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Curriculum Writing 101

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Curriculum Writing 101 Translating the CCPS Library Media Scope and Sequence into Meaningful Instruction Instructional Design Models The CCPS curriculum framework has ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Curriculum Writing 101


1
Curriculum Writing 101
  • Translating the CCPS Library Media Scope and
    Sequence into Meaningful Instruction

2
Instructional Design Models
  • The CCPS curriculum framework has been designed
    to focus the attention of curriculum writers on
    the big picture before any individual lesson
    plans are designed. It incorporates two
    instructional design models
  • Understanding by Design
  • Dimensions of Learning

3
Instructional Design Model UBD
  • Understanding by Design
  • is sometimes called backward design because it
    starts with what students should know or be able
    to do at the end of a unit of instruction and
    ends with the actual learning activities.
  • directs our attention beyond the indicators to
    the big picture or enduring understanding that
    students should carry with them for life after a
    unit of instruction.

4
Instructional Design Model UBD
  • The enduring understanding can be difficult to
    define at first. However, if you think of what
    is important to remember about a concept, topic
    or skill after 10-20 years, you will be
    describing an enduring understanding.

5
Instructional Design Model UBD
  • For example, what does the following Library of
    Congress call number represent?
  • QA117

Q Science QA Mathematics 117
Fractions, decimals and percents
6
Instructional Design Model UBD
  • Did you ever use a library that was organized by
    the Library of Congress classification system?
  • Were you able to use the library successfully?
  • How? Thinking about how you transferred your
    understanding of the Dewey system to the LOC
    system helps to identify the enduring
    understandings that you developed about call
    numbers and library classification systems.

7
Instructional Design Model UBD
  • An enduring understanding about call numbers is
    that they point to a specific location on a shelf
    where you can find information you need. As long
    as you can count sequentially or know the
    alphabet, you can find the book you are looking
    for.
  • An enduring understanding about the Library of
    Congress system or the Dewey Decimal system is
    that it is a form of classification. It groups
    like objects together, so once you find the shelf
    location, you can browse for books with similar
    topics.

8
Instructional Design Model UBD
  • An essential question is developed from an
    enduring understanding.
  • The essential questions about the Library of
    Congress system or the Dewey Decimal system could
    be
  • How does a classification system help you to
    locate information efficiently?
  • How can you use the classification system to
    browse for information?

9
Instructional Design Model UBD
  • Once you have identified what it is important for
    students to know or be able to do at the end of a
    unit of instruction, UBD requires that you design
    an assessment through which students can
    demonstrate their mastery of the material.

10
Instructional Design Model UBD
  • Formative assessments are used to ascertain
    student comprehension in the midst of a unit of
    instruction in order to make instructional
    decisions such as re-teaching or differentiation.
    They are sometimes referred to as assessment
    FOR learning.
  • Summative assessments are used to ascertain
    student mastery at the conclusion of a unit of
    instruction. They are sometimes referred to as
    assessment OF learning.
  • !!!! When the term assessment is used
    within UBD, it is referring to a summative
    assessment.

11
CCPS Curriculum Framework UBD
  • Our curriculum framework begins with a section
    labeled Desired Results. The first page in
    this section asks for the major concepts,
    generalizations and essential questions that will
    be developed through the unit.
  • The major concepts come from the indicators in
    the CCPS Library Media scope and sequence.
  • The generalizations are the enduring
    understandings developed from the indicators.
  • The essential questions are developed from the
    enduring understandings.

12
CCPS Curriculum Framework Standards
  • The second page of Desired Results asks for the
    content standards that will be addressed during
    the unit of instruction. These come directly
    from the CCPS Library Media skeletal units.
  • These skeletal units for each grade are available
    on the website at
  • http//media.ccps.org/curric/curriculum.html

13
CCPS Curriculum Framework UBD
  • Having identified the indicator(s) to be
    addressed, the essential question(s) and the
    enduring understanding(s), the curriculum
    template next asks for the assessments that will
    occur within the unit.
  • The summative assessment should be developed
    before any learning activities are planned.
  • The formative assessments will be developed as
    individual lesson plans are created.

14
Instructional Design Model DOL
  • Dimensions of Learning is a comprehensive,
    research-based framework that describes five
    essential types of thinking which play an
    integral role in the planning and delivery of
    instruction.

15
Instructional Design Model DOL
  • Dimension 1 Positive attitudes and perceptions.
  • Dimension 2 Acquiring and integrating knowledge
    (declarative and procedural knowledge.)
  • Dimension 3 Refining and extending knowledge.
  • Dimension 4 Using knowledge meaningfully.
  • Dimension 5 Productive habits of mind.

16
CCPS Curricular Framework DOL
  • After defining the enduring understandings,
    content standards and summative assessment, the
    curriculum template asks planners to turn their
    attention to the Dimensions of Learning.
  • Specifically, the template asks planners to
    define the declarative and procedural knowledge
    that students will develop. This is Dimension of
    Learning 2.

17
CCPS Curricular Framework DOL
  • In the context of the media program, the other
    Dimensions are addressed as follows
  • DOL 1 - fostering positive perceptions of the
    media center
  • DOL 3 - creating lessons which focus on critical
    thinking skills such as comparing/contrasting,
    classifying, inferring etc.
  • DOL 4 - creating units which require students to
    apply knowledge and skills to develop creative
    solutions to information problems.
  • DOL 5 - encouraging metacognition by having
    students articulate their thinking and reflect on
    their own performance.

18
Lesson Planning Philosophical Approaches
  • There are three major philosophical approaches
    that inform instruction
  • Behaviorism defines learning as observable
    changes in behavior. It focuses on repeating a
    new behavioral pattern until it becomes
    automatic. It uses rewards and punishment to
    reinforce desired behavior/understanding.
  • Worksheets
  • Homework
  • Programmed learning
  • Behavior modification programs

19
Lesson Planning Philosophical Approaches
  • There are three major philosophical approaches
    that inform instruction
  • Cognitivism focuses attention on the thought
    process behind the behavior. Changes in behavior
    are observed and used as indicators as to what is
    happening inside the learners mind. Learning is
    defined as a change in schema.
  • Schema
  • Mental maps
  • Information processing

20
Lesson Planning Philosophical Approaches
  • There are three major philosophical approaches
    that inform instruction
  • Constructivism focuses on the ways in which we
    construct our own perspective of the world
    through individual experiences and schema. It
    promotes learning by exposure to open-ended
    problems that must be solved.
  • Problem-based learning
  • Proximal Zone of Development
  • Scaffolding

21
Lesson Planning Philosophical Approaches
  • The best instructional planning makes use of all
    three approaches, tailoring the approach to the
    specific learning need or situation.
  • When students need to develop new understanding,
    the constructivist approach works best.
  • When prior knowledge needs to be assessed, the
    cognitivist strategy of drawing a mental map can
    be very useful.
  • When students need to practice skills, the
    behaviorist approach makes more sense.

22
Lesson Planning Grouping Decisions
  • Teachers usually group students in one of three
    ways for instruction and performance
  • Whole group instruction
  • Small group instruction or performance
  • One-on-one instruction or individual performance

23
Lesson Planning Grouping Decisions
  • Whole group instruction is often used to
    introduce the entire class to something new. It
    helps to activate prior knowledge and to build a
    common foundation for future exploration or
    learning .

24
Lesson Planning Grouping Decisions
  • Small group instruction encourages more active
    participation by all students and works well with
    constructivist learning activities. It is often
    used to set up cooperative learning structures or
    to differentiate instruction based on student
    needs for reinforcement or enrichment.

25
Lesson Planning Grouping Decisions
  • Individual instruction or performance allows
    students to work independently, which some
    students prefer and all students need to
    experience. It is closely aligned to assessment.
    While carefully constructed small group projects
    can be used to assess performance skills,
    individual assessments are typically used for
    assessing mastery of content.

26
Lesson Planning Instructional Strategies
  • Instructional strategies are the methods used to
    design learning activities that promote active
    learning, enhance engagement and deepen
    understanding. A few of the numerous strategies
    that teachers can choose to use include
  • Think-pair-share
  • Numbered heads together
  • Jigsaw
  • Gallery walk
  • Four corners
  • Concept attainment
  • Concept anchoring

27
Lesson Planning Learning Styles
  • Good teachers make sure that their plans address
    different learning styles. These are the
    modalities that students use to take in
    information.
  • Visual learners need to see body language and
    facial expressions. They gravitate toward
    pictures and movies and prefer to sit in the
    front of the class.
  • Auditory learners enjoy lectures, discussions,
    and are very sensitive to verbal nuances such as
    tone, pitch and speed.
  • Tactile/kinesthetic learners need a hands-on
    approach and find it hard to sit for extended
    periods of time.

28
Lesson Planning Multiple Intelligences
  • Multiple intelligences complement the concept of
    learning styles. They are different ways in
    which students can demonstrate or express their
    intellectual ability. Good planning requires
    that you provide activities that address
    different intelligences as frequently as
    possible.
  • Bodily-kinesthetic Interpersonal
  • Verbal-linguistic Musical
  • Logical-mathematical Intrapersonal
  • Visual-spatial Naturalistic

29
Curriculum Writing Putting It All Together
  • Identify a grade-level curricular focus that you
    can use as an anchor for a research project.
  • Select one of the skeletal units.
  • Analyze the library media indicators to see what
    the most important thrust of the unit will be.
    Remember, while we may be tying into the Farms
    unit from the kindergarten curriculum, we are not
    teaching about farms. We are developing an
    understanding of library indicators.

30
Curriculum Writing Putting It All Together
  • Develop an enduring understanding and essential
    question for the unit.
  • Based on the enduring understanding, develop a
    summative assessment for the unit. In many
    cases, this will be the final project.
  • From the indicators, identify the declarative and
    procedural knowledge that students will develop
    through this unit.

31
Curriculum Writing Putting It All Together
  • Begin to develop the individual lesson plans,
    using the same backward design method (UBD) used
    for the unit as a whole.
  • Identify the objective(s) or indicator(s) for the
    lesson.
  • Imagine the way in which a student could
    demonstrate 100 mastery of that objective or
    indicator.
  • Create an assessment that will measure complete
    proficiency.

32
Curriculum Writing Putting It All Together
  • Now you are ready to start designing the learning
    activities that will allow students to develop
    mastery
  • Make decisions about grouping patterns within the
    lesson.
  • Vary the instructional strategies used in lessons
    as frequently as possible.
  • Consider individual learning styles and multiple
    intelligences as you write plans.

33
Curriculum Writing Putting It All Together
  • Make sure that you include technology wherever
    possible so that our lesson plans help students
    to develop 21st century skills.
  • Include potential correctives and extensions that
    address the needs of all students.
  • Identify skills and processes that could form the
    basis for centers back in the classroom.
  • Create a letter home to parents describing the
    unit that students will be experiencing. Include
    suggestions for how parents can support and
    reinforce concepts and skills developed.
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