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World History: WWI to Modern Day

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World History: WWI to Modern Day Roots of WWI World War I The Great War Nationalism- loyalty to one s country The Balkans Ethnic groups launching revolutions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: World History: WWI to Modern Day


1
World HistoryWWI to Modern Day
2
Roots of WWI
  • World War I
  • The Great War
  • Nationalism- loyalty to ones country
  • The Balkans
  • Ethnic groups launching revolutions against the
    Ottoman Empire
  • Some annexed by Austria-Hungary
  • Poland v. Russia
  • Ireland v. Britain

3
Roots of WWI
  • Militarism
  • Countries began building up their militaries to
    intimidate others
  • Alliances
  • Agreements between nations to help each other in
    case of war

4
The War Begins
  • June 28, 1914- Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir
    to Austria-Hungary, was assassinated by a Serbian
    nationalist
  • Austria-Hungarian/German alliance
  • Serbian/Russian alliance
  • Triple Entente
  • Great Britain, France, Russia
  • Central Powers
  • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

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6
The War Front
  • Weapons
  • Machine guns
  • Poison gasses
  • Tanks and airplanes
  • Stalemate develops
  • Trench warfare
  • Dirty ditches
  • no mans land in between

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8
The End and Aftermath
  • 1917- the US enters the war
  • 1918- the war ends when Germany is defeated
  • 20 million Europeans dead
  • President Wilson wanted peace but the allies
    wanted to punish Germany
  • Treaty of Versailles
  • Forced Germany to accept blame
  • Germany to pay reparations ()
  • Hapsburg Dynasty (ruling European family) fell
  • Ottoman Empire- no longer existed

9
The Aftermath
  • Allies redrew national borders to benefit
    themselves
  • New countries created causing conflict
  • Promised independence to Arab nations but went
    back on their word
  • Mandate system
  • Germans left resentful
  • Laid the path for WWII

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11
League of Nations
  • President Wilson proposed it
  • Was meant to provide a place where countries
    could peacefully discuss solutions
  • Many countries joined but no the USA
  • Could not enforce anything

12
Russian Revolution
  • Czar Nicholas II- lead Russia in WWI but was
    overthrown in 1917
  • Lenin
  • Marxist/Communist
  • Bolsheviks- socialist party
  • Gained control of the Russian government
  • Western nations sided with the non-communist
  • Soviet Union Communist Russia

13
Joseph Stalin
  • Became communist dictator of Russia
  • Five Year Plan
  • Sought to increase industrialization in the USSR
  • State owned farms and starvation
  • Purge
  • Stalin eliminated those he saw as a threat some
    killed some sent to prisons
  • Murdered millions of his own people

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15
Effects of the Revolution
  • End of the Romanov Dynasty transferring power to
    the lower classes
  • Urbanization and technology
  • Mistrust between the Russia and the west
  • Later led to the Cold War after WWII

16
Totalitarian v. Authoritarian Governments
  • Democracy does not exist in either
  • Authoritarian
  • Only interested in political power
  • Conservatives who want to preserve traditional
    way of life
  • Expects people to accept government policies and
    carry on with their lives
  • Totalitarian
  • Government seeks to control politics, economy,
    culture, and social life
  • Terror and fear used to force citizens

17
Italy
  • Fascism
  • Nationalistic movement that is anti-democratic
    and anti-communist
  • Rules by intimidation
  • Benito Mussolini
  • Used violence to settle unrest
  • Became dictator of Italy after gaining support
    from the middle class
  • Repressive government

18
Adolf Hitler
  • Took control of Germany with the Nazi Party
  • Rose in power through Nationalism and promised of
    rebuilding
  • Third Reich
  • Began militarily expanding
  • Empire building
  • Appeasement
  • Anti-Semitism-hatred of the Jewish people
  • Final Solution-called for the total elimination
    of the Jewish people
  • The Holocaust

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20
Japan
  • Emperor Hirohito
  • Did not have complete control of Japanese
    government
  • Militarily controlled
  • Hideki Tojo
  • Japans premier and led Japan through WWII

21
Leading to War
  • Hitlers invasion on the Rhineland, Austria, and
    the Sudetenland
  • Japan expanding in the Pacific and into China
  • Axis Powers
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Japan

22
WWII
  • Hitler invades Poland
  • Britain and France enter the war
  • Hitler takes over France
  • Battle of Britain
  • Thousands of German planes bomb Britain
  • Winston Churchill- British prime minister
  • Britain holds on

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24
US Involvement
  • US had remain neutral until December 7, 1941
    attack on Pearl Harbor
  • US declares war
  • Allies
  • United States
  • Britain
  • Soviet Union/Russia
  • Hitler invades Soviet Union

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26
Strategy
  • Stalin wanted US and Britain to open the western
    front of Europe to help him out
  • Churchill and Roosevelt decided to attack Germany
    in Africa, Italy, and then the Western European
    Front
  • Tehran Conference
  • Allies agree to invade Europe
  • D-day
  • Significance Paved way for Western European
    invasion that would end the war
  • France is won back

27
Yalta Conference
  • Big Three
  • Roosevelt/Truman (US)
  • Churchill (Britain)
  • Stalin (USSR)
  • Yalta Conference
  • After German defeat USSR would help with Japan
  • Eastern European countries to get elections
  • USSR gets land in Poland and some in China
  • USSR gets most reparations because they were the
    hardest hit
  • Germany divided into four zones after the war
    (US, Britain, France, USSR)
  • Significance Laid out post-WWII Europe between
    the west and the communist

28
Potsdam Conference
  • War in Europe ended May 1945
  • Potsdam
  • Truman meets with Stalin and Churchill
  • Unconditional Surrender of Japan
  • Significance led to the decision of the atomic
    bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki
  • War on both fronts were finally ended
  • Use of the atomic bombs led to the nuclear arms
    race between the US and the USSR
  • Hydrogen bomb created

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30
Post WWII
  • Cold War
  • Tension b/w the US and USSR that many feared
    would lead to nuclear war
  • Marshall Plan
  • Money given to help Western Europes economy and
    help rebuild countries
  • Post War Japan
  • Created democratic government ad helped rebuild
  • Today a modern, industrial, and wealthy nation
  • United Nations
  • Organization of different countries to find
    peaceful solutions to problems
  • Permanent Members US, Britain, France, Russia,
    China

31
Indian Independence
  • Decolonization
  • India was under control of Britain
  • Mohandas Gandhi
  • Leader of the Indian Independence Movement
  • Supported non-violent protests even through
    beatings by the British
  • Unity b/w Hindus and Muslim Indians
  • Gained independence but not religious peace
  • Pakistan created as a Muslim state
  • Gandhi was assassinated but inspired many

32
Chinas Communist Revolution
  • Nationalists v. Communists
  • Mao Zedong
  • Communist leader who gained control of China
  • USSR supported

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34
Israel
  • Zionism- Jewish nationalism increased after the
    Holocaust
  • 1948 Israel created for Jewish people
  • Arabs upset because part of Palistine was taken
  • Wars have broken out and still tension

35
Latin America
  • US was backing governments in Latin America that
    nationalists did not support
  • Latin American nationalism associated itself more
    with the Soviet Union
  • Cuba (Castro), Chile (Salvador Allende),
    Nicaragua (Sandinistas), Mexican attempt
    (Zapatistas)
  • US backed anti-communist takeovers
  • Todays anti-US Latin American governments
  • Venezuela and Hugo Chavez
  • Bolivia and Juan Evo Morales Ayma

36
Southeast Asia
  • Decolonizing after WWII
  • Many of the countries experienced unrest
  • Vietnamese Nationalist led by Ho Chi Minh fought
    the French and the US
  • Communist nationalist won in the end

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38
Africa
  • African nationalism also came about after
    decolonization
  • Several African countries gained independence
  • South Africa
  • Apartheid- official policy of racial segregation
    in South Africa
  • Nelson Mandela- arrested for his leadership for
    27 years but 1994 was elected president
  • 1994 South African elections where black
    population was allowed to participate

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40
Middle East
  • Arab National arose after the founding of Israel
  • Abdul Nassar became president of Egypt and united
    Arabs in standing against the west and supporting
    Palestine

41
Ethnic Conflicts
  • African tribes fighting one another
  • Kurds, Persians, Arabs, and Jews fighting in the
    Middle East
  • Eastern Europe
  • Serbs, Bosnians, and Croats fighting
  • Serbians conquered Bosnia and began ethnic
    cleansing killing many Bosnians
  • NATO helped to maintain peace

42
Terrorism
  • Terrorism
  • Use of violence against innocent people in the
    name of a cause
  • Al-Qaeda
  • Largest and most active terrorist group
  • Led by Osama bin Laden
  • Sept. 11, 2001
  • War on Terror- invasion into Afghanistan
  • How does this affect us today?

43
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44
Globalization
  • Globalization- worldwide interdependence
  • United Nations
  • Allows representatives to negotiate peacefully,
    provide aid, and back military forces to maintain
    stability
  • World Trade Organization
  • Monitors countries making sure they stick to
    international trade agreements
  • OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting
    Countries)
  • Several oil producing nations that control the
    cost and supply of oil
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