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Reformation and Renaissance in Northern Europe


... Theater in Elizabethan Age Theater above all arts 1576: Theater of London, later Globe Shakespeare: Hamlet, Macbeth, Othello and King Lear. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reformation and Renaissance in Northern Europe

Reformation and Renaissance in Northern Europe
The Northern Renaissance
  • Kings, Commerce and Columbus
  • Northern Renaissance Courts Francis I of France
    and Leonardo da Vinci Henry VIII of England and
    Hans Holbein
  • Francis Is Chateau de Chambord

The Reformation
  • Martin Luther 1483-1546. 95 Theses or
    complaints against the Church.
  • Reformation split Western Christianity into the
    Catholic Church and the Protestant faiths.
  • Appealed to Germans who disliked the Churchs

Luthers Challenge 1520
  • Only scripture, only grace, only faith
    rejecting Catholic doctrine not biblically based.
  • Salvation only through grace, not works
  • Individuals direct connection to God without
    priests intercession
  • Pope Leo ignored Luther
  • When threatened with excommunication, Luther
    burned the document

The Appeal of the Reformation
  • Peasants revolts bloodily put down by German
    rulers with Luthers blessings
  • Faith accessible to common believer
  • Luther translated the New Testament into German
  • Hymns in German, not Latin
  • Simple worship

The Protestant Ethic
  • Paradox Merchants became rich yet condemned
    rich popes
  • Wealth sign of Gods elect for Calvinists.
  • Work and wealth no pleasure-seeking activities

  • John Calvin (1509-64) Swiss
  • Forced to leave Catholic France
  • Predestination God determines who will gain
  • Hard work and wealth signs of election
  • No dancing, drinking, dissent Blue laws
  • Rigid and intolerant social discipline

  • The religion for which they sacrificed so much
    was a severe one. Calvinism frowned upon
    'dancing, dicing, cards and indecent songs.'
    Calvin's 'Blue Laws' required the host of a
    French public inn to keep a Bible on the premises
    should anyone wish to read it and his customers
    were to be put out promptly at nine o'clock at

The Elizabethan Age
  • The Reformation in England Henry VIII requested
    divorce from his wife Catherine of Aragon pope
    did not agree Henry broke away from Church and
    founded Anglican Church.
  • Anglican faith prevailed under Elizabeth I
  • Repressed Puritans (Calvinists) who came to

Religions in Europe after the Reformation
  • Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, southern Germany,
    Austria, Hungary Catholic
  • Northern Germany, Belgium, Netherlands,
    Scandinavia Protestant
  • England, Scotland, Wales Anglican
  • Ireland Catholic

Northern Renaissance Art
  • Intense visual realism--Jan van Eyck jewel-like
    detail and vivid colors
  • Oil on wood better to reflect light than fresco
  • Altarpiece of Ghent Marriage of Giovanni
    Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami ( symbols dog,
    fidelity, candle, light of Christ, fruit,
    fertility, mirror reflects artist)
  • Mastery of light, color and pictorial space

Faith and Humanism in the Northern Arts
  • Matthias Grunewalds Crucifixion Bubonic plague
  • Durer Self- Portrait
  • Pieter Bruegel Painter of country Life The
    Parable of the Blind, The Hunters Return
  • Genre paintings scenes of daily life

Humanism in the North
  • Erasmus satire opposed Luthers views
  • Montaigne essays
  • Thomas More Utopia

Theater in Elizabethan Age
  • Theater above all arts
  • 1576 Theater of London, later Globe
  • Shakespeare Hamlet, Macbeth, Othello and King
    Lear. Psychological epics
  • Blank verse five stressed poetic line or
  • Hamlet

Palestrina and the Counter-Reformation
  • Catholic reaction against the Reformation
    Council of Trent
  • Palestrina attuned to the changes in the
    Church, who returned to religious conservative
  • Purification of music music based on plainchant

Renaissance Theater in Italy
  • From three to five acts realistic
  • Staging design and machinery backdrops
  • Palladios Teatro Olimpico
  • Camerata revived Greek tragedies and
    incorporated Gabrielis music opera was born!
  • Commedia dellarte comic theater with invented

Camerata Fiorentina
  • Opera started in Florence at the end of the XVI
    century by a group called Camerata fiorentina
    (literally, those who met in a chamber),
    comprised of artists, musicians and writers of
    the time. The very first opera seems to be the
    Euridice by Rinuccini and Peri, first performed
    on the 6th of October 1600 to compliment Maria de
    Medici who was getting married to Henry V, King
    of France.

Venetian Music
  • Gabrieli instruments that doubled choral
    voices soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, bass
  • The different vocal parts united in a final chord
    or cadences, which provided finality or
    resolution to the piece
  • End of polyphony and Renaissance music

Palladio, Architect of Venice
  • Andrea Palladio Country estates, classical
    styles that influenced architects into 19th
  • Villa Rotonda
  • Textbook for architects for two centuries

Late Renaissance Painting
  • Venetians preferred oil paint more durable than
    fresco in humidity of Venice
  • Veroneses Marriage at Cana
  • Giorgiones The Tempest (mystery)
  • Titians Bacchus and Ariadne
  • Parmigianinos Madonna with the Long Neck

  • Exaggeration, distortion and expressiveness in an
    elegant and inventive play on Renaissance style
  • Tintorettos Last Supper
  • Michelangelos Rondanini Pieta