Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 4e Edward F. Bergman William H. Renwick - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 4e Edward F. Bergman William H. Renwick


Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 4e Edward F. Bergman William H. Renwick Chapter 6: Cultural Geography Victoria Alapo, Instructor – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Geography People, Places, and Environment, 4e Edward F. Bergman William H. Renwick

Introduction to GeographyPeople, Places, and
Environment, 4eEdward F. BergmanWilliam H.
  • Chapter 6 Cultural Geography
  • Victoria Alapo, Instructor
  • Geog 1010

Cultural Geography
  • Describes everything about the way people live,
    in a spatial dimension.
  • Clothes
  • Diet
  • Articles of use - artifacts
  • Customs patterns of behavior
  • Interpersonal arrangements, family structure,
    educational methods

Cultural Geography
  • Culture is not static (it changes)
  • Theories and forces of cultural change
  • Evolutionism that the most impt. sources of
    cultural change are imbedded in cultures and
    change is internally determined.
  • Environmental determinism Human events
    explained by environment (we have no control).
    E.g. housing styles, clothes, farms, etc.
  • Diffusionism emphasizes how various aspects of
    cultures spread out from the places of origin and
    are adopted.
  • The process of spreading is called cultural
    diffusion and the process of adopting some aspect
    of another culture is acculturation. Diffusion
    can be actively imposed by a colonial power or
    freely chosen (e.g. today).

Cultural Diffusion
  • Cultures have spread via global communication,
    transportation, trade for centuries and even
    more recently. See picture of Bhutanese boy, pg
    221 (also, see video).
  • Clark Wissler (1870-1947)
  • Geographical culture centers (sometimes called
    Culture Hearths these are places where
    cultures are developed and spread (see next

  • The source areas from which radiated ideas,
    innovations, and ideologies that change the world

Folk Culture
  • Cultures that preserve traditions
  • Characteristics
  • Conservative, resistant to change, distinctive
    religions e.g. Amish. However, see picture of
    Amish boy (pg 222).
  • Urban folk cultures
  • Sometimes found among immigrant groups e.g. China
    Town, Little Italy, African, Caribbean
    neighborhoods, etc.

Popular Culture
  • Culture of people who embrace innovation and
    conform to changing norms.
  • Characterized by
  • Rapid diffusion and Mass Culture
  • E.g. food, clothing, items that are mass produced
    (real life examples?)
  • Mass taste loss of individuality.
  • The U.S. is the worlds largest homogenous
    consumer market (very much unlike traditional
  • Marketing of popular culture very aggressive.
    Not just within the originating countries, but
    also to foreign countries (e.g. Bhutan).

Behavioral Geography
  • Subfield of cultural geography studies our
    perception of the world around us, and how that
    influences our behavior.
  • Mental maps
  • Pictures in our heads or our opinions of places,
    are called mental maps could be based on
    preconceptions, misconceptions or incomplete
    understanding. Opinions about places weve never
    been (e.g. Africa). The cure may be a trip. How
    do we get these images in our heads??
  • See next slide.

Content of New York Times cover page. What do
you think???
Identity Behavioral Geography
  • Many Americans wrongly use race ethnic
    group interchangeably the way they use
    denomination and religion.
  • Whats the difference?
  • Ethnic groups / Culture groups
  • Your ethnic group is your culture/language e.g.
    German person, Yoruba person, Cherokee person.
    In other words, what used to be called tribes.
  • You can have people belonging to the same race,
    but not the same ethnic group. E.g. not all
    white people are German. Not all Blacks are
    Yorubas. Not all Native Americans are Cherokee,
    not all East Asians are Chinese, etcEthnic
    groups are based on cultural affiliation, not on
  • On the other hand, race is your SKIN COLOR (i.e
    based on genetics, not culture). See next slide.

Identity Behavioral Geography
  • Races
  • Even though there is just a single species of
    humans, Anthropologists use secondary biological
    characteristics e.g. skin color, eyes, hair, etc
    to classify the human race into different racial
    groupings. This is not the same as racism.
    Racism is when people carry these classifications
    (and their perceived implications) too far.
    E.g. presuming human ability, potential, etc. on
  • Examples of races White, Black, Asian, Native
    American, etc. What about Hispanics? Actually,
    Hispanic is not race, its an Ethnic Group.
  • As Census 2000 shows though, sometimes people are
    hard to classify (if they have a mixed racial
    heritage, e.g. our President. Unless you use the
    dominant features of the individual).

  • Visual clues of cultures
  • Settlement patterns e.g. cities, housing in
    Yorubaland, Asia, etc.
  • Architecture e.g. in Mali, pg 231 this
    bungalow, pg 232.
  • Clothing, Language, food

Impact of World Trade on Culture
  • Impact of trade on culture What do you think?
  • Many folk cultures intermingled this way. E.g.
    the Ethiopians Jews (Queen of Sheba visited
  • Colonial masters and culture change. Dependency
    created by Europeans for imported goods, at the
    expense of local goods e.g. in Africa and other
    places. Usually because of plantation cropping,
    which took over local economies.
  • Acceleration of Diffusion
  • Travel and transportation has greatly improved
  • Friction of distance was a real obstacle in the
    past. See next slide. The world has shrunk,
    when it comes to movement of information, as a
    result of electronic highway internet, e-mail,
    phones, satellite TV, etc. And this has led to
    the clash of civilizations(e.g. Bhutan)

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Voyages of Contact
  • World exploration and conquest
  • Impact of Chinese initiative, many evidences of
    contact in East Africa. Their prowess in ancient
    voyages was showcased during 2008 Olympics.
  • European seaborne empires (influences are much
  • Europes increased power was due to
  • Agricultural Revolution
  • Created labor supply for industry that was no
    more needed in agriculture. And this led to the
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Increased productivity and led to colonialism
    (need for raw materials not available in Europe).

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Cultural Imperialism
  • This is the systematic eradication of native
    culture, see textbook. Pg 246-247
  • Imposition of Western culture
  • In colonies by force, by degrading and punishing
    those who do not change, and by rewarding those
    who do.
  • Leading to reference group behavior wanting
    to be so much like the colonizing power (if you
    cant beat them, join them, mentality).
  • Self-Westernization (as a Defense Mechanism)
  • Japan, Thailand (Siam), Turkey, China See
    movie, Anna and the King (about Siam).

European Culture
  • Pervasive Western model (found everywhere)
  • Consumer goods
  • Education
  • Technology
  • Housing
  • Presumption of superiority among Westerners
  • Leading to rapid acculturation of all things
    Western, around the world. Unfortunately, the
    effects of colonization now continues,

Westernization Today
  • Western dress and lifestyle as status symbols
  • Role of media
  • Implanting Western values
  • TV programs, movies, videos, e.g. Hollywood, MTV,
  • Tourism Western intrusion into traditional
  • Education worldwide (mostly based on Western

Americas Role
  • World view of America (everything from the U.S.
    must be good, or even better, culturally
    speaking). What do you think??
  • Military Power/ Political Influence
  • Sole superpower
  • Role of global peacekeeper
  • Role in democratic ideas, womens rights, etc
  • Economic power
  • One quarter of world economy
  • Popular culture
  • Most recognized brands around the world, e.g.
    Coca-Cola, MacDonalds, etc
  • Challenging local traditions