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The Great Depression: Before & Beyond

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Title: The Great Depression: Before & Beyond


1
The Great Depression Before Beyond
  • Causes Effects of Two World Wars and Everything
    In-Between

2
Table of Contents
  • Introduction
  • Progressive Reform World War I
  • The Roaring 20s
  • The Stock Market Crash The Great Depression
  • World War II Japanese Internment Camps
  • The Cold War, Korea Vietnam
  • Conclusion
  • References

3
Introduction
  • Major events such as World Wars I and II, the
    Stock Market Crash of 1929, etc. are the result
    of many changes happening all at once.
  • Often, groups of people are unhappy with the way
    others are running an organization or even a
    country, and the result is reform.
  • Change can be violent or peaceful, gradual or all
    at once. It can affect different people in many
    different ways.

4
Progressive Movement
  • The Progressive Era of the early 20th century was
    a collection of many different movements, all
    centered around making America a better and
    safer place to live (The Learning Page, 2002a),
    and to decrease the widespread political
    corruption (Green Carlson, 2005, chap. 8, p.
    130) in the country.
  • U.S. Constitution made Amendments giving women
    the right to vote, establishing federal income
    tax, and creating a policy where the people
    elected U.S. Senators (as opposed to simply being
    appointed by the government.)

5
Prohibition
  • This was an attempt to make illegal (prohibit)
    the production and sale of all alcoholic drinks
    in the United States.
  • Reasons Alcohol was responsible for much of the
    abuse of women and children it was responsible
    for much crime and it wasted money that could
    have been used for food (Green Carlson, 2005,
    p. 130).

6
18th Amendment
  • This made alcohol illegal all over the U.S.
  • Americans did not take the ban seriously. British
    Columbia rumrunners smuggled in liquor, since
    it was still legal north of the border. Alcohol
    was consumed in private clubs/road houses, called
    blind pigs, since police (pigs) were bribed
    to turn a blind eye to alcohol consumption.
  • 1933 Prohibition repealed after 14 years.

7
Legislative Reform
  • William URen of Oregon was a very dynamic leader
    regarding getting legislative changes made in
    Oregon (later adapted in Washington).
  • Created the initiative (citizens could pass their
    own laws by gathering signatures and having them
    placed on a ballot to be voted on), and the
    referendum (citizens could vote for laws already
    passed by the legislative branch of government).
    Also the recall, where voters could have an
    official removed from office.

8
Business Regulation
  • Government began charging fees for people to use
    railroads and utilities.
  • Laws also passed that limited the amount of hours
    that people could work women, for example,
    could only work 8 hours per day.
  • Children were also required to attend school now,
    instead of working all day in mines and factories.

9
Womens Suffrage
  • Suffrage The right to vote.
  • Granting women the right to vote was considered
    one of WAs most significant victories of the
    time.
  • Washington was the fifth state to pass an
    Amendment allowing this ten years later, all
    women in the U.S. could vote.

10
Opposition to Womens Suffrage
11
Picketing for Womens Rights, February 1917
12
56th Lexington, 1917
13
Industrial Workers of the World, a.k.a., IWW
  • Created in 1905, the IWW enjoyed the notion of
    One big union.
  • IWW set itself against capitalism, a system of
    government involving private ownership of land,
    property, and businesses. Capitalists were known
    to hire workers for very low wages, making their
    own profits larger.
  • The IWW was one of the first groups to welcome
    African-Americans as well as women. IWW union
    members were called Wobblies.

14
Radical Change
  • The Wobblies felt that real reform could only
    come from radical change. They agreed to strike
    if there was a need for it.
  • Fought for rights to speak freely to employers,
    and also for safer working conditions and higher
    wages.
  • Spoke on street corners and in public parks, and
    gathered much sympathy for their cause (Green
    Carlson, 2005, p. 132).

15
Wobblies Lingo
  • Bindle Blanket roll
  • Bindle Stiff Worker who carries his bedding
  • California Blankets Newspapers used for bedding
  • Dingbat A tramp considered homeless, helpless,
    and harmless
  • Fink An informer or strikebreaker
  • Jungle A place, usually near a railroad yard,
    where migrants cooked/slept
  • Rattler Fast freight train
  • Scab Person who takes the job of a striking
    union member
  • Skid Road An area of town with saloons, gambling
    and prostitution

16
The Everett Massacre
  • IWW was willing to get violent to achieve its
    goals. Literature openly discussed sabotage
    destroying a companys tools/materials to force
    it out of work.
  • In Everett, Wobblies were giving speeches
    criticizing World War I/capitalism, and were
    arrested/beaten by police and vigilantes
    citizens who take it upon themselves to punish
    criminals.
  • A boat of 300 Wobblies landed at Everett to lend
    support their effort was met with gunfire. Five
    workers and two vigilantes were killed in the
    scuffle. Though 74 Wobblies were charged with
    murder, no one could tell who fired the first
    shot, and they were freed.

17
The IWW Today
  • The IWW still exists today, boasting on its
    official website (iww.org) about its 102-year
    history.
  • To the left, a union member protests policies of
    the Starbucks company in Seattle, WA.

18
World War I (WWI)
  • Also called the Great War raged from 1914-1917
    before the U.S. became involved.
  • Central vs. Allied Powers. Central Germany,
    Austria-Hungary, and Turkey Allied England,
    France, Italy, Russia, and eventually the United
    States.
  • U.S. became involved when Germany sunk a ship
    carrying American tourists using
    submarines/U-boats.

19
Allied vs. Central Powers
20
Liberty Sausage For All!
  • Germans were the enemy in Europe during WWI. Many
    Americans felt that those of German-American
    heritage were not to be trusted.
  • German-Americans were beaten up, and often had
    their farms/businesses vandalized. German
    language was banned in many schools.
  • Things with German names were given American
    names hamburger, for example, was liberty
    sausage, and sauerkraut became liberty cabbage
    (Green Carlson, 2005, p. 135).

21
Selective Service Act
  • All men 21-30 were required to sign up for the
    military.
  • In World War I, about 75,000 Washington men were
    drafted.
  • To the left is a poster of Uncle Sam, a national
    personification of the United States, urging men
    to sign up for the Army.

22
Sedition Act
  • This was Congress attempt to suppress, or
    silence criticism by prohibiting any speech it
    felt was disloyal, profane, or abusive (Green
    Carlson, 2005, p. 135-136) about the
    government, the flag, the Constitution, or the
    Armed Forces.
  • The IWW campaigned often against the war as a
    result, many Wobblies were arrested for violation
    of the Sedition Act.

23
As Gag-Rulers Would Have It
24
Communism the Red Scare
  • In Russia during World War I, times were hard
    food and fuel were scarce, and the czar, Nicholas
    II was eventually overthrown.
  • Communism Government ownership of all land,
    property and business. Not successful in Russia.
  • Striking workers in U.S. considered part of a
    worldwide conspiracy against democracy caused
    nationwide hysteria.

25
Economic Boom
  • The war created lots of jobs prior to WWI,
    there was one ship building company, for example.
    At the end of it, there were 25.
  • The Boeing Company became the largest company in
    Washington, after building airplanes for the
    government.
  • Jobs existed for people fighting in the war and
    even women and minorities who remained at home.
    The war was terrible, but business was booming
    (Green Carlson, 2005, p. 136-137).

26
From Boom to Bust
  • When the war ended, there was a sharp drop in
    farm and lumber prices. Women and minorities were
    no longer an intricate part of the work force.
  • Seattle General Strike Shipyard workers went on
    strike for wage increases that were forbidden
    during the war.
  • People could not get a ride on a streetcar, or a
    meal in a restaurant (Green Carlson, 2005,
    chap. 8, p. 138).

27
The Age of Jazz
  • The 1920s go by many names the Age of Jazz, the
    pursuit of pleasure, the Roaring Twenties, etc.
  • Womens fashion drastically changed short,
    bobbed hair, short skirts, rouge, nylons with
    seams down the back. Men slicked their hair back
    and tried to look as modern as the ladies
    (Green Carlson, 2005, chap. 8, 139).

28
The Two Dears
  • A postcard featuring a woman from the 1920s in a
    traditional bathing suit of the time period. (The
    Authentic History Center, 2007).
  • During the Roaring 20s, bathing-beauty contests
    (Green Carlson, 2005, chap. 8, p. 139) were a
    very popular form of entertainment.

29
The Modern Decade
  • Some inventions of the 1920s included the
    following (Green Carlson, 2005, chap. 8, p.
    139-140)
  • Electric power
  • Telephones
  • Phonographs
  • Radios
  • Washing machines
  • Motion pictures
  • Automobiles (pictured Henry Fords Model T)

30
Racial Intolerance
  • The 1920s was also known as the Intolerant
    Decade, because of the United States peoples
    intense distrust and fear of foreigners.
  • Many Japanese residents barred from owning and
    leasing land in Washington/Oregon.
  • Ku Klux Klan Felt that Catholics, Jews and
    African-Americans were responsible for all the
    problems in the U.S. and terrorized those they
    were trying to get rid of. A large gathering of
    the KKK existed in the Yakima Valley in the 1920s.

31
Racist Stereotyping
32
Hydropower
  • Pacific Northwest produced about 40 of the
    countrys hydropower that is, power harvested
    by dams.
  • Public Utility District (PUD) Established
    public power systems and replaced private
    companies. Voted down in 1929, approved a year
    later eventually established in 29 of WAs 39
    counties.

33
Grand Coulee Dam
  • Proposed as a way to bring irrigation to land.
    Supporters were called pumpers.
  • Opposition Washington Water Power Company (WWP)
    pumpers led by James OSullivan.
  • WWP proposed a gravity canal that would leave
    them mainly in control of water power.
  • 1928, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers researched the
    Columbia River system and determined that the
    pumping plan was the most efficient.

34
Stock Market Crash Who Dunnit?
  • Many factors that actually led up to the Stock
    Market Crash of 1929 (Gusmorino, 1996)
  • Growing gap between the rich and middle class
    (unstable economy)
  • Excessive spending on credit (lack of immediate
    incoming funds to companies)
  • Major economies (radio advertising and
    automobiles) slowed down, taking the rest of the
    country with them
  • Other countries could not pay back money they had
    borrowed from U.S. right away
  • Eventually, product sat in warehouses and stock
    prices fell drastically

35
Black is the New Black
  • Black Thursday (October 24, 1929) Stocks began
    to rise tentatively after Richard Whitney bought
    10,000 shares of U.S. Steel at 205 each.
  • Black Monday (October 28, 1929) People began to
    sell shares blindly economists began to prepare
    themselves for what seemed like an inevitable
    crash.
  • Black Tuesday (October 29, 1929) Stock market
    loses 40 of its original value (Woodard, 2007).

36
Plummeting Stocks
37
Effects of the Great Depression
  • Banks closed first during the Depression anyone
    who had invested money there became broke almost
    overnight.
  • Factories and businesses closed because nobody
    had the money to buy anything this also led to a
    shortage of jobs.
  • Those who could afford to buy anything found very
    good deals. In Cheney, WA, a resident recalls
    seeing a block of twelve housing lots selling for
    38 (Green Carlson, 2005, chap. 9, p. 147).

38
Hoovervilles
  • Many people became homeless during the 1930s WA
    State alone had 24 homeless shelters, or poor
    farms, though many were turned away due to lack
    of room.
  • President Herbert Hoover unprepared for the
    Depression when it hit. Many U.S. citizens blamed
    him for not doing enough to help him, and built
    their own shacks out of scrap lumber, metal and
    cardboard. They called them Hoovervilles.

39
The Dust Bowl
  • Occurred in 1928 in the Great Plains (pictured on
    the map as the central-most part of the U.S., as
    well as parts of Canada and Mexico).
  • Already dry farming regions turned the land into
    a dust bowl by strong winds. Lasted roughly 12
    years.

40
Effects of the Dust Bowl
  • Drought reached the Pacific Northwest, increasing
    fires in the area. In 1936, the Forest Service
    reported 450,000 acres of national forest in the
    Northwest had burned up.
  • Agriculture destroyed crops rotted because
    harvesting did not turn a profit sheep
    slaughtered and fed to buzzards or coyotes
    because harvesting meat/wool did not pay enough.
    WA farmers even burned fruit trees for the fuel.
  • Migrant workers came to the Northwest because the
    grim conditions here were still better than in
    the Great Plains by 1940, 400,000 had migrated
    to the N.W.
  • In 1939, the federal government provided housing
    and medical clinics for migrant workers (Green
    Carlson, 2005, chap. 9).

41
Roosevelts New Deal
  • President Roosevelt (FDR) took office as
    President in 1933, after promising to create a
    New Deal for America to help end the Depression
    during his campaign.
  • New Deal, also called alphabet soup (Gupta
    Lee, 1996), was a collaboration between FDR and
    Congress whose main goal was to put people back
    to work, and also stimulate economic recovery
    in U.S. (Gupta Lee, 1996).
  • By 1939, the worst of the Great Depression was
    over (Green Carlson, 2005, chap. 9).

42
New Deal Programs
  • Emergency Banking Act/Federal Deposit Insurance
    Corporation (FDIC), 1933 - Helped re-establish
    America's faith that they could put money in the
    bank and not lose it.
  • Civil Works Administration (CWA) - Gave
    unemployed persons jobs building/repairing roads,
    parks, etc.
  • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) - Put people to
    work maintaining and restoring forests, beaches
    and parks. Pay was little, but free room/board
    and training was offered, first to men, and then
    eventually to women as well.
  • Indian Reorganization Act, 1934 - Ended sale of
    tribal lands and restored ownership to rightful
    Native American groups.
  • Public Works Association (PWA) - Launched
    projects such as the Grand Coulee Dam on the
    Columbia River.

43
New Deal Programs (cont.)
  • Works Progress Administration (WPA), 1935-1943 -
    Provided work for 8 million Americans by
    constructing/restoring schools, hospitals, etc.
  • Farm Security Administration (FSA) - Loaned more
    than 1 billion to farmers and set up camp for
    migrant workers.
  • Fair Labor Standard Act, 1938 - Banned child
    labor and set a minimum wage.
  • Social Security Act - Provided aid for the
    elderly, for family members of those who were
    killed in industrial accidents, for mothers and
    children, and for the blind/physically disabled.
    Did not cover farm and domestic workers, but the
    SSA did help many Americans feel more protected.
  • Though not always 100 positive, the New Deal did
    a great deal in helping end the Great Depression
    (Gupta Lee, 1996).

44
Unions At War
  • Federal laws passed giving workers the right to
    organize their own unions.
  • American Federation of Labor (AFL) and Congress
    of Industrial Organizations (CIO) fought both
    management and themselves in a series of bitter
    strikes (Green Carlson, 2005, chap. 9, p.
    152).
  • Goon squads Groups of paid thugs who acted as
    violent mediators between the AFL and CIO unions.
    At the time, Washington became one of the most
    unionized states in the country.

45
Adolf Hitler and Nazi-ism
  • Though the U.S. economy was improving, by the
    late 1930s, trouble loomed in other parts of the
    world.
  • Adolf Hitler dictator of Germany believed
    Germans were a superior race. Set out to
    cleanse Europe of anyone he considered
    inferior, namely Jewish people, as well as
    Gypsies, Jehovahs Witnesses, and homosexuals
    (Wikipedia, 2007k).
  • Six million Jews killed in concentration camps,
    either from gas chambers or starvation. Referred
    to as the Holocaust (Green Carlson, 2005, chap.
    9).

46
World War II (WWII)
  • WWII raged in Europe for years before America
    became involved.
  • America sent ships and supplies to Allies
    (England, France, Russia) Germany conquered
    Poland, and was eventually joined by Italy
    Japan. President Roosevelt adamant about staying
    out of the war.

47
Attack on Pearl Harbor
  • December 7, 1941 Japanese fighter planes dropped
    bombs on U.S. ships in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The
    next day, President Roosevelt declared war on
    Japan.
  • Right A ship called the USS Shaw is blown up by
    Japanese bombs (Naval Historical Center, 2001).

48
Another Economic Boom
  • With WWII came war-related jobs and economic
    prosperity.
  • Hydroelectric power Bonneville and Grand Coulee
    Dams on Columbia River created cheap power.
  • Aluminum Five new manufacturing plants created,
    including ones in Spokane, Longview Tacoma.
  • Shipbuilding 100,000 employed at Kaisers
    shipbuilding yards in Portland-Vancouver region.
    Other local shipbuilding in Seattle, Tacoma,
    Bremerton Bellingham.
  • Fish, farming, lumber production in WA turned
    into aluminum, airplanes and ship-building
    industries.

49
The Hanford Area
  • FDR received word from Jewish scientist Albert
    Einstein that Germany may be building an atomic
    bomb. Roosevelt started the secret Manhattan
    Project, designed to produce an atomic bomb for
    America.
  • Hanford one of the Projects research
    facilities. Hanford Area produced plutonium used
    for bombs, with plant reactors (powered by dams)
    supplying water used for cooling.
  • Richland, WA was a mystery city of some 51,000
    people. Voluntary censorship/secrecy was crucial
    to the Projects success.
  • After the war, when U.S. dropped two atomic bombs
    on Japan, Hanford became a public realization.

50
Social Change
  • War brought migrants to places like the Pacific
    Northwest in record numbers.
  • African-Americans in Seattle increased from 3,700
    in 1940 to 30,000 by 1945. Racial discrimination
    still rampant many families had trouble finding
    housing, and renovated chicken coups, garages,
    empty service stations and tents/cars to live in.
  • Bracero program Response to need for growers in
    WA. Mexican men allowed to work temporarily in
    U.S. as farm laborers. Many brought their
    families (Green Carlson, 2005, chap. 9).

51
Japanese Internment Camps
  • Much hysteria caused over the notion that Japan
    would drop atomic bombs on U.S. On March 2nd,
    1942, relocation orders were given to all persons
    of Japanese descent living in U.S.
  • Roughly 10,000 Japanese-Americans from WA/OR
    areas sent to Minidoka Relocation Center in Idaho
    desert, and lived surrounded by armed guards and
    barbed wire. Many camp prisoners were 2nd/3rd
    generation Japanese-Americans.
  • After the war, U.S. Court of Appeals reversed the
    relocation order. Later, Congress compensated
    those who had been relocated with 20,000 and
    formally apologized. Considered one of the worst
    civil rights violations in American history
    (Green Carlson, 2005, chap. 9).

52
Minidoka, etc.
53
Baseball
  • Many Japanese-Americans took to playing baseball
    in the camps to pass the time. This picture was
    taken from Tule Lake, an infamous internment camp
    in Utah (Noe, 2007).
  • The childrens book, Baseball Saved Us, by Ken
    Mochizuki describes why baseball became so
    important to many Japanese-Americans imprisoned
    during WWII.

54
Going to School In Camp
  • Children in the internment camps also kept up on
    their studies.
  • Pictured here is a classroom in the Tule Lake
    camp in Utah, where junior high-aged students are
    engaged in a lesson (Noe, 2007).

55
The Death of FDR
  • April 1945 Roosevelt dies suddenly from stroke.
    Americans react in stunned reminiscence for
    three days/nights, businesses slowed, and radio
    stations aired only news broadcasts and religious
    music.
  • Similar to coverage of the death of Princess
    Diana in 1997.
  • Less than a month later, Germany surrendered, but
    Japan and U.S. still at odds. (Green Carlson,
    2005, chap. 9).

56
Fat Man Little Boy
  • August 6, 1945 Atomic bomb called Little Boy,
    weighing over 4.5 tons, was dropped on Hiroshima,
    Japan from the Enola Gay, a B-29 plane. Almost
    instantly, 66,000 people died and 69,000 were
    injured.
  • August 9, 1945 Second atomic bomb called Fat
    Man leveled over half the city of Nagasaki. The
    population of 422,000 dropped almost instantly to
    383,000 25,000 were injured.
  • Those who did survive the blasts later succumbed
    to radiation poisoning or leukemia (Bellis, 2007).

57
A Post-War World
  • Like with WWI, the end of WWII meant the end of
    things like rationing, but it also slowed
    production on chemicals, aluminum, steel, tanks
    and airplanes, leading to decrease in jobs.
  • 50,000 Boeing employees during the war, many of
    whom were no longer needed.
  • When Boeing sneezes, Seattle catches cold
    (Green Carlson, 2005, chap. 10, p. 164).

58
Suburbia
  • The G.I. Bill helped many former soldiers afford
    a college education and eased them into civilian
    life. Many vets were the first in their families
    to attend college.
  • War vets also bought houses, many using mortgage
    loans this caused a need for timber, and
    thousands of logging and sawmill jobs were
    created.
  • In 1950s, many lived in the suburbs, where many
    homes were built together outside a city
    center (Green Carlson, 2005, chap. 10, p.
    165). Women settled into family life, creating a
    baby boom baby boomers, those born in the
    1950s, have children/grandchildren of their own
    today.
  • Northgate Shopping Center North of Seattle
    with 100 stores, a hospital and a movie theatre,
    it became the first mall of its kind in the
    entire world.

59
The Cold War
  • Though they were allies in war, Russia and the
    U.S. feared attacks from one another both
    countries kept giant military/defensive systems.
  • Called a Cold War because there was no actual
    fighting. However, it was similar to the Red
    Scare during WW paranoia over communism still
    ran rampant.
  • Russian supporters called Reds anyone
    suspected of being communists were fired,
    particularly if they worked as teachers and/or
    for the government. Sympathizers were called
    Pink this is where the phrase pinko commie
    comes from.

60
The Great Space Race
  • In 1957, the Soviet Union (another name for
    Russia) launched the worlds first satellite,
    named Sputnik, into space.
  • American schools, to catch up, began putting more
    pressure on school kids to excel in science/math.
  • Soon, U.S. technology caught up to Russias, and
    even surpassed them the first man on the moon
    was an American.

61
Atomic Weapons
  • Even though there was no actual fighting during
    the Cold War, there were still a lot of jobs
    created due to the need for weaponry.
  • Hanford Area The same place that developed the
    atomic bombs during WWII produced nuclear fuel
    during the Cold War. Richland, WA still calls
    itself the Atomic city Richland High School
    uses a mushroom cloud as its emblem, even.
  • Many who lived in the Hanford Area in the 1950s
    developed cancer from radioactive material
    released into the air/water. These people were
    called downwinders (Green Carlson, 2005,
    chap. 10).
  • 1949 Soviets exploded first atomic bomb.
    Washington State practiced civil defense drills
    and evacuation techniques.
  • Spokane was the first city in the nation to
    practice making everybody evacuate all at once.

62
Highway to WA!
  • Freeways were developed by the U.S. government to
    help ease the growing amount of traffic on what
    were very narrow city roads.
  • President Eisenhower suggested them after seeing
    highways used in Germany. He felt they could also
    make evacuation easier.
  • Highways linked WA to the rest of the nation
  • Interstate 84 Columbia River, WAs southern
    border
  • Interstate 90 Puget Sound region, eastern WA
  • Interstate 5 Runs from Canada to Mexico

63
Dam Business
  • Many dams built before WWII continued to bring
    jobs into the eastern part of WA for over 20
    years.
  • Columbia Basin project 75 reservoirs produced
    electricity and irrigation for farming. This
    caused towns like the Tri-Cities, Othello and
    Moses Lake to grow rapidly.
  • Downsides
  • Dams caused flooding Lake Roosevelt flooded 11
    separate towns.
  • Native Americans could no longer use Kettle
    Falls, an ancient fishing spot.
  • The Grand Coulee Dam impaired salmon spawning

64
Agribusiness
  • Corporate farms, larger than family owned farms
    on 550,000 acres of land, for example, about
    6,000 farms were created were developed based
    on irrigation availability.
  • Many seasonal workers were brought in to prepare
    crops.
  • Chemical fertilizers developed they were
    cheaper and helped crops grow faster, with fewer
    diseases.
  • University of Pullman leading agricultural
    research helped make machine harvesting a
    reality.

65
Korean War
  • In 1950, North Korea a communist country using
    Soviet tanks/planes - invaded South Korea in
    response, the U.S. and 15 other countries sent
    troops to help South Korea defend itself.
  • Fighting was sporadic three years later, the
    war was a stalemate (nobody officially won),
    though 33,000 Americans died, 528 from Washington
    State.

66
Vietnam War
  • 1954, U.S. became involved in Vietnam, another
    communist country plagued by war. By the 1960s,
    thousands of WA soldiers joined the fight.
  • Many Americans protested U.S.s involvement in
    Seattle, for example, a demonstration of over
    25,000 people commenced.
  • Many people felt it was wrong to send troops to
    a nation where we had no reason to be involved
    (Green Carlson, 2005, chap. 10, p. 172).
  • War lasted for ten years 58,000 Americans were
    killed, and 2-3 million Vietnamese died.

67
Unemployment Immigration
  • After the war ended in 1973, unemployment soared.
    War materials were no longer needed.
  • Many Asian immigrants fled to WA to escape their
    own war-torn regions
  • Vietnamese 30,000
  • Cambodians 15,000
  • Laotians 10,000

68
Civil Rights
  • People were beginning to challenge segregation
    laws and racial discrimination.
  • 1964 Civil Rights Act Discrimination prohibited
    in public places.
  • African-Americans at the time could not sit with
    Whites in movie theatres, restaurants, or hotels
    they could not use public swimming pools, etc.
  • 1965 The literacy test was eliminated for
    voters.
  • 1969 An updated version of the Civil Rights Act
    prohibited discrimination in the sale/rental of
    property.

69
Civil Rights Murders
  • President John Kennedy Shot in Dallas, TX
  • Senator Robert Kennedy Assassinated
  • Malcolm X Murdered
  • Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Murdered in Memphis,
    TN
  • Edwin Pratt Part of the Seattle Urban League
    was shot walking out his front door.

70
Multiculturalism in WA State
  • African-Americans Many moved to Puget Sound area
    to work in defense manufacturing plants or in
    Army/Navy bases.
  • Carl Maxey First black attorney in Spokane.
    Filed lawsuits for black customers during the
    1950s/1960s who were denied access to restaurants
    and stores.
  • Asian-Americans Pre-WWII, they lived and worked
    in farms/rural areas mainly. After they left
    relocation camps, many found their homes had been
    vandalized/overtaken, and had to start new lives.
  • Some entered the world of politics. Wing Luke,
    for example, was a Seattle City Council man, the
    first Chinese-American elected to any office in
    WA. He died in a plane crash a few years later.
    Also, Gary Locke, the first Chinese-American
    governor in U.S. history was elected to office in
    1996.

71
Multiculturalism in WA (cont.)
  • Native Americans Lived both on and off
    reservations. Many led dual lives Indian life
    involved preserving native traditions and mixing
    them with modern culture.
  • Hispanic Americans Largest minority group in WA
  • WWII, thousands came to harvest crops and many
    settled permanently. In Othello,
    Mexican-Americans made up over half the
    population by the 1970s.
  • By the 1990s, Hispanics not only worked on farms,
    but many also took jobs as lawyers, physicians,
    teachers, etc.
  • Also challenged civil rights groups like the
    Mexican American Federation challenged voting
    restrictions regarding literacy in court and won,
    for example.

72
Womens Rights
  • 1970s Women strived to be paid as much as men,
    and to earn the same prestige men were
    considered doctors, and women were nurses, for
    example.
  • Feminism Liberation of women.
  • Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Neither men nor
    women could be denied rights on the basis of
    gender.

73
Health Care
  • Seattle created the first Health Maintenance
    Organization (HMO) after WWII.
  • Group Health Cooperative 400 families paid a
    monthly fee in order to see doctors who were
    covered under/involved with the organization.
  • University of Washington Medical school for
    physicians as well as medical treatment research.
    Also, Washington State University in Pullman has
    a veterinary school.

74
Conclusion
  • History creates many patterns, both positive and
    negative.
  • American history is full of recurring issues
    regarding racism, the economy, and war.
  • Understanding these issues can help make the
    country a better, more equal and safer place for
    all of its citizens.

75
References
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    http//www.authentichistory.com/.
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    bomb. Article retrieved April 6, 2007, from
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  • Enchanted Learning (2007). The flag of Russia.
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  • Gibbs Smith Publishing.
  • Gupta, P. Lee, J. (1996). The Great Depression
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References (cont.)
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    depression. Retrieved March 26, 2007, from Web
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References (cont.)
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References (cont.)
  • Wikipedia (2007a). James E. West (politician).
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  • Wikipedia (2007c). Uncle Sam. Article retrieved
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References (cont.)
  • Wikipedia (2007h). Flapper. Article retrieved
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  • Wikipedia (2007i). Ku Klux Klan. Article
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80
The End
  • Those who do not learn from history are doomed
    to repeat it.
  • - George Santayana, American philosopher
    (1863-1952)
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