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INDUSTRIAL MINERAL CONCENTRATION TECNOLOGIES

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INDUSTRIAL MINERAL CONCENTRATION TECNOLOGIES Prof.Dr. Muammer KAYA Osmangazi University Eskisehir-TURKEY 2007 APPLICATION OF FLOTATION Flotation can be successfully ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INDUSTRIAL MINERAL CONCENTRATION TECNOLOGIES


1
INDUSTRIAL MINERAL CONCENTRATION TECNOLOGIES
  • Prof.Dr. Muammer KAYA
  • Osmangazi University
  • Eskisehir-TURKEY
  • 2007

2
From raw material
To Final Product
3
Principles of Flotation
4
APPLICATION OF FLOTATION
  • Flotation can be successfully applied to both
    metallic and industrial minerals given below for
    removing impurities and improving quality
  • Apatite/Phosphate, Barite, Calcite, Dolomite,
    Feldspar, Fluorspar, Graphite, Iron Ore, Kyanite,
    Magnesite, Monazite, Potash, Pyrochlore,
    Quartz/Silica Sand, Scheelite etc.

5
MECHANICAL FLOTATION MACHINE
Froth flotation is achieved when particles are
separated based on their surface potential.
Hydrophobic particles are recovered to the froth,
whereas hydrophilic particles are discharged with
the tailings stream.
6
PHOSPHATE MINERALS
  • Phosphate minerals are those minerals that
    contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate
    (PO43-) anion along with the freely substituting
    arsenate (AsO43-) and vanadate (VO43-). Chlorine
    (Cl-), fluorine (F-), and hydroxide (OH-) anions
    also fit into the crystal structure.
  • The phosphate class of minerals is a large and
    diverse group, however, only a few species are
    relatively common.
  • Examples include
  • triphylite Li(Fe,Mn)PO4
  • monazite (Ce,La,Y,Th)PO4
  • Apatite group Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH)
  • hydroxylapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH
  • fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F
  • chlorapatite Ca5(PO4)3Cl
  • pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl
  • vanadinite Pb5(VO4)3Cl
  • erythrite Co3(AsO4)28H2O
  • amblygonite LiAlPO4F
  • lazulite (Mg,Fe)Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
  • wavellite Al3(PO4)2(OH)35H2O
  • turquoise CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)85H2O
  • autunite Ca(UO2)2(PO4)210-12H2O
  • carnotite K2(UO2)2(VO4)23H2O

PO43- anion
7
DEPOSITS
  • Rock phosphate can also be found on USA, Egypt,
    Israel, Morocco, Navassa Island, Tunisia, Togo,
    S. Arabia and Jordan have large phosphate mining
    industries as well.

8
USE OF PHOSPHATE
  • Phosphates were once commonly used in laundry
    detergent in the form trisodium phosphate (TSP),
    but, because of algae boom-bust cycles tied to
    emission of phosphates into watersheds, phosphate
    detergent sale or usage is restricted in some
    areas.
  • In agriculture, phosphate is one of the three
    primary plant nutrients, and it is a component of
    fertilizers. Rock phosphate is quarried from
    phosphate beds in sedimentary rocks. In former
    times, it was simply crushed and used as is, but
    the crude form is now used only in organic
    farming. Normally, it is chemically treated to
    make superphosphate, triple superphosphate, or
    ammonium phosphates, which have higher
    concentration of phosphate and are also more
    soluble, therefore more quickly usable by plants.
  • Fertilizer grades have three numbers the first
    is the available nitrogen, the second is the
    available phosphate (expressed on a P2O5 basis),
    and the third is the available potash (expressed
    on a K2O basis). Thus a 10-10-10 fertilizer would
    contain ten percent of each, with the remainder
    being filler.
  • Surface runoff of phosphates from
    excessively-fertilized farmland can be a cause of
    phosphate pollution, leading to eutrophication
    (nutrient enrichment), algal bloom, and
    consequent oxygen deficit. This can lead to
    anoxia for fish and other aquatic organisms in
    the same manner as phosphate-based detergents.
  • Phosphate compounds are occasionally added to the
    public drinking water supply to counter
    plumbosolvency.
  • The food industry uses phosphates to perform
    several different functions. For example, in meat
    products, it solubilizes the protein. This
    improves its water-holding ability and increases
    its moistness and succulence. In baked products,
    such as cookies and crackers, phosphate compounds
    can act as part of the leavening system when it
    reacts with an alkalai, usually sodium
    bicarbonate (baking soda).
  • Phosphate minerals are often used for control of
    rust and prevention of corrosion on ferrous
    materials, applied with electrochemical
    conversion coatings

9
PHOSPHATE FLOTATION
  • Collophane, the principal phosphate mineral
    occuring in the phospate deposits of the
    Southeastern US, floats readily with crude fatty
    acids and soaps, fuel oil and soda ash, caustic
    soda or amonia.
  • Double flotation method is used in US Florida
    plants by using both fatty acid and amine types
    of collectors.
  • Single flotation is employed at N.Africa and
    Middle Eastern phosphate operations by using
    either a fatty acid or an amine type of
    collector.
  • Cytecs Aero 727, 727J and 728 promoters have
    been successfully used where only fatty acid
    float approach is practiced.
  • Cytecs Aero 8651 fatty amine promer is utilized
    in operations running an amine float.
  • In the reverse flotation, Cytec Acco-Phos 950
    depressant (20-100 g/t) minimizes phosphate loses
    into the silica froth product using amine
    collectors.
  • In the treatment of sedimentary pebble
    phosphates, Aero 845 can be used in conjuction
    with fatty acids.

10
US DOUBLE PHOSPHATE FLOTATION
-
FEED
Slimes (-10 ?)
Desliming (Hydrocyclones)

conditioner
Phosphate-Silica Sep. Flot
70S
T
F
Silica (final tails)
Rougher fl.
pH9-9.5 (sodaash/NaOH) Crude fatty oil Fuel-oil
C
Conditioning with H2SO4washing to remove reagents
Silica Removal Reverse Flot.
Cleaner fl.
Phosphate Conc.
pH6.5-7 Fatty/ether amine
conditioner
Silica (gangue)
11
LIME STONE/CALCITE
  • Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely
    of the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate
    CaCO3). l
  • Limestone often contains variable amounts of
    silica in the form of chert or flint, as well as
    varying amounts of clay, silt and sand as
    disseminations, nodules, or layers within the
    rock.

12
USES OF LIMESTONE
Iron impregnations in limestone
  • The manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide) and
    slaked lime (calcium hydroxide)
  • Cement and mortar
  • Pulverized limestone is used as a soil
    conditioner to neutralize acidic soil conditions
  • Crushed for use as aggregatethe solid base for
    many roads
  • Limestone is especially popular in architecture
    as building stone/ material
  • Geological formations of limestone are among the
    best petroleum reservoirs
  • As a reagent in desulfurizations
  • Glass making
  • Toothpaste
  • Added to bread as a source of calcium

13
LIME STONE/CALCITE (CaCO3) FLOTATION
  • Natural limestone/calcite deposits contain
    various types of silicates and graphite
    impurities.
  • For applications like paper fillers the calcite
    has to have a low grade of abrasive silicates as
    well as a high brightness.
  • Even very low amounts of graphite is detrimental
    to the brightness.
  • Beneficiation of limestone by froth flotation
    utilizing Aero 845 promoter can be simple
    process.
  • Limestone is floated with/without prior desliming
    with the emulsion of Aero 845 and number 5 fuel
    oil.
  • Silicates can be depressed by Na2SiO3 (500-1000
    g/t).
  • Compared to fatty acids, Aero 845 promoter (Pet.
    Sulphonate type anionic collector) offer the
    advantage of better product control at a saving
    in total collector usage.

14
Sparingly soluble salts flot.
Complete flot.
R100
pH6- 9
R0
No flot.
Mole/l
Calcite flot. recovery depends on NaOl
concentration and HC chain length of the
collector. In general, when the collector length
of the HC chain is increased, the concentration
of collector necessary for flotation is reduced.
15
GRAPHITE CONCENTRATION TECHNOLOGY
  • Graphite is one of the allotropes of carbon.
    Unlike diamond, graphite is an electrical
    conductor.
  • Graphite holds the distinction of being the most
    stable form of solid carbon ever discovered.
  • It may be considered the highest grade of coal,
    just above anthracite and alternatively called
    meta-anthracite, although it is not normally used
    as fuel because it is hard to ignite.

16
CLASSIFICATION OF GRAPHITE
  • There are three principal types of natural
    graphite, each occurring in different types of
    ore deposit
  • (1) Crystalline flake graphite (53) occurs as
    isolated, flat, plate-like particles with
    hexagonal edges if unbroken and when broken the
    edges can be irregular or angular
    (Madagascar-open pit, 410-950 /t)
  • (2) Amorphous graphite occurs as fine particles
    (Mexico-Underground mines, 240-260 /t)
  • (3) Lump graphite (also called vein graphite)
    occurs in fissure veins or fractures and appears
    as massive platy intergrowths of fibrous or
    acicular crystalline aggregates, and is probably
    hydrothermal in origin (Sri Lanka-Underground
    mines).

17
USE AREAS OF GRAPHITE
18
IMPURITIES and PROPERTIES
  • Minerals associated with graphite include quartz,
    calcite, micas, iron meteorites, and tourmalines.
  • In 2005, world natural graphite production was
    1.05 million t and China was the top producer of
    graphite with about 80 world share followed by
    India and Brazil.
  • Graphite has various characteristics. Thin flakes
    are flexible but inelastic, the mineral can leave
    black marks on hands and paper, it is
    diamagnetic, adsorbant, conducts electricity, and
    displays superlubricity. Its best field
    indicators are softness, luster, density and
    streak.

19
GRAPHITE BENEFICIATION METHODS
  • Vary from a complex flotation at Europe and USA
    mills to simply hand sorting and screening
    with/without milling of high-grade ores in Sri
    Lanka.
  • Certain soft flake-type graphite ores, (like in
    Madagascar) need no primary crushing and
    grinding.
  • GRAPHITE MILLING ONLY
  • Graphite can be ground to a fine powder for use
    as a slurry in oil drilling in zirconium
    silicate, sodium silicate and isopropyl alcohol
    coatings for foundry molds and for calcined
    petroleum coke, which is used as a carbon raiser
    in the steel industry.
  • Rough graphite is typically ground and packaged
    at a graphite mill. Since the Work Index of
    graphite is high, power consumption during
    grinding will be high.
  • Environmental impacts from graphite mills consist
    of air pollution including fine particulate
    exposure of workers and also soil contamination
    from powder spillages leading to heavy metals
    contaminations of soil. Dust masks are normally
    worn by workers during the production process to
    avoid worker exposure to the fine airborne
    graphite and zircon silicate.

20
GRAPHITE FLOTATION
  • Since graphite is naturally hydrophobic (i.e.
    floats easily), impurites can easily be removed
    by direct flotation process.
  • Flotation process can be applied to low carbon
    and high silica containing graphite ores.
  • 1. DESLIMING STEP for removing clay minerals,
  • 2. ROUGHER FLOTATION to produce a concentrate
    with 60-70 C.
  • 3. REGRINDINGCLEANER FLOTATION to reach 85 C.
  • 4. SCREENING to produce 75-95C.
  • - 0.5 mm graphite can be floated using
    fuel-oil/kerosene as the promoter and
    pine-oil/F-77/MIBC as frother at natural pH.
    Na2SiO3/HF can be used as silicate depressant.

21
IRON ORES
Brazillian hematite
  • Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which
    metallic iron can be economically extracted. The
    ores are usually rich in iron oxides and vary in
    color from dark grey to rusty red. The iron
    itself is usually found in the form of magnetite
    (Fe3O4), hematite (Fe2O3), limonite or siderite.
    Hematite ores containing 66 Fe can be fed
    directly into iron making blast furnaces. Iron
    ore is the raw material used to make pig iron,
    which is one of the main raw materials to make
    steel. 98 of the mined iron ore is used to make
    steel.

22
Consumption and economics
  • Iron is the world's most commonly used metal. It
    is used primarily in structural engineering
    applications, automobiles, and general industrial
    applications (machinery).
  • Iron-rich rocks are common worldwide, but
    ore-grade commercial mining operations are
    dominated by few countries.
  • World production averages one billion metric tons
    of raw ore annually. The world's largest producer
    of iron ore is the Brazilian mining corporation
    CVRD, followed by Australian company BHP Billiton
    and the Anglo-Australian Rio Tinto Group.
  • China, Japan and S. Korea are currently the
    largest consumer of iron ore/steel. which
    translates to be the world's largest steel
    producing country.

23
LOW GRADE IRON ORE BENEFICIATION
  • Due to the high density of hematite (5.3)
    relative to silicates (2.7), beneficiation
    usually involves a combination of crushing and
    milling as well as heavy liquid separation.
  • This is achieved by passing the finely crushed
    ore over a bath of solution containing bentonite
    or other agent which increases the density of the
    solution. When the density of the solution is
    properly calibrated, the hematite will sink and
    the silicate mineral fragments will float and can
    be removed.

24
FLOTATION OF IRON ORE
  • Due to increased demand for iron ore products low
    in silica and phosphorous plus increased world
    competition, quality considerations have become
    more and more important.
  • Dephosphorization of iron ores is necessary.
  • The results obtained in plant operations vary,
    depending on ore type and the process.
  • Direct flotation of iron ores was practiced for
    many years using Aero899R promoter (1-2 kg/t)
    along with number 5 fuel oil at pH 3-5 adjusted
    by H2SO4 following high solids conditioning.
  • Reverse flotation of silica with etheramine
    collectorsfrother (Aerofroth or Oreprep) has
    been the traditional route for many years to
    produce a final iron ore concentrate. While
    removing silica from the iron ore, fine iron
    particles should not excessively lost.

25
FINE IRON ORE PELLETS
Iron ore fines and flotation concentrates should
be pelletized with bentonite before being charged
into the blast furnace to produce pig-iron which
is used in steel production.
Iron pellets
26
HEAVY MINERAL SANDS
  • Sand is a naturally occurring granular material
    comprised of finely divided rock and mineral
    particles.
  • Sand is transported by wind and water and
    deposited in the form of beaches, dunes, sand
    spits, sand bars (placer deposits) etc.
  • The most common constituents of sands are silica
    (SiO2), usually in the form of quartz, iron
    oxides, zircon, rutile, ilmenite, monazite,
    garnet.
  • Heavy mineral sands are a class of ore deposit
    which is an important source of zirconium,
    titanium, thorium, tungsten, rare earth elements,
    the industrial minerals diamond, sapphire,
    garnet, and occasionally precious metals or
    gemstones.

27
Grade and Tonnage Distribution
  • The grade of a typical heavy mineral sand ore
    deposit is usually low. The lowest cut-off grades
    of heavy minerals, as a total heavy mineral (THM)
    concentrate from the bulk sand, in most ore
    deposits of this type is around 1 heavy
    minerals, although several are higher grade.
  • Of this total heavy mineral concentrate (THM),
    the components are typically
  • Zircon, from 1 of THM to upwards of 50 of THM,
  • Ilmenite, generally of 10 to 60 of THM
  • Rutile, from 5 to 25 of THM
  • Leucoxene, from 1 to 10 of THM
  • Trash minerals, typically magnetite, garnet and
    chromite which usually account for the remaining
    bulk of the THM content
  • Slimes, typically minerals as above and heavy
    clay minerals, too fine to be economically
    extracted.
  • Modern open-pit mining practises tend to favor
    dry mining rather than dredging operations, due
    to the advent of electrostatic mineral separation
    processes.

Black sand conc.
28
USE OF SAND
  • Sand is often a principal component of concrete.
  • Molding sand, also known as foundry sand, is
    moistened or oiled and then shaped into molds for
    sand casting. This type of sand must be able to
    withstand high temperatures and pressure, allow
    gases to escape, have a uniform, small grain size
    and be non-reactive with metals.
  • It is the principal component in glass
    manufacturing.
  • Graded sand is used as an abrasive in
    sandblasting and is also used in media filters
    for filtering water.
  • Brick manufacturing plants use sand as an
    additive with a mixture of clay and other
    materials for manufacturing bricks.
  • Sand is sometimes mixed with paint to create a
    textured finish for walls and ceilings or a
    non-slip floor surface.
  • Sandy soils are ideal for certain crops such as
    watermelons, peaches, and peanuts and are often
    preferred for intensive dairy farming because of
    their excellent drainage characteristics.
  • Sand is used in landscaping, it is added to make
    small hills and slopes (for example, constructing
    golf courses).
  • Beach nourishment - transportation to popular
    beaches where seasonal tides or artificial
    changes to the shoreline cause the original sand
    to flow out to sea.2
  • Sandbags are used for protection against floods
    and gun fire. They can be easily transported when
    empty, then filled with local sand.
  • Sand castle building is a popular activity. There
    are competitive sand castle building competitions
    (See sand art and play).
  • Sand animation is a type of performance art and a
    technique for creating animated films.
  • Aquaria are often lined with sand instead of
    gravel. This is a low cost alternative which some
    believe is better than gravel.
  • Railroads use sand to improve the traction of
    wheels on the rails.

29
GLASS SANDS BENEFICIATION
  • CONCENTRATION OF HEAVY MINERALS
  • Gravity (sluices, spirals, shaking tables,
    Reichert cones), magnetic (low/high intensity
    dry/wet) and high tension separation methods can
    be used together to treat/upgrade the heavy
    content of the beach sands.
  • GLASS SAND FLOTATION FOR IRON IMPURITY REMOVAL
  • After removal of the Fe-bearing impurities, some
    plants separate feldspar from quartz by floating
    feldspar with amines at pH 3 using HF.
  • Some glass sand operations, naturally-occuring
    organic colloids may make a fatty acid float of
    iron-bearing minerals preferable.
  • After desliming, the pulp is conditioned at high
    solids with Aero 700 series promoters at pH 8-9
    adjusted with soda ash or caustic soda. Fuel oil
    may be added to the flotation circuit for froth
    control.

30
GARNET X3Y2(SiO4)3
crystal
Molecular model
  • Garnet is a group of minerals that can be used as
    gemstones and abrasives (Mohs hardness 6-7.5).
    Garnets are most often seen in red, but are
    available in a wide variety of colors. Spec. Gr.
    is btw 3.1-4.3.
  • Major varieties X Y (SiO4)3 USE
    AREA
  • Pyrope Mg3Al2Si3O12
  • Almandine Fe3Al2Si3O12 abrasive
  • Spessartite Mn3Al2Si3O12 gemstone
  • Andradite Ca3Fe2Si3O12
  • Grossular Ca3Al2Si3O12
  • Uvarovite Ca3Cr2Si3O12 gemstone
  • Garnet speciess light transmission properties
    can range from the gemstone-quality transparent
    specimens to the opaque varieties used for
    industrial purposes as abrasives.


31
Uses Concentration of GARNETS
  • Pure crystals of garnet are used as gemstones.
    Garnet sand is a good abrasive, and a common
    replacement for silica sand in sand blasting.
    Mixed with very high pressure water, garnet is
    used to cut steel and other materials in water
    jets. Garnet sand is also used for water
    filtration media.
  • Garnets can be concentrated from sands by
    gravity electrostaticmagnetic separation
    methods along with monazite.

Pendant in uvarovite, a rare bright-green garnet.
Almandine in gneissic rock, hardness 6-7.5,
abrasive
Spessartine (the yellow mineral) gemstone
32
OCCURENCE OF KAOLIN (Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O)
  • Feldspar
  • Mica
  • Granite
  • Syanite
  • Porphyr
  • Quartz
  • Rutile
  • Ilmenite

Primary Deposits 20-30 Kaolin Cormwall/UK
alteration
KAOLIN
Sedimantary Deposits 95 Kaolin Georgia/USA
No-decomposition
33
LIBERATION OF KAOLIN
  • Liberation size for KAOLIN 4-6 ?m.
  • Liberation size for FELDSPAR 200-300 ?m.
  • Liberation size for QUARTZ 700 ?m.
  • KAOLIN CAN EASILY BE CONCENTRATED BY
    CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO PARTICLE SIZE USING
    SCREENS AND HYDROCYCLONES
  • Before concentration
  • ? For soft kaolins?Attrition scrubbing for
    dispersing clays
  • ? For hard kaolins?crushing/grinding are
    required.
  • (Due to remaining fine silica product,
    quality is low)
  • CLASSIFICATION CONCENTRATION
  • ? DRY (Crushingdry grindingair classification)
  • (requires selective mining operation)
  • ? WET (Magnetic separationflotationhydrocyclones
    )
  • (complex flowsheet, but product quality is very
    high)

34
  • The production process includes disintegration
    and classification, hydrocycloning, thickening,
    filter-pressing and drying. Product range kaolin
    for ceramic, kaolin for paper, glass silica sand,
    dry and wet classified silica sand, ground
    kaolin, chamotte.

35
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36
Process
  • The extraction plant is situated adjacent to the
    quarrying operation to enable the waste to be
    returned to backfill.
  • Crude kaolin from the quarry is first made into a
    slurry with water. This slurry passes through a
    series of washing and classification steps in
    order to remove the quartz and mica impurities.
    This results in a pure kaolin product which is
    completely devoid of free silica.
  • The kaolin is filtered in filter presses and the
    filter cake is pressed into pellet form prior to
    drying in gas-fired dryers. The final kaolin
    pellets contain 10 moisture on average. These
    are packaged and despatched to customers in the
    ceramic, paint, paper and other industries.
  • A dry powder product is also produced for those
    industries that cannot tolerate moisture, such as
    the rubber, plastic and pesticide industries. The
    dry powder is produced by passing the kaolin
    pellets through an attritor and classifier with
    simultaneous drying with hot air.
  • Water from the drying process is recovered and
    recycled to the extraction plant through a return
    water pipeline.

37
MAJOR IMPURITIES(Kaolin is used in fine size
range. Flotation efficiency diminishes with the
size of particles. Kaolin is used as a white
pigment thus colored impurities must be removed).
  • Anatase (TiO2) Fine sized anatase contains
    considerable amount Fe and gives brownish tint to
    the clays. This mineral may be removed by fatty
    acid flotation after activating with divalent
    cations to produce coating grade (bright) clays.
    Yoon et al. (2003) found that alkyl hydroxametes
    were much more effective than fatty acids in
    floating colored anatase impurity from clays. No
    activation is necessary and retention times in
    flotation are shorter than fatty acids.
  • Iron oxides

38
KAOLIN FLOTATION
  • CARRIER FLOTATION and CARRIERLESS FLOTATION can
    be used.
  • Collector Fatty acids.

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40
Sparingly Soluble Salts
NaOl - sodium oleate, DDA-dodecylamine, SDS,-
sodium dedecyl sulfite
41
Class 5. Sparingly soluble salts
Flotation with potassium octylohydroxymate
42
Class 4. Oxides and hydroxides
Amine flotation of quartz
43
Class 6. Soluble salts
44
POTASH
  • Potash is the most important source of potassium
    in fertilizers.
  • Flotation is one of the major methods to upgrade
    the potash.
  • Normally fatty acids are used as collectors for
    flotation. However, this type of collectors is
    not always suitable for the treatment of complex
    phosphate ores when calcite and dolomite are
    present.
  • Calcite and dolomite tent to co-float with
    phosphate giving low concentrate grades.
  • Potash can be separated from halite by reverse
    flotation.

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