son Rudolf
  • Koricova Antaon Pavla
  • Kroslak Jan Son Adam
  • Kuchar Jozef Rozalia

43
Gisi Fleischmann
  • In the spring of 1942, the deportation of
    Slovakias Jews to Poland began. In view of the
    deportations, a group of activists the Working
    Group - organized an effort to stop them. The
    Group was headed by Gisi Fleischmann, one of the
    heads of the Womens International Zionist
    Organization there, and Michael Dov Weissmandel,
    an ultra-Orthodox rabbi, along with public
    figures from various streams Zionists, Orthodox
    and assimilated Jews.
  • In its efforts to halt the deportations, the
    Working Group adopted a policy of bribing key
    officials in the Slovakian administration and the
    German representation. In the course of
    negotiations over the summer of 1942, the Group
    paid ransom money to Dieter Wisliceny, Eichmanns
    delegate in Slovakia. For various considerations,
    the deportations were halted in the autumn of
    1942, but the Working Group believed this was a
    result of their bribes, and this encouraged them
    for the future.
  • The pause in the deportations convinced the
    Working Group that bribery was essential. As a
    result, Rabbi Weissmandel conceived the Europa
    Plan, - the saving of European Jewry through the
    payment of ransom. The Groups negotiations with
    the SS on this matter lasted from November 1942
    until August 1943. During this period, Group
    members contacted Jewish organizations in Europe
    as well as representatives of the Land of Israel,
    headquartered in Istanbul, in an effort to
    receive their agreement to the Plan and to
    mobilize the necessary funds. The negotiations
    with the Germans came to naught and turned out to
    be just another SS deception
  • Despite their disappointment at the failure of
    the Europa Plan, the members of the Working Group
    did not relent intheir efforts to save Jews. News
    about the murders in Poland induced them to track
    the fate of the deportees and to help those
    fleeing from Poland to Slovakia with hiding
    places and false papers. At the same time, they
    attempted to spread the information about the
    murders in the hope of thwarting the anticipated
    deportation of Hungarian Jewry. Their efforts
    failed and some of the members were arrested. At
    the end of 1944, their leaders, Rabbi Weissmandel
    and Gisi Fleischmann, were deported to Auschwitz.
  • Pages from two detailed reports of the murders in
    the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp, based on information
    provided by four Jewish inmates who escaped in
    the spring of 1944. Rudolph Vrba and Alfred
    Wetzler reached Slovakia in May 1944. Based on
    their testimony, a member of the underground
    Working Group compiled a report that contained a
    warning regarding preparations being made in the
    camp to murder Jews from Hungary and Czech Lands.
    An additional report was given in June 1944 by
    two other escapees, Czeslaw Mordowicz and Arnošt
    Rosin, that the murder of Hungarian Jewry was
    beginning. The reports were passed to Rabbi
    Weissmandel and to other members of the Working
    Group. They sent them to various persons and
    agencies in Hungary and Switzerland, calling upon
    the Allies to bomb Auschwitz and the railway
    lines leading there, and requesting that the Red
    Cross visit the camp. When the reports arrived in
    the West and the information contained in them
    was disseminated, the free world learned about
    the true nature of the Auschwitz camp.
  •  
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