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India From Humble Beginnings to the World’s Largest Democracy and a Major Player in the Global Market.


India From Humble Beginnings to the World s Largest Democracy and a Major Player in the Global Market. Denise Stagpool Jamie Danford Tommy D. McCaskill Sr. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: India From Humble Beginnings to the World’s Largest Democracy and a Major Player in the Global Market.

IndiaFrom Humble Beginnings to the Worlds
Largest Democracy and a Major Player in the
Global Market.
  • Denise Stagpool
  • Jamie Danford
  • Tommy D. McCaskill Sr.
  • Desiree Fussell

State Standards
  • SS6H6 Grade 6 Description SS6H6 The student
    will analyze the impact of European exploration
    and colonization on various world regions.
  • SS7E10 Grade 7 Description SS7E10 The student
    will describe factors that influence economic
    growth and examine their presence or absence in
    India, China, and Japan. Elements
  • SS7E9 Grade 7 Description SS7E9 The student
    will explain how voluntary trade benefits buyers
    and sellers in Southern and Eastern Asia.
  • SS7G12 Grade 7 Description SS7G12 The student
    will analyze the diverse cultures of the people
    who live in Southern and Eastern Asia.

Lets learn about
  • How and why Britains influence made India who it
    is today.
  • How life in India is controlled by the Hindu
    caste system.
  • Indias I.T workersWho are they?
  • How India fits in our global economy.

Denise Stagpool
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Colonial India Portuguese India 15101961
Dutch India 16051825 Danish India 16961869
French India 17591954 British Empire in India
East India Company 16121757 Company rule in
India 17571857 British Raj 17571947 British
rule in Burma 18261948 British India 16121947
Princely states 17651947 Partition of British
India 1947
Mahatma Gandhi
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Indian Cuisine
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So, thats how we got here. Now lets have a look
at the social system of India
The Caste SystemIndias Corporate
LadderJamie Danford
  • The caste system in India is a Hindu social
    system where people are ranked into groups based
    on heredity.

The Four Varnas (Groups) Brahmins Teachers,
scholars and priests Kshatriyas Kings and
warriors Vaishyas Traders Shudras
Agriculturists, service providers, and some
artisan groups The people who dont qualify to be
in a Varna are called Dalits. These people are
the lowest of society, due to their jobs.
(Butchers, sanitation, Leatherworkers, etc)
The caste is a closed group whose members are
severely restricted in their choice of occupation
and degree of social participation.
  • Social status is determined by the caste of one's
    birth and may only rarely be transcended.

Marriage outside the caste is prohibited.
Brahmin temple wedding
Dalits forced to wed outside of a temple
In general, caste functions to maintain the
status quo in a society.
Guess where the Dalits sit
Upper caste men building a wall to keep the
Dalits out of their neighborhood.
The occupational barriers among Indian castes
have been breaking down slowly under economic
pressures since the 19th cent., but social
distinctions have been more persistent. Attitudes
toward the untouchables only began to change in
the 1930s. Although untouchability was
declared illegal in 1949, resistance to change
has remained strong, especially in rural areas.
If a higher caste Hindu is touched by an
untouchable or even had a Dalit's shadow across
them, they consider themselves to be polluted and
have to go through a rigorous series of rituals
to be cleansed. In India there are approximately
240 million Dalits. This means that nearly 25 of
the population is Dalit. It also means that in a
country, where everybody is supposed to have
equal rights and opportunities, 1 out of 5
persons is condemned to be untouchable.  Given
this information How can Upper Caste members and
Dalits share the same work space?
As Indias economy thrives, were seeing Dalits
land jobs in the Information Technology field.
Its an improvement, but comes not without
resentment from upper castes and social
Lets check out an article from The Wall Street
Venugopal Thoti's father, grandfather and
ancestors worked as field laborers in a tiny
village in the state of Andhra Pradesh in
southern India. As Dalits -- members of the
"untouchable" caste at the bottom of Indian
society -- they were barred from temples used by
upper-caste Hindus and from upper-caste homes.
Their name defined their low status A "thoti" in
their village communicates news of a death by
walking door to door. Mr. Thoti, 37, is in a
different line of work and a much different
station in life. Last fall, he got a new job as a
software developer in the Hyderabad office of
American Infoserv Inc., a New Jersey-based
technology and outsourcing company. Mr.
Thoti's success, after a long slog, has been
modest by U.S. and even some Indian standards. He
earns about 800 a month and travels by bus
around this clogged technology hotspot of about
four million people. But his monthly earnings are
roughly double what his father made in a year.
And he has left the one-room thatched hut with no
electricity or running water that he grew up in
for a basic three-bedroom apartment that he
shares with his wife and two young children.
"Now, we are a little comfortable," he says. For
thousands of years, advancement in India has been
restricted by its caste system, which is
enshrined in the country's dominant Hindu
religion. While Brahmins, the highest caste, are
said to stem from the mouth of Purusha, or
Universal Man, Dalits were considered so impure
they were left outside the structure altogether.
Castes -- which often can be identified by a
person's last name -- reach into every part of
Indian society. But India's rapid economic
expansion -- and its booming high-tech sector --
are beginning to chip away at the historical
system that reserved well-paying jobs for upper
castes and menial jobs for Dalits. With annual
gross-domestic-product growth exceeding 9,
companies that have hired tens of thousands of
workers in recent years are looking beyond their
traditional sources of employees. High-tech
firms, both foreign and domestically based, are
at the forefront of that search. As a result,
some Dalits are rising into India's middle
Technology giant Infosys Technologies Ltd. now
recruits from 700 colleges around India, many of
them in semi-rural areas where lower-caste people
often live, up from about 50 urban colleges 10
years ago, says T.V. Mohandas Pai, the company's
director in charge of human resources. "Today, a
great number of the people whom we hire come from
poorer backgrounds both economically and
socially," he says. "It is changing the ground
rules in India." International companies are also
having an impact. "We don't give a damn about any
of these differences in caste or religion," says
Ravi Venkatesan, chairman of Microsoft Corp.'s
India unit. "It has made talent the number one
issue for all companies." The ranks of Dalit
entrepreneurs have also been growing, as India
morphed in the past 15 years from a
Socialist-modeled economy to a market-driven one
and a new generation of young earners began to
spend freely, take vacations and rack up shopping
bills. That has created opportunities for Dalits
to open hotels and restaurants, as well as find
jobs as plumbers, electricians, air-conditioning
repairmen and construction workers. Mr. Erpula,
who also owns a filling station, an inn and a
small water-bottling plant, recently held a party
for 400 guests at his new 360,000 three-bedroom
home. Three of his employees who belong to a
higher caste failed to show. He says he later
heard that one of them told a colleague "He's a
Dalit. Why should we go?" Still, success
stories like those of Mr. Erpula and Mr. Thoti,
who struggled many years to get his job, are
rare. Estimates of the number of Dalits with
skilled jobs and steady salaries in India's New
Economy vary from tens of thousands to around
100,000, according to employers, workers, experts
and government officials. That's out of a total
Dalit population estimated at about 167 million,
or about 16 of India's total population of 1.03
billion. India's government has long employed an
affirmative-action program that reserves 23 of
all national government jobs to those from
underprivileged classes. (Paul Becket, Wall
Street Journal June 23, 2007)

Okay, enough background lets see what Tommys
got to say about getting those I.T positions
Indias Trained Workers
Tommy D. McCaskill Sr.
Indias population is over 1.3 billion as of 2008
  • Indias Institute of Technology Workers are very
    well trained.
  • India had 7 government-run IIT as of 2003. Green
  • In 2008 India has added 6 more. Blue
  • They Propose to add 3 more by 2010. Red

  • IndiasTrained Workers
  • Since 2003, Attend one of 7 IT campuses
  • Bombay
  • Delhi
  • Kharagpur
  • Madras
  • Roorkee
  • Kanpur
  • Guwahati
  • Graduating 3 million with field training in math,
    science, and engineering.

Delhi IIT Punjab
  • Since 2008, India has added 6 more ITs
  • Roopnagar
  • Rajasthan
  • Patna
  • Bhubaneshwar
  • Gandhinagar
  • Hyderabad
  • Graduating 550,000 annually from Undergraduates,
    Graduates, engineering degrees.

  • Proposed to add 3 more ITs by the end of 2010
  • Indore
  • Himaachal
  • Varanasi
  • Computer hardware networking Mobile
  • Repairing Black White Colour T. V.
  • House Wiring Accounting.

Bombays IT Campus 550 acreas of land 24
departments 15,000 inhabitants live on
Campus 2,000 undergraduates 2,000 graduates 13
  • How hard is it to get into one of Indias ITs?
  • Must pass the IIT-JEE
  • In 2008, 178,000 high school seniors took the
    entrance exam (JEE) 3,500 were accepted (lt 2).
  • Indias IT programs ranks with Americas Top
  • Put Harvard, MIT and Princeton together, and you
    begin to get an idea of the status of this school
    in India.
  • 700 a year room and board, and tuition.

  • What happens if you fail the JEE?
  • Must take a one year Preparatory
    CourseEnglish, Physics, Chemistry, and
  • After completion of one year and pass JEE,
    continue course of study.
  • Similar to the AASU entrance into the Teachers
    program, Must pass GACE.

  • Are there equal access to Education?
  • Indias Constitution requires a form of
    affirmative action so everyone has access.
  • Must pass a relax JEE.
  • Admit 15 of Scheduled Castes.
  • Admit 7.5 of Scheduled Tribes.

Why is Indias literacy rate so high?
Poverty and Caste System linked to education
Poverty is divided into two types Rural and
Urban. Rural areas like Bihar and Orissa
depends on agriculture which is highly Dependent
on rain patterns and the monsoon season. This
cause low, or No production of crops in terms
leads to poverty. Urban areas (Caste systems)
like Delhi and Punjab have very low poverty
ratios. High Caste are expected to be well
educated. Low caste are expected to be
Uneducated. Resulting in 1/3 of the countrys
population is illiterate (350 million unable To
read or write.
  • What is India doing to help poor children learn?
  • A project in Bangalore teach children to read and
    use computers.
  • Sponsored by the citys leading IT companies

Indias Brain Drain
  • In 2003, 3 million degrees Math, engineering, an
    Science degrees.2k leave annual
  • Didnt find Job at home.
  • Went to US,UK and
  • Other developed countries.
  • 78 of engineers leave India for BPO like TCS,
    Wipro etc.
  • Go4BPO- client-Centri Bussiness Process
    Outsourcing Company mortgage loan processing,
    Insurance Claim, Data Entry Processing,
    Transaction services.

Indias Brain Gain
  • 2008 India created 9 more IITs.
  • IBM hires 50,000 workers in India.
  • Prospect of Graduating 200,000 IT annually.
  • Graduates return home with Professional business
    experience and special skills.
  • TCS (Tata Consultancy services) to hire PhDs from
    IITs without interview.
  • Chevron - Calcutta.
  • Microsoft, Intel, PCs, Sun Microsystems.

Followed by Honorable Desiree
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
Global Connections
  • Desiree Fussell

Foreign Investment
  • Exchange for outsourcing
  • Lose jobs in US to outsourcing, but gain jobs
    when foreign companies invest here

Growth in Foreign Investment in the US
  • Foreign owned assets
  • 3 trillion in 1996
  • 9.2 trillion in 2005
  • Americans working for foreign companies
  • 2.6 million in 1987
  • 5 million present


Contributes to our Economy
  • Foreign companies generally purchase their
    supplies from domestic (not foreign) suppliers
  • 80 cents out of every dollar

Better Salary
  • Average annual compensation at foreign owned US
  • 56,667
  • Roughly 1/3 more than the average annual salary
    of US private sector companies

Why invest here?
  • Highly developed
  • Highly educated IT professionals, engineers,
    researchers, businessmen
  • High per capita GDP
  • Want to be near 300 million customers!

High Tax Rates
  • Increasing investment despite high state and
    federal tax rate of about 40
  • In 2005 foreign-owned companies paid income tax
    of 42.4 billion on taxable income of 153
  • Almost 1/3 of their income!

Top 4 Countries Profiting from US Business
  • 20.5 Britain
  • 16.2 Japan
  • 12.7 Germany
  • 12.3 the Netherlands

Data from 2005
Examples of foreign owned companies in US
  • Nestle
  • Swiss
  • Churchs Chicken
  • Arab - Bahrain's First Islamic Investment Bank
  • T-Mobile
  • subsidiary of German-based Deutsche Telekom

Entwined Economies
  • 51 share of foreign ownership of US debt

  • Standard Poor's

Entwined Economies
  • US borrows more than 2 billion per day from
    foreigners to finance its huge trade deficits
  • In 2007, the United States measured a trade
    deficit of 708.5 billion
  • 2.2 trillion in imports
  • 1.6 trillion in exports 
  • Excessive reliance
  • on others

  • Beckett, Paul. Caste Away June 23, 2007.
    Retrieved May 2009, from http//
  • British Raj. Retrieved May 28, 2009, Web site
  • (2006 March 19). America increasingly
    foreign-owned. Retrieved May 2009, from Fox News
  • Carey, N. (2008 Aug 27). Foreign ownership of
    U.S. companies jumps. Retrieved May 2009, from
    Reuters http//
  • Gautier, Francois. (2006 May 23) Are Brahmins the
    Dalits of Today? Retrieved May 2009 from Rediff
    India Abroad http//
  • McDougall, P. (2006, May 13). InformationWeek.
    Retrieved May 28, 2009, from http//www.informati IBM Eyes 50,000-Plus Indian
  • McNamara, Robert A Timeline of India in the
    1800s. Retrieved May 26, 2009, from The British
    Raj Defined India Throughout the 1800s Web site
  • Mishra, Pankaj (March 9 2009). Economic Times in
    India. Retrieved May 27, 2009, from JP Morgan
    Chase to Increase India Outsourcing 25 Web site
  • Rowntree, L., Lewis, M., Price, M., Wyckoff, W.
    Globalization and Diversity Geography of a
    Changing World. Second Edition. Pearson Prentice
    Hall, 2008. Upper Saddle, NJ.
  • Swoyer, S. (2004 Oct 26). Outsourcing in reverse
    Foreign companies send jobs to the United States.
    Retrieved May 2009 from Enterprise Systems
  • Weinreb, L. (2008,Feburary 11). Indias Institute
    of Technology. Retreved May 27, 2009, from
    http// "60 Minutes", CBS
    News .(7)
  • http//
  • http// (International Dalit
    Solidarity Network)