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Chapter 03 Experimental Basis for Quantum Theory

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Title: Chapter 03 Experimental Basis for Quantum Theory


1
Chapter 03Experimental Basis for Quantum Theory
Version 110920, 110921
  • General Bibliography
  • 1) Various wikipedia, as specified
  • 2) Thornton-Rex, Modern Physics for Scientists
    Eng, as indicated

2
Outline
  • 3.1 X-rays and Electrons
  • 3.2 Electron Charge
  • 3.3 Line Spectra
  • 3.4 Quantization
  • 3.5 Blackbody Radiation
  • 3.6 Photoelectric Effect
  • 3.7 X-Ray Production
  • 3.8 Compton Effect
  • 3.9 Pair Production Annihilation

3
3.1 X-rays and Electrons
http//physics.kenyon.edu/EarlyApparatus/Static_El
ectricity/Geissler_Tubes/Geissler_Tubes.html
http//www.oneillselectronicmuseum.com/page9.html
http//www.beer-neon-signs.com/category/neon-busin
ess-signs
Geissler tubes 1857
4
3.1 X-rays and Electrons
Discovered cathode rays could be shifted by a
magnet
http//www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/muse
um/crookes_tube.html
Cathode rays (now called electrons)
Crookes Tubes 1869
5
X-rays and Electrons
Hand mit Ringen (Hand with Rings) print of
Wilhelm Röntgen's first "medical" X-ray, of his
wife's hand, taken on 22 December 1895 and
presented to Ludwig Zehnder of the Physik
Institut, University of Freiburg, on 1 January
18961718
6
X-rays and Electrons
1896 plaque published in "Nouvelle Iconographie
de Salpetriere", a medical journal. In the left a
hand deformity, in the right same hand seen using
radiography. The authors designated the technique
as Röntgen photography.
7
X-rays and Electrons
JJ Thomson
http//www.scifun.ed.ac.uk/pages/pp4ss/pp4ss-eover
m.html
http//ixnovi.people.wm.edu/Onebeautifulexperiment
2008/emexperimentbywilliamsendor3.html
8
Charge of the Electron
9
3.3 Line Spectra
http//nothingnerdy.wikispaces.com/DIFFRACTIONGRA
TING
Pink Floyd Dark Side of the Moon
http//intro.chem.okstate.edu/1314f00/Lecture/Chap
ter7/Lec11300.html
10
k 3,4,5,6
http//www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/atoms/atpt-3.htm
l
11
RH 1.097e7 m-1
12
3.3 Line Spectra
Lyman n1
Brackett n4
Paschen n3
Pfund n5
Balmer n2
1000 nm
100 nm
vis
10000 nm
13
3.5 Blackbody Radiation
http//www.mytightride.com/fof1fefl.html
14
3.5 Blackbody Radiation
http//en.wikibooks.org/wiki/WikijuniorHow_Things
_Work/Light_Bulb
http//www.freefoto.com/preview/11-12-52/Electric-
Light-Bulb
http//phet.colorado.edu/sims/blackbody-spectrum/b
lackbody-spectrum_en.html
15
3.5 Blackbody Radiation
Weins Law
Stefan-Boltzmann Law
e 1 for perfect blackbody
16
3.5 Blackbody Radiation
UV
IR
17
3.5 Blackbody Radiation
Max Planck assumed some sort of oscillators
filled the cavity AND energy difference between
standing wave modes h f
Plancks Radiation Law
h 6.626e-34 Js
18
3.6 Photoelectric Effect
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Hertz
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Induction_coil
Heinrich Hertz
Verified Maxwell equations prediction of
electromagnetic waves
1887
19
3.6 Photoelectric Effect
Photoelectric Effect Investigations 1900
1. Higher intensity light did not change the
point at which current started to flow. (i.e.
energy of the electrons) 1. More total incident
energy did not increase the energy of
individual electrons.
2. Different colors of light changed the
starting point for current flow.
20
3.6 Photoelectric Effect
Energy of an individual photon
Work function
typically a few Volts at most
Implications 1. EM waves have fixed energies (EM
field is quantized) 2.
Electrons are bound in a material by an amount
determined by the
composition
21
3.7 X-Ray Production(Bremsstralung
Characteristic X-Rays)
At fixed HV 35kV
Roentgen
characteristic lines
min l max Energy
22
3.7 X-Ray Production(Bremsstralung
Characteristic X-Rays)
Roentgen
23
3.7 X-Ray Production(Bremsstralung
Characteristic X-Rays)
Do TV Sets Give Off X-Rays? X-rays may be
produced when electrons, accelerated by high
voltage, strike an obstacle while traveling in a
vacuum, as in a TV containing a cathode ray tube
(CRT). Since many of the components in television
sets operate at thousands of volts, there is the
potential for x-ray generation. These components
may produce x-rays capable of escaping from the
television receiver or CRT. This unintentional
emission of x-radiation can pose a potential
hazard and must be controlled.
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathode_ray_tube
http//www.fda.gov/Radiation-EmittingProducts/Reso
urcesforYouRadiationEmittingProducts/ucm252764.htm
24
http//www.orau.org/ptp/collection/xraytubescoolid
ge/xraytubescoolidge.htm
25
http//www.tradevv.com/chinasuppliers/eiffelgu_p_2
3e13/china-Portable-X-ray-flaw-detector-ceramic-tu
be.html
http//www.aerospacendt.com/Radiography.htm
26
Computed tomography (CT) scanning, also called
computerized axial tomography (CAT) scanning, is
a medical imaging procedure that uses x-rays to
show cross-sectional images of the body. A CT
imaging system produces cross-sectional images or
"slices" of areas of the body, like the slices in
a loaf of bread. These cross-sectional images are
used for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic
purposes. How a CT system works                
http//www.strokecenter.org/patients/diagnosis/ct.
htm
http//www.fda.gov/Radiation-EmittingProducts/Radi
ationEmittingProductsandProcedures/MedicalImaging/
MedicalX-Rays/ucm115317.htm
27
http//medicaltools.onsugar.com/Ct-Scan-Abdomen-Ca
ncer-15819123
http//www.strokecenter.org/patients/diagnosis/ct.
htm
http//info.shields.com/bid/43193/MRI-Images-torn-
ACL-and-normal-ACL
28
Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique commonly used
by physicians to obtain real-time moving images
of the internal structures of a patient through
the use of a fluoroscope. In its simplest form, a
fluoroscope consists of an X-ray source and
fluorescent screen between which a patient is
placed. However, modern fluoroscopes couple the
screen to an X-ray image intensifier and CCD
video camera allowing the images to be recorded
and played on a monitor.
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluoroscopy
29
3.8 Compton Effect
Thomson Scattering
In classical description, scattering occurs via
dipole and scattered photon of same frequency
(wavelength)
30
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31
3.8 Compton Scattering
h/mc 2.2426e-12 m
32
3.9 Pair Production Positron Annihilation
Pair Production
33
3.9 Pair Production Positron Annihilation
Positron Annihilation
Photons come out back-to-back
Photon energies are 0.511 MeV each
34
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear
medicine imaging technique that produces a
three-dimensional image or picture of functional
processes in the body. The system detects pairs
of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a
positron-emitting radionuclide (tracer), which is
introduced into the body on a biologically active
molecule. Three-dimensional images of tracer
concentration within the body are then
constructed by computer analysis.
If the biologically active molecule chosen for
PET is FDG, an analogue of glucose, the
concentrations of tracer imaged then give tissue
metabolic activity, in terms of regional glucose
uptake.
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PET_scanner
35
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36
http//archives.drugabuse.gov/newsroom/03/NR9-08.h
tml
37
Summary of Chapter 03Strange things not known
from classical physics
  • New things
  • Cathode rays ? electrons
  • X-rays
  • Line spectra
  • Gaseous discharges show lines rather than
    continous spectrum
  • Blackbody radiation
  • Rayleigh-Jeans classical formula clearly
    incorrect at explaining spectrum
  • Planck oscillators with fixed energies
  • Compton scattering
  • Scattered photons have different wavelength in
    contast to classical description
  • Pair production Positron annihilation
  • Waves change into particles and vice versa
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